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Full text of "The Labour gazette July-December 1954"

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LABOUR 



JULY 
VOL. LIV 



1954 
No. 7 



IN 



THIS ISSUE: 



Highlights of Labour Laws 
Enacted by Provinces, 1954 

83rd Annual Meeting, CMA 

Recent Changes in Wages 

Vacations with Pay 

Wage-Rates, Hours of 
Work in Municipal Service 

Sickness, Accident Benefit 
Plans in Manufacturing 




blished Monthly 



DEPARTMENT 
OF LABOUR 




THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 






6316 55 

ZX3 Sic 



Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. LIV, No. 7 



CONTENTS 



JULY 1954 



Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 923 

Notes of Current Interest 939 

House of Commons Debates of Labour Interest 951 

Highlights of Labour Laws Enacted by Provinces in 1954. . . 954 

83rd Annual Meeting, Canadian Manufacturers' Association. . 967 

CMA Surveys Older Worker Problem 979 

Womanpower (4th Instalment) 980 

Fatal Industrial Accidents, First Quarter, 1954 983 

International Labour Organization: 

Canadian Government, Worker Delegates Address Conference 985 

Teamwork in Industry 990 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification 991 Conciliation 992 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 1006 

Collective Agreements: 

Recent Changes in Wages, Hours, Other Working Conditions 1009 

Vacation with Pay Provisions in Collective Agreements.. 1012 

Collective Agreement Act, Que.; Industrial Standards Act. . 1017 

Labour Law: 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1018 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 1023 

Labour Legislation in Quebec in 1954 1028 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Umpire's Decision 1031 Monthly Report 1034 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Wage Rates, Hours of Work in Municipal Gov't Service. . 1035 

Sickness and Accident Benefit Plans in Manufacturing... 1038 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1 040 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1043 

Strikes and Lockouts 1045 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1046 

Labour Statistics 1051 



SUBSCRIPTIONS Canada: $1.50 per year, single copies 25 cents each, students, $1 per year; 
all other countries: $3 per year, single copies 25 cents each; special offer to trade unionists: 
5 or more annual subscriptions, 50 cents per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, 
postal note or money order, payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to Circulation Manager, 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
OF Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



THE 



LABOUR 
GAZETTE 



AUGUST 
VOL. LIV 



1954 
No. 8 



IN THIS ISSUE: 

Labour Day Messages 

International and Canadian 
Social Work Conferences 

Convention of Personnel 
in Employment Security 

37th ILO Conference 

Labour Legislation in 
Ontario and Manitoba 

Union Security Provisions 
in Collective Agreements 




Published Monthly 
by the 

DEPARTMENT 
OF LABOUR 

CANADA 




> / 




THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 



Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. LIV, No. 8 CONTENTS AUGUST 1954 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1087 

Notes of Current Interest 1 1 03 

Labour Day Messages 1113 

7th International Conference of Social Work, Toronto 1119 

Canadian Conference on Social Work 1 122 

Personnel in Employment Security Association Convention. . . 1123 

50 Years Ago This Month 1 127 

International Labour Organization: 

37th General Conference Adopts Recommendation 1128 

Teamwork in Industry 1 1 34 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Proceedings before Canada Labour Relations Board 1 135 

Conciliation Proceedings before Minister of Labour 1 138 

Collective Agreements: 

Union Security Provisions in Collective Agreements 1140 

Collective Agreement Act, Que.; Industrial Standards Acts 1145 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in Ontario in 1954 1 1 46 

Labour Legislation in Manitoba in 1954 1 153 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1 155 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 1156 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Decision of the Umpire 1161 

Monthly Report on Operations 1 162 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1 163 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1 1 67 

Strikes and Lockouts 1 1 69 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1170 

Labour Statistics 1 1 74 



Subscriptions— Canada: $1.50 per year, single copies 25 cents each, students, $1 per year; 
all other countries: $3 per year, single copies 25 cents each; special offer to trade unionists: 
5 or more annual subscriptions, 50 cents per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, 
postal note or money order, payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to Circulation Manager, 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



fHE 



LABOUR 
GAZETTE 



SEPTEMBER 1954 
VOL. LIV No. 9 



IN THIS ISSUE 



Retirement Policy in 
Industrial Pension Plans 

TLC's Annual Convention 

Discrimination 

Collective Bargaining in 
Canadian Municipalities 

Collective Agreements in 
Non-Ferrous Metal Mining 



Salaries of Office Workers 
Wage Rates of Labourers 




Published Monthly 
by the 

DEPARTMENT 
OF LABOUR 

CANADA 



O oc 



o - o 



1— >* •- ; 




THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 



Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. LIV, No. 9 CONTENTS SEPTEMBER, 1954 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1211 

Notes of Current Interest 1227 

Types of Retirement Policy in Industrial Pension Plans 1238 

69th Annual Convention of the Trades and Labour Congress. 1243 

Discrimination in Employment 1265 

Collective Bargaining in Canadian Municipalities 1274 

50 Years Ago This Month 1278 

International Labour Organization: 

Urge Measures to Ensure Higher Productivity Benefits All. 1279 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Proceedings before Canada Labour Relations Board 1280 

Conciliation Proceedings before Minister of Labour 1281 

Collective Agreements: 

Collective Agreements in Non-ferrous Metal Mining 1285 

Labour Law: 

Legislation Enacted by Parliament during 1953-54 Session. 1291 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1299 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 1304 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations 1307 

Decisions of the Umpire 1 303 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1310 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Salaries of Office Workers in Manufacturing 1314 

Wage Rates of Labourers in Manufacturing 1316 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1318 

Strikes and Lockouts 1 320 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1321 

Labour Statistics 1 325 



Subscriptions— Canada: $1.50 per year, single copies 25 cents each, students, $1 per year; 
all other countries: $3 per year, single copies 25 cents each; special offer to trade unionists: 
5 or more annual subscriptions, 50 cents per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, 
postal note or money order, payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to Circulation Manager, 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



THE 



LABOUR 
GAZETTE 



OCTOBER 

VGL.LIV ^NgfcARY* 




NOV 1 1 1954 



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IN THIS ISSUE: 



Annual Conventions of 
CCL, CCCL and TUC 

Industrial Fatalities in 
Second Quarter 

Collective Bargaining 
in Retail Trade 

1954 ! Sour Legislation in 
Saskatchewan 

ng Conditions 
3 lant Employees 



1! 

i 





Published Monthly 
by the 

DEPARTMENT 
OF LABOUR 

CANADA 




Wmm 



V/H 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 



Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. LIV, No. 10 CONTENTS OCTOBER 1954 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1 367 

Notes of Current Interest 1 383 

14th Annual Convention of Canadian Congress of Labour 1390 

33rd Convention, Canadian Catholic Confederation of Labour. 1407 

86th Annual Trades Union Congress 1420 

Fatal Industrial Accidents, Second Quarter of 1954 1426 

Discrimination in Employment 1 427 

50 Years Ago This Month 1437 

International Labour Organization: 

Assistant Director-General Appointed 1438 

125th and 126th Sessions of Governing Body 1438 

Teamwork in Industry 1439 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Proceedings before Canada Labour Relations Board 1440 

Conciliation Proceedings before Minister of Labour 1440 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 1454 

Collective Agreements: 

Collective Bargaining in Retail Trade 1457 

Collective Agreement Act, Que.; Industrial Standards Acts. 1461 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in Alberta in 1954 1462 

Labour Legislation in Saskatchewan in 1954 1465 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1468 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Decision of the Umpire 1 469 

Monthly Report on Operations 1471 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1472 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Working Conditions of Plant Employees in Manufacturing. 1476 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1478 

Strikes and Lockouts 1 480 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1481 

Labour Statistics 1487 



< riptions— Canada: $1.50 per year, single copies 25 cents each, students, $1 per year; 
all other countries: $3 per year, single copies 25 cents each; special offer to trade unionists: 
5 or more annual subscriptions, 50 cents per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, 
postal note or money order, payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to Circulation Manager, 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 




il :i»li J ; 



NOVEMBER 1954 
VOL. LIV No. 11 



• 



IN THIS ISSUE: 



Effects of 1954 PlcmJ 
Expansion on Employm 

Apprenticeship Training 
Advisory Committee Meets 

Annual Conventions, 

N.B. Federation of Labour 

Canadian Chamber of 

Commerce, AFL 

Union Security Provisions 



Office Employees' Working 
Conditions, 1950-54 




Published Monthly 
by the 



ARTMENT 
OF LABOUR 




THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 



Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister 



A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 



Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Vol. LIY, No. 11 CONTENTS NOVEMBER 1954 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1523 

Notes of Current Interest 1539 

Effects of Plant Expansion on Manufacturing Employment. . . 1550 

5th Meeting, Apprenticeship Training Advisory Committee.. 1554 

42nd Annual Convention, N.B. Federation of Labour (TLC). . . 1556 

25th Annua! Meeting, Canadian Chamber of Commerce 1559 

73rd Annual Convention, American Federation of Labor 1564 

Association of Administrators of Labour Legislation 1567 

Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs 1569 

50 Years Ago This Month 1570 

Teamwork in Industry 1571 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Proceedings before Canada Labour Relations Board 1572 

Conciliation Proceedings before Minister of Labour 1573 

Collective Agreements: 

Union Security Clauses in Manufacturing, Non-manufacturing 1587 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1591 

Labour Law: 

1954 Labour Legislation in New Brunswick 1592 

1954 Labour Legislation in Newfoundland 1595 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1597 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 1600 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Decision of the Umpire 1 603 

Monthly Report on Operations 1605 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1 607 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Office Employees' Working Conditions, 1950-54 161 1 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1613 

Strikes and Lockouts 1615 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1616 

Labour Statistics 1621 



Canada: $1.50 per year, single copies 25 cents each, students, $1 per year; 
all other countries: $3 per year, single copies 25 cents each: special offer to trade unionists: 
5 or more annual subscriptions, 50 cents per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, 
postal note or money order, payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, 
Supervisor of Governmenl Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. 
Boi \i> Volumes available at $5 per copj (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other 
countries). Change of Address- please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



HE 



LABOU 
GAZETTI 




- I . 
z z 

O < _ . , 

•T — 
Oct 
»- «* • 
cr »~ 

O - 



DECEMBER 1954 
VOL. LIV No. 12 




IN THIS ISSUE: 

Vocational Training 
Advisory Council Meets 

Labour Briefs to Cabinet 

Collective Bargaining in 
Wholesale Trade 

Labour Legislation in 
B.C., N.S. and P.E.I. 

Shift Work, Manufacturing 

Rise in Wage-Rate Index 

New Year Messages 



Published Monthly 
by the 

DEPARTMENT 
OF LABOUR 

CANADA 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 



Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister 



A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 






English and French 


Vol. LIV. No. 12 CONTENTS DECEMBER 1954 


Editorial Staff 


Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 

Notes of Current Interest 


. 1657 
. 1673 


Editor 


New Year Messages 


. 1683 


Harry J. Walker 


Vocational Training Advisory Council Meeting 


. 1689 


Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 


Labour Briefs to Cabinet: 

TLC 1692 CCL 

CCCL 1703 Railway Brotherhoods... 


. 1698 
. 1708 




Canadian Chamber of Commerce Brief to Cabinet 


. 1713 


Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 


50 Years Ago This Month 


. 1716 




International Labour Organization: 

5th Session, Iron and Steel Committee 


. 1717 




5th Session, Metal Trades Committee 


. 1720 




Teamwork in Industry 


. 1722 




Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 






Certification 1723 Conciliation 


. 1724 




Collective Agreements: 

Collective Bargaining in Wholesale Trade 


. 1732 




Labour Law: 






Labour Legislation in British Columbia in 1954 

Labour Legislation in Nova Scotia in 1954 


. 1736 
. 1745 




Labour Legislation, Prince Edward Island, 1954 

Legal Decisions 1748 Recent Regulations 


. 1747 
. 1753 




Unemployment Insurance: 

Decisions of Umpire. 1754 Monthly Report 


. 1756 




Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 


. 1757 




Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Shift Work in Manufacturing 

Rise in Wage-Rate Index, 1952-53 


. 1761 
. 1765 




Prices and the Cost of Living 


. 1767 




Strikes and Lockouts. 


. 1769 




Publications Recently Received in Department's Library.. 


. 1770 




Labour Statistics 


1775 


Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 





Subscriptions— -Canada: $1.50 per year, single copies 25 cents each, students, $1 per year; 
all other countries: $3 per year, single copies 25 cents each; special offer to trade unionists: 
5 or more annual subscriptions, 50 cents per subscription. Send remittance by cheque, 
postal note or money order, payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, 
% Supervisor of Government Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. 
Boi no VOLUMES — available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other 
countries). Change of Address- please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



JULY 15, 1954 



CURRENT 

manpower and labour relations 

REVIEW 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour ? Canada 

Current Manpower Situation 

OUTDOOR activities increased sharply in June for the second suc- 
cessive month, raising employment to within one per cent of the 
level attained in the same month last year. While all labour market areas 
felt the effects of increased labour requirements, those in the Prairie 
region showed the greatest change, largely because of high levels of 
construction activity. Substantial lay-offs of temporary and indefinite 
duration occurred at motor vehicle and parts plants and there was little 
evidence of an upturn in employment in other manufacturing industries. 
As a result, unemployment fell less, proportionately, than last year and 
the levels of both unemployment and short-time work remained consider- 
ably higher. 



A notable feature of the latest labour force survey (week ended June 
19) was the rise in the number of persons at work. This employment indi- 
cator has shown a gain of about 335,000 in the period March-June, l com- 
pared with fewer than 315,000 in the same quarter of the last two years. 
The increase has largely made up for the employment losses sustained 
earlier in the year and appears to be mainly the result of greater labour 
requirements than usual in construction, services and some seasonal 
manufacturing industries. With the increase, full and part-time employment 
rose to 5,171,000, only about 30,000 below last year's figure t 

Owing to the steady growth of the labour force, the mid-year level of 
unemployment was still substantially higher than in 1953. The labour 
force estimates show, for example, that the number of persons without 
jobs and seeking work, 185,000, was about double last year's figure. 
Similarly, applications for jobs on file with the National Employment 
Service totalled 295,700 at June 17, a year-to-year increase of 116,500. 



x In May 1954, the coverage of the labour force survey was increased to include repre- 
sentation for some of the remote areas not previously covered. In making comparison with 
previous months, this increase in coverage, amounting to approximately 0.6 per cent, must 
be kept in mind. 



A Monthly Labour Gazette Feature 

923 



CI BRENT LABOUR TRENDS 



INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT 
m9=ioo 




THOUSANDS 



500 




APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT;;; 

..i. til. al N.E.S. oilier* 

.< i i i ■-■■>, , i ■■ , , , ,t , , v,,»,; ,;■,.<-, ,;,;i; ■■■■v.i: : , 



CENTS PER HOUR 



HOURS PER WEEK 



AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS 



1954 



I Averages | 
iin lJukx 




1953 



AVERAGE HOURS WORKED 




INDEX 






1954 






ioi;q 


** ** *« «, «***' 


.1 

I Averages] 
















REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS 



1 120 

110 
100 
90 




INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 



II 

f Averagesf 



1953,^ 
1954- 



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SI FMAMJJASONDJ 



SI FMAMJJASONDJ 



The construction industry accounted for more than one-third of the 
decline in unemployment during June. Most area reports indicated that 
activity was approaching the high levels expected earlier, the volume of 
work begun being slightly greater than in the same period in 1953. Major 
gains were evident in residential, commercial and institutional building, 
off-setting a decline in the industrial sector. 

With the rehiring of many of the seasonal workers released last 
winter, it has become clear that much of the remaining unemployment is 
related to the decline in manufacturing activity. This is reflected in the 
occupations of workers registered with the National Employment Service. 
The number of skilled metalworkers registered for work with the NES has 
increased from 6,000 to 13,500 over the year; that of unskilled transpor- 
tation equipment manufacturing workers, from 1,400 to 6,200 and of un- 
skilled metalworkers, from 2,700 to 6,400. It is also significant that at 
July 1, available workers were moderately or substantially in excess of 
requirements in more than four-fifths of the larger, industrialized centres, 
whereas an over-supply of labour existed in barely more than one-half of 
the smaller, less industrialized areas. 

The downward trend recorded earlier in the year in manufacturing 
employment continued; at the first of May the manufacturing total stood 
slightly more than five per cent below the figure for May 1953. Recent 
reports of additional lay-offs and instances of short time suggest that 
little over-all improvement occurred during May or June. Employment 
remained stable or increased in the paper products, electrical apparatus 
and supplies, petroleum and chemical products industries. Employment 
declined in most of the remaining manufacturing industries. 

In the consumer goods sector, the textile, clothing and motor vehicle 
industries continued to show the greatest weakness. Employment in the 
textile industries (seasonally adjusted) 1 increased one per cent during 
April but the level at the first of May was 19 per cent lower than at May 
1, 1953. Employment in clothing (seasonally adjusted) dropped two per 
cent in April to a level 13 per cent below the year-earlier figure. In the 
motor vehicles industry, employment at May 1 was about the same as a 
year earlier but major production cut-backs developed during May and 
June. Oshawa, Windsor, and Oakville have been seriously affected by 
lay-offs in this industry. 

Reduced employment was fairly general in the producer goods sector, 
the decreases (seasonally adjusted) being most marked in the following 
industries: primary iron and steel, down two per cent in April and 18 per 
cent over the year; iron castings, down one per cent in April and 13 per 
cent over the year; agricultural implements, down two per cent in April 
and 14 per cent over the year; aircraft, up one per cent in April but down 
10 per cent over the year; motor vehicles parts and accessories, down 
four per cent during April and 20 per cent over the year. Furthur employ- 
ment reductions occurred in the motor parts industry during May and June 
as a result of the curtailment in vehicle production. 



l The adjustment for seasonality is made on the basis of the average seasonal employ- 
ment variations in the period 1947— 1951. 

925 



Labour -Management Relations 

ETWEEN June 15 and July 15 a number of important collective 
bargaining settlements were reached in west coast logging and 
lumbering, in metal mining and smelting and in the textile industry. In a 
number of other industries, notably the railways, basic steel and auto- 
mobile manufacturing, where bargaining has been in progress for several 
weeks, progress toward the settlement of differences appeared to be only 
limited. Collective agreement negotiations covering the employees of 
another major Canadian industry, meat-packing, have now also begun. 

Strikes involving salmon fishermen in British Columbia and beverage 
room employees in four Alberta cities were mainly responsible for a slight 
increase in work stoppages last month. Preliminary figures for June in- 
dicate 31 work stoppages involving 10,157 workers and a time loss of 
86,085 man-days. Cumulative totals for the period January-June 1954 are: 
94 work stoppages, 25,250 workers and 364,970 man-days. Both the June 
figures and the six-month totals are considerably lower than those for 
most of the post-war years. 



Current Developments 

Railways, As reported last month (L.G., June, p. 750), discussions 
between representatives of the companies and of unions representing 
145,000 non-operating employees were resumed after the middle of June. 
These discussions, centering around the unions* demands for fringe 
benefits, followed the rejection by both parties of the report of a board of 
conciliation. The negotiations held during June failed to produce agree- 
ment. At the time of writing no further meetings between the parties were 
scheduled and a strike vote was being taken among the employees. 
Results of the vote are expected to be known about mid-August. 

Two conciliation boards are currently dealing with disputes between 
railways and other groups of employees. One board is concerned with 
differences between the Railway Association of Canada and extra gang 
employees represented by the Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employ- 
ees (AFL-TLC). The other is endeavouring to settle a dispute between 
the Canadian National Railways and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Fire- 
men (indep.).In both cases wage increase demands are an important issue. 

Basic Steel, Bargaining has been going on for some time between the 
three large Canadian steel producers and the United Steelworkers of 
America (CIO-CCL). The main union demand appears to be a wage in- 
crease of 8% cents an hour. Differences between the union and the Steel 
Company of Canada, Limited, at Hamilton are before a conciliation board. 
Negotiations are less advanced at the Algoma Steel Corporation Limited, 
Sault Ste. Marie, and Dominion Iron and Steel Limited, Sydney, N.S. 

Automobile Manufacturing, Conciliation board hearings are in progress 
in the contract dispute between the Ford Motor Co. of Canada, Limited, 
and the United Automobile Workers (CIO-CCL). Main union demands were 
reported to include a 30-cent-an-hour wage increase, a one-year agreement 
and increased vacation and welfare benefits. 

926 



Bargaining between the union and the Chrysler Corporation of Canada, 
Limited, has also reached the conciliation stage. Union demands appear 
to be similar to those made at Ford. The union requested conciliation 
assistance in June. 

The five-year agreement between the UAW and General Motors of 
Canada, Limited, has still one year to run. Under the terms of this agree- 
ment, the work week was reduced to 40 hours at the Oshawa plant of the 
company, effective in June, and an automatic 3-cent-an-hour "improvement 
factor" increase was granted. 

Non-Ferrous Metals. A new one-year agreement is reported to have 
been reached between the Consolidated Mining andSmelting Co. of Canada, 
Limited, and the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers 
(indep.). Approximately 5,000 employees are affected by the new agree- 
ment, which applies to operations at Trail and Kimberly, B.C. Under the 
terms of the new contract, a wage increase ranging from two to 8/4 cents 
per hour is provided. The Mine, Mill union has also been negotiating for 
some time with the International Nickel Co. of Canada, Limited, at 
Sudbury and Port Colborne, Ont. No agreement had been reached at the 
time of writing; the dispute was referred to a board of conciliation. 

The Aluminum Co. of Canada, Limited, and the Aluminum Workers' 
Council, acting for a number of AFL unions, reached an agreement cover- 
ing production workers at the new Kitimat smelter in British Columbia.- 
The new two-year agreement includes a wage increase ranging from seven 
to 13 cents, one additional cent on shift differentials, seven paid holi- 
days and payment by the company of half the cost of a health plan. The 
same company has started negotiations with the National Metal Trades 
Federation (CCCL) for its reduction and fabricating plants at Shawinigan 
Falls, Que. The present agreement covering some 900 workers expires 
next month. Union demands are reported to include a25-centwage increase 
and other adjustments, while the company is said to be proposing two 
separate agreements for the two plants and some changes in shift and 
other working conditions. 

Shipbuilding. The settlement of long-standing differences between 
Canadian Vickers, Limited, and four AFL-TLC unions appeared likely 
following a vote in favour of a settlement formula. The proposed formula 
is based on the report of a conciliation board which recommended a wage 
increase of five cents an hour, with a further three cents in March, 1955, 
and an increase from five to seven statutory holidays. 

Negotiations and conciliation have been in progress for some time 
involving several shipyards and the National Metal Trades Federation 
(CCCL) representing more than 5,000 workers. This union, also bargain- 
ing for a group of workers at Canadian Vickers limited, Montreal, is 
reported to be seeking a 12-cent wage increase and a reduction in weekly 
hours from 45 to 42/4. Demands at the Marine Industries Limited, Sorel, 
Que., and at George T. Davie & Sons, Limited, Lauzon, Que., include a 
similar wage increase and reduction in hours of work. 

On the Great Lakes, negotiations involving about 500 workers are in 
progress between the Port Arthur Shipbuilding Co., Limited, and the 
United Steelworkers of America (CIO-CCL). 

927 



Grain Elevators, A conciliation officer has been unable to settle 
differences between the Lakehead Terminal Elevators Association and 
the Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, 
Express and Station Employees (AFL-TLC). A conciliation board is 
currently being established in an endeavour to settle the dispute. 

Logging and Lumbering. By a majority vote, some 32,000 West Coast 
logging and lumber workers accepted a recommendation for a new col- 
lective agreement. The settlement between the International Woodworkers 
of America(CIO-CCL) and Forest Industrial Relations, representing more 
than 150 operators, was reached with the help of a conciliation officer. 
No wage increase is provided in the new agreement but a number of fringe 
items have been changed. 

The agreement between the same union and operators in the northern 
interior of British Columbia expires on September 1 and preliminary 
negotiations are reported to be under way. The union is seeking a wage 
increase of six cents an hour, a forty-hour week and other contract im- 
provements. 

Fishing. A new agreement was reached, following a week-long strike, 
between the Fisheries 7 Association and the United Fishermen and Allied 
Workers' Union representing some 5,000 British Columbia coastal fisher- 
men. The new agreement includes slightly higher prices for some varie- 
ties of fish. Negotiations between the Fisheries' Association and some 
3,500 canning factory workers have reached the conciliation board stage. 

Primary Textiles. No agreement was reached early this month in the 
contract negotiations between the Dominion Textile Company, Limited, at 
Montreal and a subsidiary, Montreal Cottons, Limited, at Valleyfield, 
Que., and the United Textile Workers of America (AFL-TLC). The union 
had requested a 10-cent wage increase while the company was proposing 
a cut in pay. Terms of settlement for the new two-year agreement do not 
include a general wage change although a wage re-opener clause after 
one year is provided. Only minor wage adjustments were made. 

Radio Broadcasting. A first agreement was signed by the Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation covering some 400 television technicians. Bar- 
gaining agent for the employees is the International Alliance of Theatrical, 
Stage Employees and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United 
States and Canada (AFL-TLC). The new oae-year agreement includes a 
general wage increase of eight per cent, the 40-hour work week and com- 
pulsory check-off. Another first agreement was also reached between the 
CBC and more than 1,000 program, administrative and clerical employees 
represented by the Association of Radio and Television Employees of 
Canada (indep.). 

Meat-packing. Preliminary meetings were scheduled for last month 
between the United Packinghouse Workers of America (CIO-CCL) and the 
"Big Three" meat-packing companies, Canada Packers Limited, Swift 
Canadian Company, Limited, and Burns & Co., Limited. The current 
agreements with these companies terminate at the end of this month. Union 
demands for the 15,000 workers are reported to include a general wage 
increase, equalization of rates between areas, the five-day forty-hour 
week and other benefits. The three major meat-packing companies each 
sign an agreement with the union covering their Canadian plants. 

928 



Manpower Situation in Local Areas 



CANADA 
Proportion of paid workort within oach of 
tho four labour morkot group*. 
P«r C»nt P»f C«nt 



90 





July 1 




„ 


1954 
/ 






tl 


m 






■ 












July 1 Jfa 
1953 1 


1 


t 




\- 




; ..rn 1 


__JHB -i 



UNEMPLOYMENT was reduced 
during June in all parts of 
the country by the increase in 
construction and other seasonal 
activities. The monthly survey of 
employment conditions in 109 labour 
market areas showed that employ- 
ment conditions had improved sub- 
stantially in 36 areas. As a net 
result, areas in the substantial 
labour surplus category decreased 
from 21 at June 1 to five at July 1, 
those in the moderate labour surplus 
category decreased from 65 to 62 
and those with labour demand and 
supply in approximate balance in- 
creased from 23 to 41. One area moved into the labour shortage category. 

Despite considerable employment increases during May and June, 
levels of unemployment remained higher than they were a year ago. This 
was particularly true in the more industrialized parts of the country be- 
cause of the slower upturn this year in many manufacturing industries. 
It is notable, for example, that at July 1, 1954, labour demand and supply 
were in balance in only eight of 38 metropolitan and major industrial 
areas. At the same date last year, 25 of these areas were in balance and 
two were in the labour shortage category. The year-to-year increase in 
unemployment was generally less marked in smaller, less industrialized 
areas. 



SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



Employment conditions in the various regions relative to each other 
were about the same as earlier this spring. All areas in the Quebec region 
were iu the moderate labour surplus category, as were the majority of 
areas in the Maritime and Pacific regions; fewer than half of the areas in 
Ontario and the Prairie Provinces were in the labour surplus categories. 



Labour Market 
Areas 


Labour Surplus * 


Approximate 
Balance * 


Labour 
Shortage * 


1 


2 


3 


4 


July 1 
1954 


July 1 
1953 


July 1 
1954 


July 1 
1953 


July 1 
1954 


July 1 
1953 


July 1 
1954 


July 1 
1953 


Metropolitan 
Major Industrial 
Major Agricultural 
Minor 


1 
2 

2 


- 


8 
19 

4 
31 


2 
9 
1 
9 


2 
6 

10 
23 


8 

17 

9 

45 


1 


1 
1 

4 

3 


Total 


5 


- 


62 


21 


41 


79 


1 


9 



* See inside back cover, Labour Gazette. 



929 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS, 
July 1, 1954 



LABOUR SURPLUS 


APPROXIMATE 
BALANCE 


LABOUR 
SHORTAGE 


Group 1 Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 




Windsor 


Colgory 

Edmonton 

Hamilton 


Ottawa -Hull 
->WINNIPEG 




METROPOLITAN AREAS 
(lobour force 75,000 or more) 




Montreal 
Quebec - Levis 
->ST. JOHN'S 
Toronto 

Westmimter 








Corner Brook 


Brantford 


Kingston 






Oshawa 


Cornwall 

Fornham — Granby 
— > FORT WILLIAM - 
PORT ARTHUR 
Guelph 
Halifax 
Joliette 


— > LONDON 
— > SARNIA 
-> SUDBURY 
— > TIMMINS- 

KIRKLAND LAKE 
Victoria 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 




Kitchener 






(labour force 25.000-75,000: 




— > LAC ST. JEAN 






60 per cent or more in 




Moncton 






non-agricultural octivity) 




New Glasgow 

Niagara Peninsula 

Peterborough 
— > ROUYN-VAL D'OR 

Saint John 
— > SHAWINIGAN FALLS 

Sherbrooke 

Sydney 

Trois Rivieres 










Charlottetown 


Barrie 








Chatham 


Brandon 








-> RIVIERE DU LOUP 


Lethbridge 








Thetford - Megantic - 


Moose Jow 




MAJOR AGRICULTURAL AREAS 




St. Georges 


North Battleford 




(labour force 25,000-75,000: 






-> PRINCE ALBERT 




40 per cent or more in agriculture) 






-> RED DEER 
Regina 
Saskatoon 
Yorkton 






Fredericton 


-> BATHURST 


-> BRACEBRIDGE 


->WEYB'JRN 




Prince George 


Beauharnois 

Belleville - 

Trenton 

— > CAMPBELLTON 

Central Vancouver 
Island 
-> DRUMMONDVILLE 

Gait 
-> GASPE 

Grand Falls 

Lachute - 
Ste. Ther.se 

Lindsay 
— > MONTMAGNY 

Newcastle 

North Bay 


Brampton 

Bridgewater 
->CHILLIWACK 
->CRANBROOK 
-> DAUPHIN 
-> DAWSON CREEK 
-> DRUMHELLER 
-> EDMUNDSTON 

Goderich 
->KAMLOOPS 
-»KENTVILLE 

Listowel 

Medicine Hat 
-> PEMBROKE 
-> PORTAGE LA PRAIRIE 

Simcoe 




MINOR AREAS 




Okanogan Valley 


Stratford 




(labour force 10,000-25,000) 




Owen Sound 

Prince Rupert 
-» QUEBEC NORTH SHORE 
-> RIMOUSKI 
-> SAULT STE. MARIE 

Sorel 

Ste. Agathe - 
St. Jerome 

St. Hyacinthe 

St. Jean 
->ST. STEPHEN 

Summerside 

Troil -Nelson 

Valleyfleld 
— > VICTORIAVILLE 

Woodstock, N.B. 

Yarmouth 


St. Thomas 
Swift Current 
->TRURO 
Walkerton 
Woodstock - 
Ingersoll 





shown in capital letters are those that have 



lified during the month; on arrow Indicates the group from which they moved. 



ATLANTIC 



ATLANTIC 
Proportion of paid workor* within oach of 
tne tour labour market group*, 1954. 
P»r C»nt 



90- 




SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



JUNE was featured by a rapid 
seasonal expansion of employment 
in the Atlantic region. After a slow 
start in April and early May, outdoor 
activities advanced quickly in 
June, bringing the gain in employ- 
ment for these three months to a 
level only slightly lower than 
usual. The number of persons work- 
ing full time increased by an 
estimated 39,000 to a total of 
454,000 during the four-week period 
ending June 19. The increase for 
the month of June was more than 
twice as great as in the same 
period in 1953. 

All parts of the region recorded employment increases during June, 
the most pronounced changes occurring in Newfoundland, where the ac- 
tivities that had been mainly responsible for delaying increases in 
employment this spring strengthened. An increase in the price of fish, 
together with good catches and favourable weather conditions, encouraged 
fishermen to return to work and, in turn, resulted in employment expansion 
in fish processing and canning. At the same time, labour requirements 
for construction increased as residential building became -more active 
and hiring for defence projects continued. 

In other parts of the region, employment increased moderately. Ac- 
tivities such as agriculture, fishing, water and truck transportation, con- 
struction and fruit and fish canning shared in the increase. Employment 
continued below last year's levels in coal mining, textiles and primary 
iron and steel. 

The general increase in activity in the region during June caused 
three labour market areas to be reclassified from the moderate surplus to 
the balanced category, and four from the substantial to the moderate sur- 
plus category. With these changes, four of the 21 areas in the region were 
in balance, 15 were in the moderate and two in the substantial labour 
surplus categories at the beginning of July. Last year 14 areas were in 
the balanced category and- seven in the moderate labour surplus category. 

Metropolitan and Major Industrial Areas. Further employment in- 
creases in construction and fishing reduced the labour surplus to moder- 
ate proportions in St. John's. A contract amounting to $1,400,000 for 
extensive construction and utilities work requiring about 500 workers at 
Pepperrell Air base was scheduled to start this month. 

In the major industrial areas, the pick-up in employment was smaller 
this spring than last owing to the slow revival of activity in the con- 
struction industry. While investment intentions, as surveyed at the end of 
1953, indicate substantial increases in housing starts this year, the DBS 
survey on new residential construction showed a smaller volume of work 



932 



in progress during the first four months of 1954 than 1953. Delay in cons- 
truction contributed to the higher unemployment levels in all six areas. 

Major Agricultural and Minor Areas, Employment expanded according 
to the seasonal pattern in the major agricultural and minor areas. Ed- 
mundston, Kentville and Truro moved from the moderate surplus to the 
balanced category during the month. Fredericton remained in the substan- 
tial surplus category largely as a result of reduced activity in the textile 
industry. 



QUEBEC 

LABOUR requirements for outdoor 
activities continued to increase in 
Quebec during June. The con- 
struction industry was responsible 
for most of this expansion but the 
tourist trade was also increasing 
after a slow beginning and employ- 
ment in sawmilling and fishing 
increased slightly more in June as 
the weather improved. An estimated 
15,000 persons, including students, 
immigrants and seasonal workers, 
entered the working force during 
the four weeks ending June 19. 
During the same period, the number 
of persons at work increased by 
22,000 to a total of 1,433,000, some 14,000 fewer than in June 1953. 



QUEBEC 
Proportion of paid workers within 
the four labour markot groups, 1954, 



•ach of 



70 



SURPLUS 
CROUP 1 



SURPLUS 
GROUP 2 



BALANCE 
CROUP 3 



SHORTAGE 
GROUP 4 



Little change occurred in the employment levels of most manufactur- 
ing industries although the more seasonal ones were expanding as usual 
during the month. Small year-to-year increases continued in the pulp and 
paper, chemicals, and printing industries during the first five months of 
1954 while declines of some magnitude, combined with more short-time 
operations than in 1953, persisted in the textile and clothing industries. 

Employment increased sufficiently during the month to bring into the 
moderate labour surplus category all ten areas that had been in the sub- 
stantial surplus category at the beginning of June. This meant that all 24 
areas in the region were in the moderate surplus category by the be- 
ginning of July. A year earlier, 10 areas were in the moderate labour 
surplus category and 14 were in balance. 

Metropolitan Areas, Hiring was slow in the heavy industries in the 
Montreal area and, with further lay-offs of workers in the aircraft and 
textile industries, regular workers as well as students were finding it 
more difficult to find jobs than they did a year ago. Reflecting this, the 
labour market in Montreal was classified in the moderate labour surplus 
category; in June 1953 it was in balance. 

More workers were currently employed on the numerous construction 
projects under way in Quebec City this year than in 1953. Despite this 



933 



expansion, skilled construction tradesmen were still available in moder- 
ate numbers, as were most other types of workers. The area remained in 
the moderate labour surplus category. 

Major Industrial Areas, The usual seasonal increase in employment 
brought the Lac St. Jean and Shawinigan Falls areas from the substantial 
to the moderate labour surplus category during the month. Registrations 
for employment at NES offices in these areas fell approximately to the 
level of June 1953. In the Rouyn-Val d'Or area, however, where the labour 
market was similarly reclassified during the month, applications for em- 
ployment were still appreciably higher than in the same month last year, 
reflecting the decline in construction activities in the mining towns and 
surrounding district. Full-time operations have been resumed in a number 
of the larger textile plants in the Sherbrooke area but employment was 
considerably lower than a year earlier and production in some of the 
smaller firms and in hosiery mills generally was still irregular. The area 
remained in the moderate labour surplus category. 

Major Agricultural and Minor Areas. Increased activity in the clothing 
as well as in most seasonal industries resulted in the reclassification of 
the Victoriaville labour market from the substantial to the moderate labour 
surplus category. Six other areas moved from the substantial to the moder- 
ate surplus category during the month as the result of increased labour 
requirements in farming and construction. 

ONTARIO 



ONTARIO 

Proportion of paid workors within oacn of 
tko four labour markot group*. 1954. 
Pf Cont 



During June outdoor activity, par- 
ticularly in construction, agriculture 
and the tourist resort industries 
continued to increase in the Ontario 
region. In the four weeks ending 
June 19, the number of full-time 
workers increased by 22,000 to a 
total of 1,768,000, a figure just 
slightly higher than last year. The 
increase in the numbers at work 
was accompanied by an almost 
equal increase in the labour force 
so that the decline in the number 
of persons without jobs and seek- 
ing work during the month was 
only slight. 

The increase in employment opportunities during the month was al- 
most entirely the result of seasonal activities; construction work gradu- 
ally increased, tourist resorts opened and haying and fruit-picking began. 
Activity in most manufacturing industries, however, continued slow during 
the month; further lay-offs occurred in the automobile and parts industry 
and scattered lay-offs in some of the other iron and steel industries. Most 
textile mills continued to operate at reduced capacity but a few have 
been recalling workers. In the southern part of the region there has been 
a demand for female workers for the food canning and processing industry 




BALANCE SHORTAGE 
CROUP 3 GROUP 4 



934 



with plenty of labour available. Opportunities for summer employment are 
more limited than they have been for some years and students have had 
more difficulty in finding jobs. 

Increasing seasonal employment resulted in the reclassification of 
six areas from the moderate surplus to the balanced category during June 
and substantially reduced unemployment in SaultSte. Marie, bringing the 
area from the substantial to the moderate surplus category. At July 1, of 
the 34 areas in the region, Windsor and Oshawa were still in the substan- 
tial surplus category, 15 areas, including Toronto and Hamilton, were in 
the moderate surplus category and 17 were in balance. A year earlier, two 
areas were in the moderate surplus category, 29 were in balance and three 
were in the labour shortage category. 

Metropolitan Areas. Construction activity accelerated in Toronto, 
Hamilton and Ottawa-Hull during June. By the end of the month the supply 
of good construction tradesmen and even unskilled construction workers 
was nearly exhausted in Ottawa and some categories were becoming 
scarce in Toronto. Generally, however, the supply of labour was adequate 
to fill current demand in all the metropolitan areas. The Ottawa area 
remained in approximate balance and Toronto was approaching a balanced 
labour market situation but lay-offs in the manufacturing industries kept 
it in the moderate surplus category. In Hamilton, the low level of activity 
in the iron and steel and textile industries more than offset the higher 
levels of construction this year. In Windsor, employment declined during 
the month with the additional lay-offs in the automobile industry and the 
area remained in the substantial surplus category. 

Major Industrial Areas, The gradual upward trend in employment in 
most of the major industrial areas continued during June as construction 
activity increased and logging and sawmilling in the northern areas in- 
creased. Four of the major industrial areas moved from the moderate 
surplus to the balance category during the month; one remained in bal- 
ance, six in the moderate surplus category and Oshawa in the substantial 
labour surplus category. 

Major Agricultural and Minor Areas, Increases in seasonal labour 
requirements in Bracebridge and Pembroke brought these areas into the 
balanced category during June and reduced the labour surplus in Sault 
Ste. Marie from substantial to moderate proportions. By the beginning of 
July, 11 of the 18 major agricultural and minor areas were in balance, 
and seven were in the moderate surplus category. A year earlier, 16 were 
in balance and two were in the labour shortage category. 



PRAIRIE 

EMPLOYMENT in the Prairie region continued to rise during June, al- 
though the gain was not as great as in May. DBS estimates for the week 
ending June 19 showed 865,000 persons employed full time in the region. 
This total was 6,000 greater than a month earlier but still 15,000-18,000 
less than the figure for the corresponding date in 1953. The level of un- 
employment showed some corresponding decline in June but remained 
higher than last year. 

935 



PRAIRIE 
Proportion of paid workort within oach 
tho four labour markot groups, 1954. 

P»r C»nt 



iVI 


Jun« 1 




50 


\ 




40 


\ 





SURPLUS 
GROUP 1 




BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



Although manufacturing activity 
showed some improvement during 
the month, most of the reduction in 
unemployment resulted from a 
gradual increase in outdoor activi- 
ties. Rainy weather continued to 
delay construction and agriculture, 
particularly in the northern parts of 
Alberta and Saskatchewan. Since 
the total construction program for 
the region is larger than that of last 
year, this delay was expected to 
create a heavy demand for con- 
struction workers later in the 
season, [n all but a few areas, 
however, the available labour 
supply appeared ample enough to meet both current and prospective re- 
quirements. Applications for skilled construction jobs were almost three 
times as numerous as last year. 

During the month, labour surpluses were reduced from substantial to 
moderate proportions in Fort William-Port Arthur. Winnipeg and six other 
areas moved from the moderate surplus to the balanced category and 
Weyburn from the balanced to the shortage category. At July 1, of the 20 
areas in the region, three were in the moderate surplus category, 16 were 
in balance and one was in the labour shortage category. A year earlier, 
14 areas were in balance and six in the labour shortage category. 

Metropolitan and Major Industrial Areas. In Winnipeg labour require- 
ments in construction and manufacturing increased sufficiently to bring 
the area from the moderate surplus to the balanced category, although 
production and employment generally were below last year's. Employment 
was notably lower in the manufacture of clothing, transportation equipment 
and iron and steel products. The levels of unemployment in Edmonton and 
Calgary showed little change. Construction, particularly residential build- 
ing, increased steadily but the resulting demand did not fully absorb the 
large numbers of workers coming into these cities from other sections of 
the country. 

In Fort William-Port Arthur 1,000 more loggers were rehired in June 
for summer operations, raising logging employment to the usual level of 
about 4,500. Highway construction was retarded as a result of government 
investigations and employment in shipbuilding and aircraft manufacturing 
was unchanged at levels more than a third lower than a year earlier. 

Major Agricultural and Minor Areas. The demand for construction 
workers was sufficiently strong in Weyburn to classify it in the labour 
shortage category. In other areas of Saskatchewan, notably Regina, Swift 
Current and Saskatoon, the demand for farm, construction, clerical and 
sales workers continued to increase. In most other areas the labour 
supply was large enough to meet all summer requirements. In Alberta coal 
mining areas, virtually all mines were operating part time with reduced 
staffs. 



936 



PACIFIC 



PACIFIC 

Proportion of paid workers within toch of 
the four labour market groups, 1954. 

P«r Cent 




SURPLUS 
OROUP2 



BALANCE SHORTAGE 
CROUP 3 GROUP 4 



EMPLOYMENT in logging, lumber- 
ing, fishing and agriculture increas- 
ed at the usual rate during June in 
the Pacific region; construction 
activity, on the other hand, lagged 
somewhat and manufacturing and 
mining employment showed little 
change. During the four weeks end- 
ing June 19, the number of persons 
at work rose from 401,000 to 410,000, 
an increase of about the same 
magnitude as in 1953 when the June 
figure reached 414,000. 

The logging and lumbering 
industries, aided by favourable 
weather and strong markets, were 

operating at capacity in most areas. Employment in fishing and fish 
canning increased at the usual rate. The halibut season closed early in 
June with a smaller but more valuable catch than last year. Agreement 
had been reached on salmon prices and, since stocks of canned salmon 
are now nearly exhausted, this section of the industry is expected to be 
fully active. Although construction work increased gradually during the 
month, the current program, composed of medium and small projects, 
required fewer workers than last year's. 

Labour demand increased in most of the areas in the Pacific region 
during June and three — Chilliwack, Cranbrook and Kamloops — were re- 
classified from the moderate labour surplus to the balanced labour market 
category. At the beginning of July, of the ten areas in the region, Prince 
George was still in the substantial surplus category, five areas were in 
the moderate labour surplus category and four were in balance. At the 
corresponding date in 1953, two areas were in the moderate labour surplus 
category and eight in balance. 

Metropolitan and Major Industrial Areas, In the Vancouver-New West- 
minster area, there was a moderate increase in labour demand in June, as 
logging camps, sawmills, plywood mills and pulp and paper mills operated 
at capacity. Although there was continuous but slow improvement in the 
construction industry, activity was still well below the 1953 peak. Manu- 
facturing employment showed no marked change during the month. 

In the Victoria area, the employment situation improved in a number 
of industries, particularly logging, shipbuilding and construction. This 
resulted in shortages of some types of skilled workers. Shipyards were 
busier as work proceeded on a number of fairly large jobs. Construction 
work was under way on several sizable projects. Lumber shipments out of 
Victoria to foreign markets reached a considerably higher level during the 
first five months of this year than of 1953, resulting in a high level of 
employment of longshoremen. 

Minor Areas. The employment situation improved in most minor areas 
in June. Logging was busier generally, although operations were retarded 
by adverse weather in some parts of the Kamloops and the Trail-Nelson 
areas. Lumber mills were also busier and the construction industry was 
fairly active. Hirings increased in some mines but were offset by lay-offs 
in others, notably the closure of one mine, affecting 270 workers. 

937 



Current Labour Statistics 



(Latest available statistics as of July 10, 1954.) 



Principal Items 



Date 



Amount 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous 
Month 



Previous 
Year 



Manpower 

Total civilian labour force (a) 

Persons at work 35 hours or more 

Persons at work less than 35 hours .. 

Usually work 35 hours or more 

On short time 

Usually work less than 35 hours .... 

Persons with jobs not at work , 

Usually work 35 hours or more 

Usually work less than 35 hours 

Persons without jobs & seeking work 
Persons not in the labour force 



Registered for work, NES (b) 

Atlantic 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 



Ordinary claims for Unemployment 

Insurance benefit 

Amount of benefit payments 



Index of employment (1949 =100) 
Immigration 



Industrial Relations 

Strikes and lockouts — days lost 

No. of workers involved 

No. of strikes 



Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (av. 1949 = 100) 

Real weekly earnings (mfg.av. 1949 =100) 
Total labour income $000,000 



Industrial Production 

Total (average 1935-39=100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-Durables 



June 19 
June 19 
June 19 
June 19 
June 19 
June 19 
June 19 
June 19 
June 19 
June 19 
June 19 



June 24 
June 24 
June 24 
June 24 
June 24 
June 24 



June 1 
May 

May 1 

May 1 



June 
June 
June 



May 1 
May 1 
May 1 
May 1 
June 1 
May 1 
April 



April 
April 
April 
April 



5,462,000 

4,826,000 

345,000 

136,000 

44,000 

209,000 

106,000 

103,000 

* 

185,000 
4,778,000 



33,238 
89,904 
95,253 
35,144 
30,542 
284,081 



247,755 
$20,709,106 

106.1 

23,078 



86,085 

10,157 

31 



$59.14 

$ 1.42 

40.6 

$57.61 

116.1 

119.6 

954 



242.9 
253.8 
307.5 
219.4 



+ 1.3 
+ 2.1 

- 1.7 
+ 6.3 

0.0 

- 6.3 
+ 11.6 
+ 12.0 

0.0 
-14.8 

- 1.3 



24.4 
16*5 
10.3 
21.4 
9 '3 
15.5 



-26.8 
-18.4 

+ 0.5 

+ 38.6 



+ 0.1 

+ 0.6 

- 0.7 

- 0.1 
+ 0.5 

0.0 

+ 1.4 



+ 2.8 

+ 1.8 

+ 1.1 

+ 2.5 



+ 1.4 

- 1.3 
+ 21.5 
+ 52.8 
+ 100.0 
+ 7.2 

- 15.2 

- 14.2 

0.0 
+ 105.6 
+ 3.1 



35.0 
42.6 
97.0 
68.3 
33.8 
58.1 



73.2 
69.8 

4.3 



+ 13.3(c) 



73.5(c) 
29.7(c) 
10.6(c) 



2.8 
4.7 
2.9 
1.7 
1.5 
0.8 
0.5 



4.6 
6.3 
9.0 

3.7 



(a), (b): See inside back cover, Labour Gazette. 

(c) These percentages compare the cumulative total to date from first of current year with 
total for same period previous year. 

♦Less than 10,000. 

938 



Notes of 
Current 
Interest 



Clarion V. Royce Named 
Women's Bureau Director 

Miss Marion V. Royce, MA, Principal 
of Moulton College, Toronto, has been 
named Director of the Women's Bureau of 
the Department of Labour. She is 
expected to assume her new duties early 
in September. 

Born in St. Thomas, Ont., Miss Royce 
is a graduate of McMaster University and 
the Ontario College of Education. She 
has taken post-graduate studies in social 
science in Toronto and Chicago. 

Long Service With YWCA 

Between periods in the teaching profes- 
sion she was General Secretary of the 
National Girls' Work Board of the 
Religious Educational Council of Canada 
from 1928 to 1932. Later she became 
Educational Secretary for the YWCA in 
Montreal. 

In 1942 she began a long association 
with the World YWCA. During this 
period she travelled extensively studying 
and reporting upon economic and social 
problems of particular concern to women. 

She also participated in a number of 
activities sponsored by the ILO. She took 
part in the Social Commission on the 
Status of Women and has served as a con- 
sultant on other United Nations questions. 

She has been Principal of Moulton 
College for two years. 

The Women's Bureau that she will head 
will be the focal point for the prepara- 
tion, distribution and interchange of infor- 
mation concerning women in employment. 



1954 Housing Program 
Gains in Tempo — Brunet 

Canada's 1954 housing program is gain- 
ing in tempo, after a slow start, according 
to Raymond Brunet, President of the 
Canadian Construction Association. Mr. 
Brunet, who addressed members of the 
Winnipeg Builders' Exchange and the 
Canadian Construction Association Prairie 
Road Builders Section on June 21, pointed 
out that 1953's record housing program of 



104,000 completions served only to look 
after Canada's normal population increase 
and that the construction industry has the 
capacity to build 125,000 units annually 
without any undue pressure on construc- 
tion costs. According to Mr. Brunet, a 
minimum annual volume of this size is 
necessary if the housing backlog is to be 
overcome. 

Prospects "Excellent" 

The CCA President noted that the 
Association has advocated that the Federal 
Government amend the National Housing 
Act so that more liberal lending terms 
could be provided for home owners. 
Calling the present prospects for a high 
level of construction "excellent", Mr. 
Brunet added that in the present transi- 
tion period it is "perhaps more important 
than ever to keep construction costs at 
levels that will continue to attract in- 
vestors". As an example of this, he cited 
the action of contractors and several 
building trade unions in the Winnipeg area 
who had signed new labour agreements 
containing last year's provisions. 

Mr. Brunet stated that in some parts 
of the country there has been requests by 
labour for "substantial wage increases". 
He remarked that "this has taken place, in 
spite of the trend in the cost of living, 
the extensive increase in real wages in 
recent years and union publicity concerning 
unemployment." 



April Housing Completions 
Rise after 2-Month Lag 

After lagging behind last year's figures 
in February and March, completions of 
new housing units picked up in April, 
when 6,774 became ready for occupancy. 
This was an increase of 449 or 7 per cent 
over the April 1953 total, the Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics has reported. 

The total of completions for the first 
four months of this year, 27,101, was 2,384 
or nearly 10 per cent more than the number 
finished in January-April last year. 

The number of new dwellings started, 
however, was down both in April and. in 
the first four months. The April 1954 
total, 8,692, was lower by 1.210 units or 

12 per cent than that for the preceding 
April. The total starts during the first 
four months this year, numbering 20,414, 
were 1,418 (6-5 per cent) fewer than last 
year. 

Under construction at the end of April 
were 52,978 units, 352 more than on the 
same date last year but 6,989 (more than 

13 per cent) fewer than on January 1. 



92110—2 



939 



Labour and Farm Income 
Drop* Production Slips 

Canadian labour income for March was 
estimated by the Dominion Bureau of 
Statistics at S94 1.000 ,000, a decrease of 
S6.000.000 from February but $17,000,000 or 
oer cent higher than for March last 
year. 

The cumulative total for the first 
quarter of this year, however, is estimated 
at S2.S29,000,000, two per cent higher 
than the 1953 first-quarter estimate of 
12 772.000,000. 

Estimated income for the primary in- 
dustry group declined §4,000,000 iu March 
from February; for manufacturing, by 
SI. 000.000 and in the distributive trades 
by S2,000,000. For the finance and service 
group it increased by SI, 000,000 to 
8227.000,000, while in construction, labour 
income remained unchanged. 

Compared with March last year, esti- 
mated income was higher for primary 
industry, the distributive group, finance and 
services, and lower for manufacturing and 
construction. 

Per capita weekly earnings at the end 
of March averaged $59.06 as compared with 
S57.33 at the end of March last year. 

Farm cash income from the sale of farm 
products, on the other hand, decreased six 
per cent in the first quarter of this year 
compared with the same period in 1953. 
According to a DBS report, cash receipts 
in the quarter were estimated at 
$504,311,000, as compared with $536,150,000 
a year earlier and the all-time first quarter 
high of $555,700,000 established in 1952. 

The downturn in Canada's gross national 
product continued in the first quarter of 
this year, according to another DBS 
report. After allowing for seasonal factors, 
gross national product was at an estimated 
annual rate of $24,200,000,000 in the first 
quarter, about the same as a year earlier 
but down from $24,500,000,000 in the fourth 
quarter last year. 

Excluding accrued net income of farm 
operators, Canada's gross national product 
showed a figure of $22,500,000,000 for 
the first quarter as compared with 
S22,700,000,000 for the fourth quarter last 
year. 

At the same time, the DBS index number 
of the volume of Canada's industrial pro- 
duction declined 4-6 per cent during April. 
It stood at 242-9, down from last year's 
254-5. During the first four months of 
this year the composite index averaged 
about three per cent below a year earlier. 

The manufacturing component of April's 
index was down more than six per cent, 



and the electricity and gas components 
declined slightly in the same comparison. 
By contrast, mineral production increased 
more than five per cent. 

Sales of new farm implements and 
equipment declined in value by five per 
cent in 1953 for the first time in more 
than a decade. 

Commenting on the economic situation, 
the Executive Council of the Canadian 
Congress of Labour issued a statement 
June 15 emphasizing that despite some 
seasonal pick-up, unemployment remains at 
a serious level. 

The council proposed amendments to the 
Unemployment Insurance Act eliminating 
the present waiting period, extending bene- 
fits to persons now unable to get them, 
and increasing benefits. Other proposals 
included the application of a moratorium 
on mortgages, launching of new public 
works, an expanded housing program, in- 
creased aid to under-developed countries, 
and adoption of a comprehensive public 
assistance program including federal aid to 
municipalities in meeting welfare costs. 

Later, Donald MacDonald, Secretary- 
Treasurer of the CCL, said in a statement 
issued June 23 that "with 217,000 people 
without jobs and looking for work, 103,000 
more than at this time last year, it is 
apparent that there is not going to be 
merely a seasonal solution". He repeated 
the CCL's demand for "prompt and 
vigorous" government action. 

Another Canadian labour leader, Roger 
Provost, President of the Quebec Federa- 
tion of Labour (TLC), told delegates at 
the Federation's 17th annual convention in 
Granby that prosperity "is now on the 
way out and sure signs of a coming reces- 
sion, if not depression, are all around us". 



U.S. Unemployment Drops 
But Less Than Expected 

Unemployment in the United States 
dropped slightly in May and employment 
rose appreciably, according to a joint 
statement issued June 7 by the U.S. Labor 
and Commerce Departments. 

The estimated decline of 160,000 in the 
number of jobless workers was smaller than 
expected at this time of year and "could 
have been due to sampling variability," the 
U.S. Bureau of the Census cautioned in 
analysing the monthly figures. 

The joint release said total employment 
rose by 500,000, reflecting a seasonal 
expansion in farming, construction and 
other outdoor activities. 

The discrepancy between the two figures 
was explained by the fact that additional 



940 



persons entered the labour force, many of 
them housewives and students who took 
temporary farm jobs. 

Although factory employment showed a 
further drop in May, "there was a definite 
slackening in the downtrend," the two gov- 
ernment departments said. 

There was no change in the number of 
persons out of work for 15 weeks or longer. 
The total was 1,000,000 in May, as it had 
been in April and in March. 

Between early April and early May, 
total employment rose from 60,600,000 to 
61,100,000. Unemployment went from 
3,465,000 in April to 3,305,000 in May. 

Manufacturing employment dropped 
193,000 to about 15,500,000, which is 
1,500,000 below the May total of a year 
ago. This was the smallest drop for any 
month since the industrial downtrend 
began last autumn. 

Commenting on the situation, Nelson H. 
Cruikshank, the AFL's director of social 
insurance activities, said that "unemploy- 
ment is not, at this time, a theoretical 
threat". 

The labour official told the U.S. House 
Ways and Means Committee that "approxi- 
mately 8-5 per cent of the labour force 
is now out of work. This is a real and 
present danger." 

Mr. Cruikshank presented the Committee 
with AFL demands for amending the 
Social Security Act to increase unemploy- 
ment insurance benefits, extend their dura- 
tion, and limit the disqualifying provisions. 
He also asked that unemployment insur- 
ance coverage be made co-extensive with 
the federal government's old age and 
survivors' insurance program. 

About the same time, President Eisen- 
hower's chief economic adviser said the 
government does not view the present level 
of unemployment as a situation to be 
accepted indefinitely. 

Government Measures 

Dr. Arthur F. Burns, Chairman of the 
Council of Economic Advisers, said at a 
press conference that many things had 
been done to reduce unemployment. He 
described the Government's anti-recession 
measures as part of its legislative program. 

Dr. Burns said tax cuts — about 
$7,000,000,000 in a single year— had been 
made to strengthen private spending and 
consumption power. He said other bills 
are now before Congress dealing with tax 
revision, housing and social security. 

The Bureau of Employment Security of 
the U.S. Department of Labor reported 
on June 13 that the week ending May 29 
was the seventh successive week in which 



the number of workers receiving state 
unemployment insurance had declined. The 
number dropped by 112,700 to 1,996,000. 

Tjie Bureau said that reports from 40 
states showed new unemployment among 
covered workers as measured by volume 
of initial claims filed also declined for the 
fourth successive week. 

At the same time, the U.S. Federal 
Reserve Board found that slightly more 
than seasonal strength was displayed in 
both manufacturing and mining during 
May. The board's industrial production 
index went up, marking the first time it 
has increased since last July. 

The index rose even though industrial 
production remained where it had been in 
April. Industrial output in May was at 
the April rate of 123 per cent of the 1947-49 
average. But the seasonally adjusted index, 
which had also read 123 in April, went up 
two points in May to 125, reflecting a 
production that bettered normal seasonal 
expectations. 

Production of durable goods dropped 
slightly, but not as sharply as it normally 
does at this season, while non-durable 
goods production remained at the April 
level, reported the Board. 

Business On Upswing 

U.S. Secretary of Commerce Sinclair 
Weeks told the Detroit Economic Club on 
June 14 that business in the United States 
was on the upswing. Citing the drop in 
registered unemployment and the increase 
in the industrial production index, he 
added that construction was far ahead of 
May 1953. 

The latter is confirmed by a joint report 
of the Labor and Commerce Departments. 
According to the report, expenditures for 
new construction set a record for May. 

Private spending for residential building 
rose more than usual this spring, aij^d 
commercial building reversed its downward 
trend of the past few months with a more- 
than-seasonal advance to a new all-time 
peak for May. 

On the other hand, said the report, 
expenditures for private industrial plant, 
which have been falling off since early 
1953, continued the slow downtrend. 

Another report by the two government 
departments estimates that new construc- 
tion expenditures will reach a new record 
high in 1954 and are expected to be two 
per cent above the 1953 record level. The 
estimate is based on the higher level of 
new home building and other civilian con- 
struction so far this year than was expected 
last November. 



92110— 2i 



941 



Employment in U.K. 
Higher Than Year Ago 

Civilian employment in Great Britain in 
April this year increased over the previous 
month and over the same month last year. 

At the end of April, according to the 
Ministry of Labour, there were 22.337,000 
persons in industry, commerce and services 
of all kinds. This was 63,000 more than 
in March and 183,000 more than in April 
1953. 

The increase resulted from the intake of 
those leaving school at Easter and from 
the rise in seasonal employment. 

The Ministry estimates that the total 
working population increased by 41,000 
(16,000 men and 25,000 women) during 
April. 

The total number of persons registered 
as unemployed on May 10 was 289,400, 
which includes 13,100 who were temporarily 
laid off. This was 27,200 fewer than on 
April 12. 

Unemployment on May 10 was 1-4 per 
cent of the estimated total number of 
employees, compared with 1-5 per cent in 
April and 1-6 per cent a year ago. Persons 
who had been unemployed for more than 
eight weeks numbered 134,700. 

The strength of the armed forces at the 
end of April was 842,000, which is 4,000 
fewer than in March and 24,000 fewer than 
in April 1953. 



l.\. Says Unemployment 
Is Major Problem 

The problem of preventing large-scale 
unemployment due to reductions in 
military expenditure is a major problem, 
according to the annual economic report 
of the United Nations. The report, which 
is prepared by the economic stability and 
development section of the UN, was made 
public June 14. 

Calling the past year "one of the most 
satisfactory years for the world economy 
since the war," the report warned that 
"much of the improvement recorded in 
1953 may well have been of only temporary 
significance and major problems remain to 
be solved." 

Noting that the short-term fluctuations in 
prices, production and international pay- 
ments that had accompanied the Korean 
hostilities were "apparently spent", the 
report warned that full employment was 
by no means assured in the major indus- 
trial countries. 

The report concluded by noting that 
there was not sufficient flexibility in the 
world economy to withstand disturbances 



that might result from a reduction in the 
activity of any major trading country. It 
stated that present international arrange- 
ments for dealing with currency shortages 
which would arise in such a situation "must 
be considered inadequate". 

Textile, Farm Machinery, 
Fuel Imports Decline 

Canadian imports of textiles, primary iron 
and steel, farm machinery and fuels from 
the United States declined in value both 
in March and during the first quarter of 
1954, according to the Dominion Bureau 
of Statistics. In addition, decreases were 
registered for purchases of fibres and non- 
metallic minerals and products. 

In March 1953, imports of farm imple- 
ments were valued at $22,165,000; cotton 
products, $10,071,000; coal, $7,676,000; and 
wool products, $6,202,000. In March this 
year, the values of the same products were 
listed as follows : farm implements, 
$16,341,000; cotton products, $8,275,000; 
coal, $6,341,000; and wool products, 
$5,785,000. 

During the first quarter of 1953, imports 
of cotton products from the United States 
were valued at $28,769,000 while the value 
of such goods for the first quarter of 1954 
was $21,119,000. Coal imports in the first 
quarter of 1954 amounted to $20,517,000, a 
decline from the $24,107,000 spent in the 
same period in 1953. 

Refuse NLRB Services 
To Communist-Led Union 

For the first time a national labour union 
has been refused the services of the United 
States National Labour Relations Board on 
the grounds that it is Communist-led. The 
action was taken May 31 against the Inter- 
national Fur and Leather Workers Union, 
whose President, Ben Gold, was recently 
convicted of falsely signing non-Communist 
affidavits. 

Under the provisions of the Taft-Hartley 
Act, all unions must file non-Communist 
affidavits with the Board. Failure to 
comply with these requirements results in 
the union being denied its name on repre- 
sentation ballots and the protection of the 
Board from unfair labour practices. The 
Board's action resulted when the union 
unanimously re-elected Gold as its President 
despite a Board order to the union to 
dismiss him. 

The Fur and Leather Workers have 
already been dismissed from the Congress 
of Industrial Organizations on the grounds 
of Communist domination. 



942 



Ottawa TLC Council 
Plans Housing Project 

A low-rental housing project, to be 
administered by the Ottawa and District 
Trades and Labour Council, is planned for 
the near future. 

The project, which will provide 50 
housing units in an Ottawa suburb, will 
be financed jointly by the city and the 
Central Mortgage and Housing Corpora- 
tion, with the latter meeting 90 per cent 
of the cost. 

A company known as Mooretown Hous- 
ing Limited has been set up by the TLC 
Council and will be the landlord for a 
period of 40 years, after which the city 
will own the buildings. 

The company, comprising officers of the 
Council, was named in honour of the late 
Tom Moore, for many years President of 
the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada. 

In announcing the project, Leslie E. 
Wismer, President of the Ottawa Council, 
said the new houses would be occupied in 
about a year. The units will rent at a 
rate between $50 and $60 per month. 

Mr. Wismer said the scheme, which will 
be carried out with "strictly union labour", 
was primarily designed to help relieve the 
current unemployment situation. At the 
same time, he emphasized, the project 
would provide much needed low-rental 
housing accommodation. 

Mr. Wismer said the scheme would serve 
as a demonstration that construction can 
be carried out on a year-round rather than 
a seasonal basis. 



Project to House 7,600 
Planned Near Toronto 

Plans for the largest government- 
sponsored housing project in Canada, one 
that will provide accommodation for 7,600 
people, were announced in Toronto late 
last month. 

The project will be built under a federal- 
provincial-municipal partnership with the 
Federal Government bearing 75 per cent 
of the cost. The provincial share will be 
about 18 per cent and that the munici- 
pality 7£ per cent. The three govern- 
ments will recover their investments, with 
four per cent interest, in 50 years. 

The development will be located on a 
120-acre site north of Toronto. In all there 
will be 101 apartment buildings with 1,560 
individual suites of from one to three- 
bedroom size. 

Tenants will be selected from the $50-$77 
wage group and those with children will 
be given priority. Rents will range from 



$58 to a maximum of $78, with the average 
at $68 per month. 

Of the 1,560 suites, 1,000 will be three- 
bedroom, 340 will be two-bedroom and 220 
will be one-bedroom apartments. 

Ninety-seven of the 101 buildings will 
be 2\ storey walk-ups. The other four 
will be 10 storey buildings placed at 
strategic sites to highlight the whole 
development. Design of the low buildings 
will be varied to avoid monotony. A 
10-acre park will centre the project and a 
school may be built in this green belt area. 

A municipal Housing Authority will 
administer the project. 



U.S. Housing Starts Rise 
14 Per Cent in April 

Starts of privately-owned housing 
advanced in April to the highest level for 
any month in more than 3i years, accord- 
ing to preliminary estimates of the U.S. 
Labor Department's Bureau of Labor 
Statistics. A 14- per-cent rise from March 
brought the total number of new dwelling 
units begun in April to 110,000, of which 
109,100 were privately-owned. Public hous- 
ing starts dropped from 1,200 in March to 
900 in April. 

On a seasonally adjusted basis, private 
starts have been at an annual rate of well 
above 1,100,000 since the first of the year. 
The rate in April (1,159,000) was the 
highest for any April except in 1950. 

During the first four months of 1954, the 
number of privately-owned dwelling-unit 
starts exceeded a third of a million (341,400 
units) and almost equalled the private 
total for January-April 1953. However, 
because of an 80-per-cent slump in public 
housing, the total number of non-farm 
housing starts for the first third of 1954, 
at 346,000 units, was 6 per cent lower than 
the 1953 total for the same period. 

Final reports now available for 1953 show 
that 1,103,800 new permanent non-farm 
dwelling units were put under construction 
last year, compared with 1,127,000 in 1952 
and 1,396,000 in the peak year 1950. 



U.S. Textile Workers 
Learning New Trade 

Some 20 persons in New England, 
thrown out of work after many years in 
a textile mill, are attending school to learn 
a new trade — shoe manufacturing. One 
married couple between them had a total 
of 63 years' service in the textile plant, 
which during the Second World War 
employed 8,000. 



943 



Sans Doctors Opposed to 
"State" Health Insurance 

Opposition of the medical profession to 
any form of compulsory "socialized" medi- 
cine was expressed last month at the 87th 
annual convention of the Canadian Medical 
Association in Vancouver. 

Dr. C. W. Burns, retiring President of 
the Association, said in his report to the 
convention that medical men in Canada 
"are distinctly and, I hope, unitedly opposed 
to any plan of state medicine or com- 
pulsory health insurance which would place 
the medical profession under the control 
of the state". 

But they would, he said, support a 
national health insurance plan involving 
voluntary paj^ment of insurance premiums 
and the pooling of financial resources so 
that illness can be budgeted for in advance. 

The CMA already is sponsoring such a 
voluntary scheme under its associated trans- 
Canada medical plans program. 

Dr. Burns warned the convention that 
rehabilitation of those with chronic ail- 
ments was becoming an increasingly serious 
problem because of the rise in average life 
expectancy. The very young and very old 
now outnumbered the middle-aged group 
on which a nation's economy depended. 

"One citizen in every five is dependent 
on the remaining four," he said. "Within 
the next 25 years this proportion will in- 
crease, which creates an alarming situation, 
and one which soon will be a major issue 
in the field of public economy." 

An adequate rehabilitation program, he 
said, would enable chronically ill persons 
to contribute to their own support and 
would restore them as useful citizens. 



.>];> Million Canadians Had 
Health Insurance in 1952 

Nearly 5J million Canadians had some 
form of voluntary hospital expense insur- 
ance at the end of 1952. About four 
million enjoyed surgical expense protection 
and approximately three million were 
insured under medical expense policies. 

These estimates were made by Bruce R. 
Power, Secretary and Actuary of the Cana- 
dian Life Insurance Officers Association, at 
the first Canadian Medical Care Confer- 
ence held recently. 

Mr. Power, who spoke on developments 
in voluntary health insurance over the past 
ten years, said most people acquired their 
protection during that time. 

The number of lives covered under 
voluntary plans of health insurance is con- 
tinuing to increase rapidly, he said, pointing 



out that the ratios of increase during 1952 
were 7-6 per cent for hospital coverage, 
20 per cent for surgical coverage, and 31-9 
per cent for medical coverage. 

Describing the two broad classes of 
health insurance policies issued by insur- 
ance companies, namely group contracts 
and individual contracts, Mr. Power said 
life insurance companies in Canada are 
most active in the group field. 

Among the variety of forms of group 
coverage, the most common are weekly 
indemnity benefits, which compensate the 
insured life for loss of time from work 
due to accident or illness, and insurance 
against the cost of hospitalization, surgical 
treatment and medical care other than 
surgery. 

It is common practice, said Mr. Power, 
for the employer to bear part or all of the 
cost of the group insurance benefits pro- 
vided for his employees. In fact, he said, 
employee-pay-all plans are frowned upon 
from an underwriting point of view and 
are discouraged. 

Majority to Employers 

While group policies may be made with 
trade or professional associations or with 
labour unions, the vast majority are issued 
to an employer to protect his employees. 

One of the most recent forms of coverage 
in the field of accident and sickness insur- 
ance, said Mr. Power, is the form called 
major medical expense insurance. It is 
still in the experimental stage but a variety 
of contracts have been offered in the United 
States on both a group and individual 
basis. This movement has now spread to 
Canada and protection of this kind is 
currently being made available by a number 
of insurance companies. 

Answers Criticism 

Speaking of the non-profit concept and 
the criticism that insurance companies are 
making a profit out of human misery, Mr. 
Power said: "I am not prepared to concede 
in a private enterprise economy like ours 
that there is anything immoral about 
making a reasonable profit in return for 
rendering a valuable service." 

He cited the case of doctors, nurses and 
manufacturers of medical supplies and 
hospital equipment, who all work under 
the private enterprise system. 

In hospitalization insurance, he said, 
there seems to be a constant struggle to 
maintain a reasonable balance between 
premium income and claims outgo. 

"For example, in 1952, 36 companies 
issuing group hospitalization contracts paid 
out in claims 91-8 per cent of the $17 to 



944 



$18 millions they received in premiums. 
Having in mind that the balance left 
after paying claimants had to take care 
of all administrative expenses, including the 
two per cent tax on premiums in respect 
of which the insurance companies enjoy 
a 'monopoly', it will be obvious that this 
class of business is not the gold mine it 
seems to be in the minds of some people," 
he said. 



$675 Million in 2 Years 
Spent on Health Care 

Canadians spent a total of $675,000,000 
from public and private funds on health 
care during 1950-51, according to Dr. 
G. D. W. Cameron, Deputy Minister of 
the Department of National Health and 
Welfare. Addressing the 87th annual meet- 
ing of the Canadian Medical Association 
at Vancouver, June 17, he said that of this 
amount, almost $375,000,000 came from 
families or from them through insurance 
plans. 

With regard to the disabled, Dr. Cameron 
stated that a survey carried out by the 
Department of National Health and 
Welfare revealed that 425,000 persons, or 
three per cent of the population, reported 
chronic disabilities. Of this number, more 
than 100,000 of all ages and both sexes 
could be described as totally disabled. 

Most Disabled Over 45 

Sixty per cent of persons listed as 
disabled were over 45 years of age. 
Approximately 60 per cent of all the 
disabling conditions reported were due to 
heart disease, residual impairments due to 
accidents, arthritis and rheumatism," deaf- 
ness, partial or total blindness and disorders 
of the nervous system, in that order, the 
speaker pointed out. 

Referring to health care expenditures by 
income groups, Dr. Cameron remarked that 
about seven per cent of families with in- 
comes under $3,000 a year spend $70 or 
more in direct physicians' services, apart 
from insurance, hospital and dental, and 
other payments. 

Concerning the purchase of health care 
insurance, the Deputy Minister reported 
that with families with incomes less than 
$1,500 a year, just over one-quarter reported 
expenditure of this type by one or more 
of their members. More than half of the 
families with incomes between $1,500 and 
$3,000 purchased this kind of protection 
and above the $3,000 level, about two- 
thirds of all families list such an expense 
in their budgets, Dr. Cameron stated. 



New Political Arm May 
Be Created in Quebec 

A new political party to serve as labour's 
political arm in the province may be 
created in Quebec. At its second annual 
convention, held in Champigny early last 
month, the Quebec Federation of Indus- 
trial Unions (CCL) decided to study the 
creation of such a party. 

A committee was instructed to draw up 
a manifesto setting forth the fundamental 
rights of workers "as trade-unionists and as 
citizens of the province of Quebec". The 
Federation intends to invite the other two 
major labour organizations, the Canadian 
and Catholic Confederation of Labour and 
the Quebec Provincial Federation of Labour 
(TLC), to participate in the preparation of 
this manifesto. 

Romeo Mathieu, re-elected General Sec- 
retary of the QFIU, told the delegates 
during the two-day convention that "there 
is a possibility of launching a political 
party in Quebec which will probably have 
a program very closely related to that of 
the CCF party, but which will be distinctly 
'Quebec province' in nature. This is the 
only solution for our problems." 

Mr. Mathieu added : "The anti-democratic 
and anti-unionist attitude of our govern- 
ments obliges us, whether we like it or 
not, to have recourse to one of the sole 
liberties left to us, that of choosing the 
representatives who make up our govern- 
ments." 

R. J. (Doc) Lamoureux, re-elected 
President of the QFIU, also expressed the 
hope that the Federation will be able to 
contribute towards bringing the other 
labour organizations closer together. 

In addition to Messrs. Lamoureux and 
Mathieu, the Executive Committee elected 
includes Vice-presidents J. P. Tessier, 
Philippe Vaillancourt and William Dodge. 
Jacques V. Morin is Executive Secretary. 



No WorU Available Yet 
On St. Lawrence Seaway 

Hardship for workers seeking employ- 
ment and for municipalities in the St. 
Lawrence Seaway area has resulted from 
the arrival of many persons seeking work 
on the project at a time when there is 
little prospect of employment in the 
immediate future. 

In order to prevent this, local offices of 
the National Employment Service have 
been instructed not to send workers to 
areas along the proposed Seaway unless 
there is a definite prospect of work 
available. 



945 



Que. to Have Committee 
On industrial Relations 

The Quebec Government will set up a 
standing parliamentary committee on indus- 
trial relations at the next session of the 

- slature. This was announced by Hon. 
Antonio Barrette, Provincial Minister of 
Labour, at the closing banquet of the 17th 
annual convention of the Quebec Federa- 
tion of Labour (TLC) at Granby last 
month. 

Mr. Barrette said the committee will 
hoar representations from any public body 
pertaining to labour-management problems. 

"The committee," he added, "will keep 
both the public and the government fully 
informed about the needs and objectives of 
interested parties." 

The QFL granted a fifth mandate to its 
President, Roger Provost, who defeated 
Paul Fournier, Canadian representative of 
the Distillery Workers' International Union, 
by a vote of 376 to 119. 

Armand Marion, Canadian representative 
of the American Guild of Variety Artists, 
was re-elected by acclamation Secretary- 
Treasurer of the QFL, which represents 
some 140,000 trade-unionists belonging to 
160 unions and five trades and labour 
councils. 

The QFL decided to give its leaders 
more latitude in order to enable them, 
under certain circumstances, to form cartels 
with the other labour federations in the 
province. However, it refused to engage 
actively in political action. 

Speaking at the opening of the conven- 
tion, the President uttered a strong indict- 
ment of the Federal Government, for its 
unemployment policy, and of the provincial 
government, which it accused of doing away 
with freedom of association in Quebec prov- 
ince. It also denounced Bills 19 and 20. 

While he said that the time for "partisan 
strife" has not yet come, Mr. Provost 
nevertheless emphasized the need for 
political education. 

The delegates present, who numbered 
about 500, decided "to authorize the 
executive of the Federation to decide 
between conventions whether there should 
be participation in inter-union cartels". 
The resolution specified, however, that the 
QFL is not to take part in any joint 
action "except in cases of urgent interest 
for all workers". 

This resolution modifies the one adopted 
at the Sherbrooke convention in 1951, 
which forbade any coalition with the Cana- 
dian and Catholic Confederation of Labour. 

The delegates approved a report reject- 
ing as unsatisfactory the draft labour code 



submitted by the Superior Labour Council. 
The QFL intends to present its own labour 
code soon. 

The convention also asked that the 
legislation governing workmen's compensa- 
tion be amended so as to ensure the 
accident victim of full compensation for 
his wages and immediate payment of all 
compensation, and that this legislation 
apply to all professional and industrial 
illnesses, irrespective of the nature of the 
illness or of the employment, and to all 
industries. 

With regard to unemployment insurance, 
the delegates were unanimous in calling 
for higher benefits and a shorter waiting 
period. 

All the regional vice-presidents were 
re-elected by acclamation. These vice- 
presidents are: Edouard Larose and R. M. 
Bennett, Montreal; Jean-Baptiste Hurens, 
Quebec; Jean-Baptiste Arsenault, St- 
Maurice; Rene Fournier, Eastern Town- 
ships; Pat O'Farrell, Western Quebec; 
Marcel Charbonneau, the Laurentians; and 
Georges Metivier, Richelieu district. 



CCCL Begins Organizing 
New Logging Union 

The Canadian and Catholic Confedera- 
tion of Labour has just launched an 
organization campaign among Quebec's 
forest workers to set up the "Professional 
Syndicate of Specialized Forest Workers". 

The aim of the CCCL is to form a 
union to represent the various permanent 
trades in the logging industry — particularly 
camp clerks, cooks and their assistants, 
mechanics and drivers of motor vehicles, 
forest rangers and lumber scalers, con- 
struction and maintenance workers for 
camps, roads, bridges and locks; black- 
smiths, dynamiters and workers of all 
trades in general. 

A team of organizers under the direction 
of Rene Harmegnies, chief organizer for 
the CCCL, has begun the task. The 
services of Irenee Berube, forest ranger 
and former publicity man for the licensed 
lumber scalers of Quebec, have also been 
retained. 



Letter Carriers Leave 
Civil Service Federation 

The Federated Association of Letter 
Carriers has voted to leave the Civil 
Service Federation of Canada. The 
decision was taken at the Association's 
30th annual convention in Ottawa last 
month. The group is also affiliated with 
the TLC. 



946 



Firm, Hires Union Chief 
To Settle Grievances 

To facilitate the settlement of grievances, 
a Quebec firm has created a new position 
and hired the president of the union in 
the plant to fill it. 

Shawinigan Chemicals has appointed 
J. Emile Hebert, President of the National 
Federation of Chemical Industry Workers 
(CCCL), to anticipate grievances and aid 
in their prompt settlement. Mr. Hebert, 
a company employee for 25 years, was 
recommended for the job by his union. 
Creation of the new position resulted from 
an understanding reached during recent 
negotiation of a new contract. 



10,200 Under 16 Years Old 
WorU in Quebec Industry 

According to an investigation carried on 
recently by the Research Service of the 
Canadian and Catholic Confederation of 
Labour, more than 10,200 boys and girls 
under 16 years of age were working in 
industries in the province of Quebec od 
April 1, 1953. 

This inquiry, undertaken at the request 
of the CCCL's Confederal Committee on 
the Problems of Women in Industry, 
showed that 10,257 children (5,675 boys and 
4,582 girls) had obtained juvenile permits 
allowing them to work in industries not 
classified as dangerous. 

According to the Industrial and Com- 
mercial Establishments Act, these indus- 
tries can hire girls and boys over 14 years 
provided the latter can prove that they 
are able to read and write easily. 

Heading the list is Montreal, where 3,456 
of the 4,582 working girls are employed. 
Next come Verdun, with 202; Quebec, 200; 
Three Rivers, 170; and St. Hyacinthe, 144. 

The greatest number of employed girls, 
1,430, are in the ready-made clothing 
industry. Then come commercial estab- 
lishments, with 1,209, and factories produc- 
ing food, 447. 

The CCCL Committee is now making 
an extensive investigation into the ques- 
tion of women in industry, their working 
conditions in the factories and their 
distribution in the various industries. 



UH.000 WorU Injuries 

In Ontario in 1953 

During 1953, within the manufacturing 
classes of industry in the membership of 
the Industrial Accident Prevention Asso- 
ciations (Ontario), 96,749 work injuries 



were reported to the Workmen's Compen- 
sation Board, it was reported by R. G. D. 
Anderson, IAPA General Manager, at the 
organization's 39th annual safety confer- 
ence in Toronto. 

Of these, 24,379 involved an absence 
from work of five days or more. There 
were 87 reported deaths, of which 23 
resulted from traffic accidents and 12 from 
industrial diseases, chiefly silicosis and 
pneumoconiosis. 

No Costs at all 

Mr. Anderson stated that in more than 
40 per cent of the plants having member- 
ship in the Associations, no costs at all 
were incurred under the Ontario Work- 
men's Compensation Act. 

Referring specifically to the activities of 
the Associations during 1953, the general 
manager noted that 7,587 inspections had 
been made with 12,374 recommendations for 
the correction of unsafe conditions and 
practices. The inspection staff also partici- 
pated in 77 plant meetings. In co-operation 
with Toronto and McMaster universities, 
evening courses were conducted throughout 
the year on safety practices in industry. 
During the year, the Associations promoted 
275 safety meetings with a total accumu- 
lative attendance of 26,665 persons. 



CPU Nantes Supervisor 
Of Labour Relations 

A. L. McGregor has been named super- 
visor of labour relations for the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company, it was announced 
last month. A native of Winnipeg, where 
he joined the railway in 1918, he has been 
superintendent of the Company's Sudbury 
division for four years and before that 
was assistant to the general superintendent 
at Montreal for six vears. 



Newspaper Guild Reports 
Recent Contract Gains 

Recent wage gains and improvements in 
working conditions on newspapers in the 
United States under American Newspaper 
Guild (CIO) contracts are reported in 
The Guild Reporter, ANG publication, 

The Boston Post has reduced the work- 
week from 40 to 37i hours, raised top 
reporter minimums from Si 17.25 to $121 a 
week, and granted four weeks' vacation 
after 20 years' service instead of after 
25 years'. 

At the Chicago Daily News, wage rates 
for reporters have been raised to $120 a 
week after five years' service and for copj''- 
readers, $125 after 4i years'. 



92110—3 



947 



Labour Act Proclaimed, 
New Board \ anted in B.C. 

British Columbia's new Labour Relations 
Act (sec p. 954) was proclaimed June 16, 
The next day Labour Minister Lyle Wicks 
announced the appointment of the five 
members of the province's Industrial Rela- 
tions Board to take over the duties of 
the former part-time Labour Relations 
Board. 

Thus Deputy Labour Minister W. H. 
Sands will now be chairman of both 
boards. 

Strong Labour Protests 

Strong protests have been voiced against 
both the membership of the new Board 
and the Act by organized labour in the 
province. 

In announcing the new arrangement, Mr. 
Wicks said the appointments "are in accord 
with our policy to simplify administration 
where possible. As this eliminates one 
government board it not only simplifies 
procedure as well as administration for the 
labour department but will also result in 
considerable saving to the British Columbia 
taxpayer." 

The former Labour Relations Board 
was composed of two management repre- 
sentatives, two t labour representatives, 
and a government-appointed chairman. 
One of the labour representatives, Charles 
Murdock, was appointed to the Industrial 
Relations Board last year. He is Vice- 
president of Division 101, Street Railway- 
men's Union, and will be the only labour 
member of the board that will now 
administer all labour legislation in the 
province. 

Other members of the Board are Mrs. 
Rex Eaton, who thus becomes the first 
woman in Canada to sit on a labour rela- 
tions board; H. J. Young, retired Van- 
couver industrialist; and G. A. Little, chief 
investigator for the LRB. 

Commenting on the appointments, Tom 
Alsbury, President of the Vancouver, New 
Westminster and District Trades and 
Labour Council (TLC) said: "The Labour 
Relations Board members are selected by 
labour and management, but the Industrial 
Relations Board members are chosen by 
the government. They will be completely 
ignoring the voices of labour and manage- 
ment, the groups primarily concerned." 

George Home, Secretary of the British 
Columbia Federation of Labour (CCL) 
declared: "This is the first time in Canada 
that a provincial labour relations board 
has been set up without letting employees 
have the right to nominate who should 
represent them. 



"The government is not asking who 
should represent us; it is telling us," he 
said. 

Following its introduction, a labour 
research committee comprised of members 
of the Trades and Labour Congress of 
Canada, the Canadian Congress of Labour 
and the railway transportation brother- 
hoods said the new Act "will destroy 
industrial peace on the West Coast". The 
committee members represent more than 
150,000 workers. 

A special report issued by the com- 
mittee charged that the new legislation 
will lead to and promote bitterness in 
labour-management relations. It said the 
amendments to the Act are not in 
sympathy with the needs of the British 
Columbia worker and are designed to 
hinder trade union functions. Introduction 
of the new Act was unnecessary, the report 
said, since only one section of the old Act 
was deleted. 

Says Act "Vicious" 

Individual labour leaders also attacked 
the Act after its proclamation. Lloyd 
Whelan, President of the Vancouver local 
of the International Woodworkers of 
America (CIO-CCL), termed the Act 
"vicious to basic industries". Jack Mac- 
Kenzie, President of another IWA local, 
said: "It's become law and we are going 
to have to live with it; but it is still our 
firm opinion that it places too much power 
in the hands of one individual — the Labour 
Minister." 

Thomas Gooderham, TLC Pacific Coast 
representative, said he was "sorry to see 
it become law so suddenly without further 
consideration by the government to labour's 
requests for certain changes." 

The Secretary of the Victoria Trades and 
Labour Council (TLC), Percy Rayment, 
said labour legislation in British Columbia 
was in advance of most other provinces, 
but "the new Act is definitely a backward 
step with the poor provisions of the Acts 
in other provinces introduced". 

Defending the Act and deploring "the 
great deal of misinformation" about it, 
Labour Minister Wicks said: — 

"We have made the Act as legally fool- 
proof as possible and we have placed 
related sections . . . together to avoid con- 
fusion, which makes for simplicity and 
clarification." 

The new Labour Relations Act replaces 
the former Industrial Conciliation and 
Arbitration Act, in force since 1947. Details 
of the new Act are given in "Highlights 
of Labour Legislation Enacted by Pro- 
vincial Legislatures in 1954" which begins 
on page 954 of this issue. 



948 



Grant 407 Certifications 
In B.C. Last Year 

Permission to prosecute for alleged viola- 
tions of the Industrial Conciliation and 
Arbitration Act was granted in an increased 
number of cases in British Columbia last 
year, according to the report of the pro- 
vincial Labour Relations Board for 1953. 
Seventy-five such requests were filed with 
the Board, of which 36 were granted. In 
1952, only 14 requests to prosecute were 
approved. 

During the year, the Board authorized 
the issuance of 467 certificates of bargaining 
authority and rejected 119 applications. 
Within the same period, 48 representation 
ballots and 221 strike votes were conducted 
by the Board. The Board considered 54 
applications for decertification during the 
year, of which 15 were rejected and 29 
were approved. At the end of the year, 
eight such applications had been tabled 
and two were still pending. 



ITU Re-elects Randolph; 
Boilermaker Chief Quits 

The headquarters of the International 
Typographical Union reported last month 
that Woodruff Randolph had been re- 
elected President by a 569-vote margin 
over George Bante of Chicago. The vote 
was 38,160 to 37,591. Mr. Randolph has 
been President of the ITU since 1944. 

The President of another AFL union, the 
International Brotherhoods of Boilermakers, 
Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers 
and Helpers, has resigned, effective July 1. 
Charles J. MacGowan, who will now occupy 
the position of President Emeritus, will 
continue to be a member of the union's 
executive council, however. He was 
succeeded by William A. Calvin, a former 
Vice-president of the union and recently 
Assistant to the President. 



Chief Calls Soviet Unicns 
"Schools for Communism" 

State-controlled unions in the Soviet 
Union are known as "the school of 
Communist education of the masses," said 
Nikolai M. Shvernik in an address to the 
Eleventh Congress of Soviet labour unions 
held in Moscow recently. 

Mr. Shvernik, who is leader of the Soviet 
labour unions, said they must "increase 
Socialist competition, strengthen labour 
discipline and eliminate formalism in their 
approach to daily problems". 



Mr. Shvernik accused the Oil and Build- 
ing Ministries of "systematically failing to 

fulfil" the I II-" ' set for them by the state. 
He complained thai the Ministries of 

Agriculture and of State Farms had lagged 
behind in their plans for building houses 
for farm workers. 

He told the labour unionists it was their 
job to help put matters right. 

A message of greeting sent to the con- 
gress jointly by the Central Committee 
of the Soviet Communist Party and the 
Government, and quoted by Tass, the 
Soviet news agency, said: — 

"Soviet labour unions at all stages of 
Socialist construction have put into effect 
the policy of the Communist Party, aimed 
at strengthening the might of the Soviet 
State, at a steady building up of the 
country's economy and the culture and 
well-being of the people." 



Four-Month Immigration 
Higher Than Last Year 

More immigrants entered Canada during 
the first four months of 1954 than in the 
corresponding period of 1953, the Depart- 
ment of Citizenship and Immigration has 
reported. Up to the end of April this year, 
44,877 immigrants arrived in the country 
while 39,055 entered in the first four months 
of 1953. 

In April this year, immigrants totalled 
16,654, of whom 7,838 were adult males, 
4,891 adult females and 3,925 children under 
18 years. 

Italian immigrants were the largest ethnic 
group to arrive in the first four months of 
1954, numbering 7,962, followed by English 
(7,421), Dutch (6,213), German (5,855), 
Scottish (3,183) and from the United States, 
2,872. 

Uncover Dual Role of 
B.C. LocaVs President 

A man in British Columbia who while 
serving as president of an AFL local was 
employed as organizer for a rival CIO 
union has been unmasked. He was imme- 
diately dismissed from his presidential post. 

According to a Canadian Press report 
from Kitimat, Wally Ross, President of 
the local of the Aluminum Workers Inter- 
national Union (AFL) there, admitted 
during a conciliation board hearing that 
he was actually an organizer for the United 
Steelworkers of America (CIO-CCL). Mr. 
Ross had just presented the aluminum 
workers' brief to the board when he 
admitted his dual role when confronted by 
the company counsel at the hearing. 



92110— 3i 



949 



Steelworkers, L.S. Steel 
Sign \ew Agreement 

A five-cent-an-hour wage increase and 
improved pension and insurance programs 
highlighted the new contract signed by the 
United Steelworkers of America (CIO) and 
the United States Steel Corporation, June 
29. The Steelworkers represent approxi- 
mately 600.000 workers in the basic steel 
industry and the negotiations with U.S. 
Steel are expected to set the pattern for 
negotiations with other firms in the 
industry. 

Under the new contract, which became 
effective July 1, the workers will receive 
a five-cent-an-hour wage increase, bringing 
the average hourly rate to between $2.19 
and S2.29. The pension program, which 
will go into effect November 1, provides 
for an increase from $100 a month for all 
workers with 25 years' service to $140 for 
employees with 30 years' service. Both the 
old and the new benefits include federal 
social security payments. 

The insurance program, which also 
becomes effective November 1, calls for an 
additional company and employee contribu- 
tion of two cents per hour to finance the 
scheme. Previously, the company and the 
employees had contributed 2£ cents each. 
The new cost now amounts to 4J cents 
an hour for both parties. 

The insurance clauses of the contract are 
frozen for two years while the pensions 
provisions will remain unchanged for three. 
Wage talks, however, may be reopened on 
May 1 next year. 

The new agreement also: (1) allows those 
who retire because of disability before age 
65 to receive a minimum $75-a-month 
pension, compared with $50 under the old 
contract; (2) sets the starting rate at $1.57 
an hour; and (3) retains the present 
spread of 5£ cents between job classes. 

The agreement made no mention of the 
guaranteed annual wage which the union 
stressed earlier as a major point in the 
negotiations. 

The Corporation estimates the "package" 
increase amounts to 9 to 10 cents an hour, 
the highest so far in 1954 contract nego- 
tiations in any major United States 
industry. 



An analysis by the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics, United States Department of 
Labor, of 222 major contracts negotiated 
in the first quarter of 1954 shows that 80 
per cent of them provided for wage in- 
creases, with the median raise between 6 
and 7 cents for all contracts. 



5-Cent Celling Predicted 
For U.S. Wage Increases 

Wage increases in the United States this 
year will not exceed five cents an hour, the 
American Management Association pre- 
dicted last month. 

In a report circulated among labour 
relations executives attending a collective 
bargaining conference in New York, June 7 
and 8, the Association said: "Early con- 
tract settlements reveal that many firms 
are settling for no money raise at all; and 
many others are coming in for five cents 
or under. So at this point it looks as 
though the nickel settlement will be about 
ceiling so far as wages are concerned this 
year." 

(The prediction was made three weeks 
before the United Steelworkers and U.S. 
Steel signed an agreement providing for 
a five-cent-an-hour increase (see above).) 

Other Predictions 

Concerning organized labour's internal 
situation, the Association made the follow- 
ing predictions: — 

That the chances of a merger between 
the AFL and the CIO are "remote" and 
will remain so until the two bodies can 
work out their jurisdictional problems. 

That the formation of a third force in 
labour, composed of the International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters (AFL), the 
United Steelworkers (CIO) and the inde- 
pendent United Mine Workers, is 
"improbable". 

That the influence of the United Elec- 
trical Workers and other unions which have 
been accused of being left-wing is declining 
but that the Communist party is still 
following its policy of infiltrating unions 
wherever it can. 

That the guaranteed annual wage is not 
likely to feature prominently in the wage 
negotiations of the average company. 

Stating that unions will press their 
demands for fringe benefits, management 
was warned to expect collective agreement 
negotiations to concern the 35-hour work- 
week, severance pay for hourly-rated 
employees, additional paid holidays, group 
life insurance, sickness and accident insur- 
ance, hospitalization benefits, surgical in- 
surance, improved pension plans and 
increased vacations. 

The Association concluded its review of 
labour-management relations by noting that 
"the company that has followed a con- 
sistent, fair and firm labour relations policy 
in the past will probably find that its action 
this year will help to establish a better 
and more healthful industrial relations 
climate." 



950 



J. L. D. Ives Retires at End of Month 



After nearly half a century's association 
with railroading and with the Order of 
Railway Conductors, J. L. D. Ives, Vice- 
president and Dominion Legislative Repre- 
sentative of the Order, has announced his 
retirement at the end of the current term, 
which expires July 31. 

Mr. Ives, who was born in Prince Edward 
Island, first began his railroading career as 
a brakeman on the Canadian Northern 
Railway at Dauphin, Man., in 1907. 
Following his promotion to conductor in 
1911, Mr. Ives moved to Winnipeg and 
worked in this capacity with the Canadian 
Northern Railway and later with the Cana- 
dian National Railways after the amalgama- 
tion of the Canadian Northern, the Grand 
Trunk Pacific and the Canadian Govern- 
ment Railways. 

Mr. Ives, who had served on local 
committees of adjustment, participated 
actively in the negotiations of agreements 
covering the consolidation of the three 
railway properties. In 1936 he was elected 
Chairman of the General Committee of 
Adjustment for the Order on Canadian 
National lines in the West. Mr. Ives 
moved to Ottawa in 1941 when he was 
elected a Vice-president and Dominion 
Legislative Representative of the Order. 

Since 1941, Mr. Ives has served as a 
member of the Canadian Railway Board of 
Adjustment No. 1 and during the past 
year was Chairman of the Board. As 
Dominion Legislative Representative, he 
has been associated with the Dominion 
Joint Legislative Committee of the Rail- 
way Transportation Brotherhoods and has 
been the Committee's Chairman for the 
past three years. 




mmmM 



V 




ft 




The Committee, which represents most 
railway workers in Canada, is a voluntary 
organization composed of representatives 
of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engi- 
neers, the Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Firemen and Enginemen , the Order of 
Railway Conductors, the Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen, the Order of Railroad 
Telegraphers, the Brotherhood of Main- 
tenance of Way Employees and Division 
No. 4, Railway Employees Department 
(AFL). It's name was recently changed to 
National Legislative Committee (Canada), 
International Railway Brotherhoods. 



House of Commons Debates of Labour Interest 



Disabled Persons 

June 1 

The Hon. Paul Martin, Minister of 
National Health and Welfare, moved the 
second reading of Bill No. 462, to provide 
allowances for disabled persons between the 
ages of 18 and 65. The maximum allow- 
ance permitted will be $40 a month. 

According to Mr. Martin, the legislation 
is primarily concerned with providing a 
measure of security and comfort for the 



"most helpless of our fellow citizens, the 
totally and permanently disabled". Mr. 
Martin pointed out that the costs of the 
program will be shared equally by the 
Federal Government and the participating 
provinces. As such, the provinces will have 
to enact enabling legislation. The Health 
and Welfare Minister estimated that if all 
the provinces joined in the program, an 
estimated 25,000 to 35,000 disabled citizens 
would receive benefits at an annual cost 
of between $12 to $16 million. 



951 



The proposed legislation provides that 
any province may set a higher minimum 
age for eligibility if it so desires. The 
residence requirement has been set at 10 
years. Income ceilings are to be the same 
as those in the federal Old Age Assistance 
\ and, stated Mr. Martin, "represent the 
si common wish of the provinces when 
they were assembled in conference with 
ns here a few months ago". 

The proposed legislation will avoid a 
duplication of benefits payable under other 
enactments such as the federal Blind 
Persons Act, the Old Age Assistance Act, 
the Old Age Security Act, the War Veterans 
Allowance Act and provincial mothers' 
allowances laws. In addition, duplication of 
benefit will be avoided where care or main- 
tenance is already provided in institutions. 

Mr. W. G. Blair (Lanark) stated that 
it was regrettable that the definition of 
total and permanent disability had been 
left out of the proposed legislation and 
would be dealt with only in the regulations 
to the Act. Mr. Blair added that the 
legislation left a gap for those between the 
ages of 16 and 18, a period between the 
age when family allowances ended and 
disability allowances began. 

Mr. Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg North 
Centre) urged that the proposed allowance 
be increased to $60 a month and added 
that the federal government share of the 
costs should be on a 75-25 basis and not 
50-50 as proposed. This would mean that 
the Federal Government would pay $45 
and the provinces $15 with regard to a 
S60 benefit, Mr. Knowles remarked. Mr. 
Knowles also criticized the residence quali- 
fication, pointing out that it disallowed 
benefits to immigrants who, on becoming 
disabled, would be an added burden to 
agencies in the provinces or municipalities 
concerned. Mr. Knowles further recom- 
mended that the ceiling on permissible 
income for those coming under the provi- 
sions of the Act be increased. 

June 8 

The House resumed consideration in 
committee of Bill No. 462, to provide 
allowances for disabled persons. 

Mr. Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg North 
Centre) asked the Hon. Paul Martin, 
Minister of National Health and Welfare, 
how the 25,000 to 35,000 persons the Gov- 
ernment had estimated would come under 
the provisions of the disabled persons 
legislation could be reconciled with the 
100,000 persons estimated as being disabled 
in the April 1952 issue of the Labour 
Gazette and who would come under the 



attention of the national advisory com- 
mittee on rehabilitation. In reply, Mr. 
Martin stated that the latter figure referred 
to veterans, workmen's compensation cases, 
total hospital cases and others. 

After some debate, the bill was read the 
third time and passed. Participating in 
the debate were : Mr. J. F. Pouliot (Temis- 
couata), Mr. F. D. Shaw (Red Deer), Mr. 
J. R. Kirk (Antigonish-Guysborough), Mr. 
G. H. Castleden (Yorkton), Mr. T. S. 
Barnett (Comox-Alberni), Mr. F. S. 
Zaplitny (Dauphin), Mr. J. G. Diefenbaker 
(Prince Albert), Mr. G. K. Fraser (Peter- 
borough) and Mr. T. J. Kickham (Kings). 

Anti-Dumping Laws 

June 4 

Speaking in the debate on the estimates 
for his department, the Hon. J. J. McCann, 
Minister of National Revenue, stated that 
the policy put into effect by the Govern- 
ment concerning the importation of end- 
of-season and end-of-line goods had served 
as a deterrent to importers. The Minister 
stated that where departmental appraisers 
had increased the invoice value of an 
imported product, Canadian manufacturers 
had benefited. He told the House that 
clothing imports have declined and that 
higher valuations for customs duties are 
being assessed on them. 

In reply to Mr. J. M. Macdonnell 
(Greenwood), Mr. McCann stated that 26 
additional appraisers had been hired by 
the Government to examine the prices of 
foreign exporters. He noted that they 
were at present working in the United 
States and the United Kingdom and that 
communications were under way with other 
countries with a view to having Canadian 
appraisers accepted there. 

Other speakers in the debate included 
Mr. C. Gillis (Cape Breton South), Mr. 
A. M. Nicholson (Mackenzie), the Hon. 
Walter Harris, Minister of Citizenship and 
Immigration, Mr. George Drew, Leader of 
the Opposition, Mr. G. W. Montgomery 
(Victoria-Carleton), Mr. C. O. Nickle 
(Calgary South) and Mr. Donald M. 
Fleming (Eglinton). 

Industrial Relations 

June 8 

Mr. Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg North 
Centre) moved the second reading of Bill 
No. 466, to amend the Industrial Relations 
and Disputes Investigation Act. Mr. 
Knowles explained that his bill was in the 
nature of an amendment to the federal 
labour Act in order to clear up an 
ambiguity concerning the laying of an 



952 



information and complaint under the Act. 
Mr. Knowles added that a recent decision 
by the Manitoba Court of Queen's Bench 
had highlighted this ambiguity and that 
the Manitoba Labour Relations Act con- 
cerning the laying of a complaint and 
information was identical to the federal 
statute. 

Speaking for the Minister of Labour, the 
Hon. Paul Martin, Minister of National 
Health and Welfare, stated that it was 
the Government's intention to await the 
appeal of the Manitoba decision before 
taking any final action. 

Seamen's Training 

June 11 

Mr. Howard Green (Vancouver-Quadra) 
asked the Hon. Lionel Chevrier, Minister 
of Transport, if the Government was con- 
sidering establishing a vocational training 
plan for seamen who had become unem- 
ployed due to their ships' registry being 
transferred from Canada to that of the 
United Kingdom. Mr. Chevrier replied 
that no such scheme existed but pointed 
out that under a provincial-federal agree- 
ment, through the Department of Labour, 
training is provided for persons in various 
trades. 

Mr. Green noted that placing unem- 
ployed seamen under ordinary vocational 
training programs would work a hardship 
on them as some of the provinces have 
not agreed to this and also that in British 
Columbia trainees apparently do not 
receive allowances while in training. Mr. 
Chevrier stated that he would bring the 
matter to the attention of the Minister 
of Labour. 

Health Insurance 

June 19 

In reply to several speeches made in 
the House concerning a national health 
program, the Hon. Paul Martin, Minister 
of National Health and Welfare, stated 
that his department has been making 
studies of costs situations in Canada as 
well as in the United Kingdom and the 
Scandinavian countries. In addition, the 
department was discussing voluntary plans 
that are carried on outside the auspices of 
the Government, the Minister noted. 

Mr. Martin went on to state that so far 
as the provinces were concerned, he knew 
of only one provincial government that 
would be prepared to embark on a national 
health insurance scheme. 

Mr. Martin referred to a speech made 
by Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent on 
July 9, 1953, in which it was stated that 



the Liberal party was committed to sup- 
port a policy of contributory health insur- 
ance to be administered by the provinces. 
In addition, the Prime Minister's speech 
pointed out that this scheme depended 
upon the provincial governments taking the 
initiative in working out health plans 
adapted to local conditions. 

Unemployment 

June 24 

Speaking during the debate on the esti- 
mates for his department, the Hon. Milton 
F. Gregg, Minister of Labour, stated that 
in the fiscal year 1952-53, the number of 
claims for unemployment insurance was 17 
per cent higher than in the fiscal year 
1951-52. He added that the number claim- 
ing benefits in the 12 months ending in 
March of this year was about 25 per cent 
greater than in the corresponding period 
of the previous fiscal year. 

Referring specifically to the unemploy- 
ment situation, the Minister stated that 
his department was taking "a very serious 
and continuous look" at the Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Act in the light of experi- 
ence gained during the past winter. He 
referred to the past winter as "the first 
time anything approaching a severe test 
of the effectiveness of the Unemployment 
Insurance Act has occurred". 

The Minister admitted that the total 
number of unemployed has been large and 
that the Government has been greatly con- 
cerned about it. He expressed the hope 
that the administration of the Act had 
"softened the really heavy sting of hard- 
ship during the seasonal unemployment of 
this past winter". 

Among those participating in the debate 
were: Mrs. Ellen Fairclough (Hamilton 
West), Mr. Clarence Gillis (Cape Breton 
South), Mr. Roland Michener (St. Paul's), 
Mr. E. G. Hansell (Macleod), Mr. 
J. W. Noseworthy (York South), Mr. 
Michael Starr (Ontario), Mr. W. B. 
Nesbitt (Oxford), Mr. George Drew, 
Leader of the Opposition, Mr. Stanley 
Knowles (Winnipeg North Centre), the 
Hon. Walter Harris, Minister of Citizen- 
ship and Immigration, the Hon. J. J. 
McCann, Minister of National Revenue, 
Mr. J. M. Macdonnell (Greenwood), Mr. 
Gordon Churchill (Winnipeg South Centre), 
Mr. G. W. Montgomery (Victoria- 
Carleton), Mr. H. W. Herridge (Kootenay 
West), Mr. L. E. Cardiff (Huron), Mr. 
E. D. Fulton (Kamloops), Mr. T. S. 
Barnett (Comox-Alberni), Mr. J. Pallett 
(Peel) and Mr. C. W. Carter (Burin- 
Burgeo). 



953 



Highlights of Labour Laws Enacted 
by Provincial Legislatures in 1954 

New Labour Relations Act passed in British Columbia; Acts amended in 
four other provinces. Higher benefits and extended coverage provided 
in revision of British Columbia Workmen's Compensation Act. New 
Brunswick passes new vacations with pay and weekly rest legislation 



At the 1954 sessions of the provincial 
Legislatures, the most important changes 
in labour legislation were in the field of 
labour relations. In British Columbia, a 
new Labour Relations Act was passed, 
replacing the former Industrial Concilia- 
tion and Arbitration Act and giving to 
the Minister of Labour many of the 
powers and responsibilities formerly vested 
in the Labour Relations Board. 

Many significant amendments were made 
to Part V of the Alberta Labour Act, 
which deals with conciliation and arbitra- 
tion. One new feature of the Act as 
amended is that the Board of Industrial 
Relations is given authority to "suspend" 
the certification of a bargaining agent 
where it is satisfied that it no longer repre- 
sents the majority of the employees in the 
bargaining unit. 

Changes were also made in the Acts of 
Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan. In 
Ontario, the changes were designed to 
shorten the period in which bargaining 
and conciliation proceedings are carried on. 
The Quebec Legislature provided for the 
decertification of a union if any of its 
officers or organizers are Communists. In 
Saskatchewan, pension rights of employees 
involved in a legal strike or lockout are 
protected by an amendment to the Trade 
L'nion Act. 

Manitoba enacted a new law to provide 
for compulsory arbitration in a dispute 
between a municipality and a certified 
union of firefighters. 

As regards other changes, amendments 
to workmen's compensation laws were of 
next importance. Five Acts were amended. 
In British Columbia, the rate of compen- 
sation for disability was raised from 70 to 
75 per cent and the ceiling on yearly 
earnings was increased from $3,600 to $4,000. 
Of particular interest were the increases 
allowed in the disability pensions of per- 
sons injured before March 1943. Coverage 
was extended in British Columbia and also 
in Nova Scotia, where a new consolida- 
tion of the Workmen's Compensation Act 
was adopted. 



A new Vacation Pay Act was enacted in 
New Brunswick, requiring a week's vaca- 
tion with pay to be given after a year's 
service in the construction and mining in- 
dustries. The New Brunswick Legislature 
also enacted a new Weekly Rest Period 
Act. , 

Ontario enacted a new type of safety 
law to provide protection for persons work- 
ing in trench excavation. 

The first law of its kind in Canada, the 
Fair Accommodation Practices Act was 
passed in Ontario, prohibiting discrimina- 
tion because of race or creed in public 
places. 

Most provinces enacted enabling legisla- 
tion to take advantage of the federal- 
provincial scheme of pensions for disabled 
persons. 

LABOUR RELATIONS 

British Columbia 

The British Columbia Legislature enacted 
an entirely new Act, the Labour Relations 
Act, which was proclaimed in force on 
June 16, replacing the Industrial Concilia- 
tion and Arbitration Act. At the same time 
the Minister of Labour announced that the 
new Act would be administered by the 
Board of Industrial Relations, the Board 
which presently administers hours, annual 
holidays, minimum wage and equal pay 
legislation. 

One of the main differences between the 
new and the former legislation is that in 
matters concerning the appointment of con- 
ciliation officers, conciliation boards and 
mediation committees the Minister is vested 
with the authority which under the ICA 
Act was vested in the Labour Relations 
Board. In this regard the British Columbia 
Act is now like the federal Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act and 
like the labour relations Acts of most of 
the other provinces. 

A further new feature, designed to in- 
crease the effectiveness of the conciliation 
service, is the new status given to the 
conciliation officer's recommendations, p'er- 



954 



mitting them to be substituted for the 
report of a conciliation board in any case 
where the conciliation officer advises, and 
the Minister in his discretion agrees, that a 
conciliation board should not be appointed. 
In such circumstances the conciliation 
officer's recommendations concerning the 
matters in dispute will be sent to the 
parties and, in the same manner as the 
report of a conciliation board, must be 
submitted to a vote of the employees 
affected. A new section sets a limit of 18 
days in which the parties are to notify the 
Minister of their acceptance or rejection 
of the recommendations or report. 

Replacing the section giving to the 
Labour Relations Board authority to decer- 
tify a union representing employees who 
had gone on strike contrary to the Act, a 
new provision, similar to one in the Alberta 
Labour Act, was enacted. It permits the 
reference of a strike to a Judge of the 
Supreme Court, who has the power to 
revoke the union's certification, check-off 
arrangement and the collective agreement 
to which it is a party if he finds a strike 
was illegal. Before making his adjudica- 
tion, the Judge may hold a hearing, at 
which the employer and the employees may 
be represented, and procure the attendance 
of witnesses. By an amendment added in 
passage, it was provided, however, that the 
Judge "may make any one of the said 
declarations", that is, may declare any one 
of the three — collective agreement, check- 
off or certification — null and void. In the 
Alberta Act, a trade union is made liable 
to a fine not exceeding one dollar a day 
for each person participating in a strike 
which a Judge has declared illegal. 

In addition to these more significant 
changes, a considerable number of other 
amendments were made. Sections of the 
repealed Act which were out of context 
were placed in more appropriate divisions, 
and others were re-worded so as to be 
more easily understood and interpreted. 
The new Act makes no reference to the 
terms "bargaining agent", "bargaining 
authority" and "labour organization", using 
"trade union" throughout. 

"Collective agreement" is defined to in- 
clude an agreement to which an uncertified 
union is a party as well as one made with 
a certified union. The effect of this is to 
make the legislation applicable to relations 
between an employer and a trade union, 
whether or not the union is certified. The 
stipulation is added, however, that an 
agreement entered into by an uncertified 
union is to be deemed a collective agree- 
ment only if it has been ratified by a 
majority of the employees affected. 



The Act recognizes the right of every 
employee to be a member of a trade union 
but the clause "in which he is eligible for 
membership" was eliminated. This clause, 
which permitted the Board to look at a 
union constitution in deciding whether or 
not it should represent a particular group 
of workers, was objected to by organized 
labour. 

An application for certification of a trade 
union may be made under the same condi- 
tions as before, except that, in order to 
take account of (and encourage) agreements 
for a longer term than one year as well 
as agreements of one year's duration, the 
Act now states that, where an agreement 
is in effect, an application may be made 
during the last two months of its term or 
during the last two months in each year 
of its term. 

Certification of a craft union is made 
somewhat easier in the new Act. The 
former Act limited such certification by 
the words "if in the opinion of the Board 
it is in accordance with established trade- 
union practice". These words were struck 
out. 

It is now expressly stated that, in dealing 
with an application for certification, the 
Board is to consider the number of mem- 
bers in good standing of the trade union 
applying at the date of the application. In 
determining the employees "eligible to 
vote" in a representation vote, the Board 
may not count those who are absent from 
work and do not cast their ballots. In 
this provision, the British Columbia Act is 
like that of Ontario. In Alberta, the Board 
has authority to make a similar ruling. 
The British Columbia Board may lay down 
further details of procedure for conducting 
a representation vote in regulations, which 
may include definitions of the expressions 
"representation vote" and "eligible to vote". 

Strikes and lockouts are prohibited where 
an application for certification is pending, 
and an employer may not increase or 
decrease rates of pay or alter any term 
or condition of employment during this 
period, without the written permission of 
the Board. 

A change with respect to collective 
bargaining for the revision "or the renewal 
of a collective agreement is that notice 
to bargain in such circumstances is to be 
given "within three months and not less 
than two months immediately preceding 
the date of expiry of the agreement", that 
is, in the third month before the date of 
expiry. In the earlier legislation, notice 
was to be given during the last two months 
of the agreement. 



955 



By and large, the provisions setting out 
the conditions under which strikes and 
lockouts are illegal are the same as in 
the earlier Act but two new conditions are 
added. 

Where a pre-strike vote has been held 
(this is compulsory in British Columbia) 
and the vote (by secret ballot of all the 
employees in the unit affected) is in favour 
of a strike, unless otherwise agreed in 
writing between the parties, the strike is 
prohibited except during the three months 
following the date of the strike vote. The 
ttd new condition is that the employer 
must be given 48 hours' written notice by 
the trade union that the employees are 
going to strike. 

Government supervision of all strike 
votes is no longer required. The provision 
requiring the Labour Relations Board to 
supervise the taking and counting of the 
vote (a provision to which exception was 
taken by organized labour) was replaced 
by a section which authorizes the Min- 
ister to appoint a person to conduct the 
taking and counting of the vote only at 
the request of either party to the dispute. 
The former provision for a supervised vote 
on an offer of settlement during a strike 
or lockout was removed. 

The former provision requiring the con- 
sent of the Board for a prosecution under 
the Act did not appear in the Bill as 
introduced but was added by an amend- 
ment. 

Alberta 

The Alberta Labour Act, 1947, the 
omnibus Act which deals with hours of 
work, minimum wages, labour welfare, 
industrial standards and conciliation and 
arbitration, and which applies to all persons 
who are either employees or employers 
within the province other than farm 
labourers or domestic servants and their 
employers, was opened up for amendment 
for the first time since 1950. 

Following the procedure adopted in 
1949, representatives of organized labour, 
employers' organizations and the public met 
with Government officials in the summer of 
1953 to discuss suggested changes in the 
Act. Most of the legislative proposals con- 
curred in by the conference met with the 
approval of the Legislature and were 
embodied in the 1954 amendments to the 
Act. 

By far the most significant amendments 
were made in Part V, which deals with 
conciliation and arbitration. Among these 
were provisions replacing the former Sec- 
tion 59 and setting out in logical order 
the procedure for the certification of a 
bargaining agent, providing for the suspen- 



sion of the certificate of a bargaining agent, 
stipulating that the acceptance or rejection 
of the report of an arbitration (concilia- 
tion) board should be decided by the 
majority vote of the employees voting, and 
those designed to encourage longer-term 
collective agreements. Section 82b, which 
made an existing collective agreement and 
check-off authorization null and void where 
the employes belonging to a union have 
participated in a strike declared to be 
illegal by a Judge of the Supreme Court, 
was repealed. 

The new Sections 59a-59n, which set out 
certification procedure and the new provi- 
sion for suspension of a bargaining certifi- 
cate, first provide that "where they have 
no bargaining agent, the employees of 
an employer in a unit that is appropriate 
for collective bargaining may elect a 
bargaining agent by a majority vote of the 
employees in the unit". "Unit", not 
previously defined, is now stated to mean 
a group of employees of an employer 
whether or not it is a craft group, tech- 
nical group, industrial or plant group, or 
any other group. In disposing of an 
application for certification, the Board may 
add employees to or exclude employees 
from a unit which an applicant claims to 
be an appropriate one for collective 
bargaining. 

In prescribing the time when a trade 
union may apply for certification, a dis- 
tinction is made between the situation 
where a collective agreement for a term 
of a year is in force and the situation 
where the agreement is for, or provides 
for its continuation for, a term longer than 
one year. As is usual where the agree- 
ment is for one year, an application may 
be made "after and not before" the expira- 
tion of 10 months of its term. In the 
second case, the union may apply during 
the eleventh or twelfth month of the first 
year of the term of the agreement and 
of any subsequent year of its term or 
continuation. 

A provision which is new in the Alberta 
Act permits a joint application by two or 
more trade unions of the same craft or of 
a group exercising the same technical skills. 
In such case the provisions of the Act 
apply as if the application had been made 
by one union. 

The duties and powers of the Board in 
determining the merits of an application 
and the conditions under which it will 
certify an applicant are substantially the 
same as before except that the Act sets 
out more expressly the methods by which 
the Board decides whether a majority of 
the employees in the unit have selected 



956 



the applicant as their bargaining agent. 
These are: (1) by membership in good 
standing according to the constitution and 
by-laws of the applicant, or (2) by the 
result of a vote conducted or supervised 
by the Board. 

The former provision which permitted 
all employees who had been bona fide 
members of a trade union for three months 
or more or who had been employed in 
the class of employment in the industry 
for at least three months to vote in a 
representation vote was struck out. Instead, 
the Board is now authorized to fix a date 
from which the list of employees entitled 
to vote can be determined. In determin- 
ing the employees who are entitled to vote 
it may delete from the list those who are 
absent from work on the day of the vote 
and who do not cast a vote because of 
illness, authorized leave, annual holiday or 
weekly day of rest. 

Where the Board needs a longer time 
to make inquiries into any application, it 
may take a further seven days, in addition 
to the usual 21 days allowed, to complete 
its inquiries. Both periods are exclusive 
of holidays. 

Where a new bargaining agent is certi- 
fied for a unit of employees for whom a 
collective agreement is in effect, the newly 
certified union becomes a party to the 
agreement in place of the former bargain- 
ing agent. In so far as it applies to the 
employees in the unit, the agreement may 
"be terminated at any time by the mutual 
consent of the employer and the new party 
or, if the agreement provides for its con- 
tinuation from year to year, at any time 
after it has been in force for 10 months 
on two months' notice, or, where the agree- 
ment is for a term of two years or more, 
at the end of the second or a subsequent 
year on two months' notice. 

Previous to the 1954 amendments there 
~was no provision in the Alberta Labour 
Act regarding the decertification of a union. 
Provision is now made for the "suspen- 
sion" of the certification of a bargaining 
agent where the Board is satisfied that a 
majority of the employees in the unit no 
longer wish to be represented by it. An 
application for the suspension of certifica- 
tion may not be made during the first 
10 months following certification but it 
may be made at any time thereafter. In 
dealing with such an application, the 
"Board is to follow the same procedure 
of investigation as with an application for 
certification. 

An employer is not required to bargain 
vwith a suspended bargaining agent but a 



collective agreement in effect at the time 
of the suspension remains in force. 

A suspended bargaining agent may apply 
to tire Board for removal of the suspen- 
sion of its certification and if, after inquiry, 
the Board finds that the majority of the 
employees in the unit wish the suspended 
bargaining agent to represent them in 
collective bargaining, it may remove the 
suspension. If, however, the application is 
refused, the union may not apply again for 
three months, unless it receives special 
permission from the Board. The same time 
limit of three months applies to subse- 
quent applications for certification or for 
"suspension" where an earlier request has 
been refused. The rule is laid down that 
the date of making an application is to 
be deemed the date the application is 
received by the Board. 

The Alberta provision for suspension of 
the certification of a trade union is new 
in labour relations Acts in Canada but the 
federal Act and at least six of the pro- 
vincial Acts provide for cancellation of 
certification. 

The only change with respect to collec- 
tive bargaining is that a notice to begin 
negotiations is to be served at least five 
clear days before the meeting, instead of 
three, as before. The provisions regarding 
conciliation services were also unchanged 
except that those sections which formerly 
provided for the mediation of a dispute 
by the Board of Industrial Relations at 
request of the Minister were struck out. A 
small change is that the recommendations 
of a conciliation commissioner (officer) 
contained in his report to the Board with 
respect to the matters on which the parties 
cannot agree are to be submitted to the 
parties for their consideration. 

The award of a board of arbitration, 
which is not binding but merely contains 
recommendations for settlement of the 
dispute, is voted upon by the employees 
directly affected, who may accept or reject 
it upon a majority vote of the employees 
voting in a secret ballot, which may be 
supervised by the Board. The acceptance 
or rejection of the awards of such boards 
has previously been decided on the basis 
of a majority of those entitled to vote. 
Where the parties notify the Minister in 
writing before a board makes its award or. 
under the revised provisions, before the 
date set by the Minister for the taking 
of the vote, that they will accept the 
award, it is binding on the parties, who 
must give effect to it without submitting 
it to a vote and include its terms in a 
collective agreement. 



957 



The Act now sets out more express 
provisions for the termination of a collec- 
tive agreement which is for a specified term 
of more than one year. It states that 
such an agreement must either contain or 
be deemed to contain a provision for its 
termination after the first year by mutual 
consent of the parties, or at the end of 
the second or any subsequent year by at 
least two months' notice by either party. 

A collective agreement entered into by 
a bargaining agent, whether certified or not, 
and an employer is binding upon the 
bargaining agent, the employer and all the 
employees in the unit. This provision 
before amendment was applicable only to 
a certified bargaining agent. Penalties are 
now provided for contravention of the 
section which deals with the binding 
effects of collective agreements. 

In order to prevent an employer from 
exerting undue influence on his employees 
before the taking of a vote by the Board, 
a new subsection was added to the unfair 
labour practices sections, prohibiting the 
employer from altering any of the condi- 
tions of employment or giving effect to 
any change in wages or hours of work at 
any time during the period between the 
date of application for certification and 
the date the application is disposed of. 

The provision making it an unfair labour 
practice for an employer to contribute 
financial or other support to a trade union 
was modified to permit the employer to 
make donations to a welfare fund for trade 
union members and their families. 

Ontario 

A number of significant amendments to 
the Ontario Labour Relations Act, the 
first since the Act was passed in 1950, 
were made with the intent of improving 
certain administrative practices and par- 
ticularly for the purpose of reducing delays 
in conciliation procedures. The Minister 
of Labour stated that his Department had 
received more representations regarding this 
feature of the Act than any other. He 
felt that, while experience had indicated 
the need for some changes, the amendments 
did not disturb the basic framework or 
principles upon which the legislation is 
founded. 

Through three changes in the time limits 
in which certain steps are to be taken 
under the Act, the bargaining and con- 
ciliation process has been considerably 
shortened. The time limit for collective 
bargaining to begin, after notice has 
been given, was reduced from 20 to 15 
days, and, beginning from date of notice, 



the period during which bargaining must 
continue before an application for con- 
ciliation services may be made is now 
35 instead of 50 days. The time allowed 
for the parties to nominate members 
of a conciliation board was reduced from 
seven to five days, and the two members 
have three days instead of five in which 
to decide on a chairman. 

Another change with respect to con- 
ciliation is that a provision was added to 
give the Minister power not to appoint 
a conciliation board where he considers it 
would serve no useful purpose. The Min- 
ister had discretionary power to appoint or 
not to appoint a board under earlier legis- 
lation but the provision was dropped in 
1950. 

A new feature of the Act, introduced for 
the purpose of facilitating bargaining 
between employers and groups of trade 
unions, particularly in the construction 
industry, is its recognition of a "council 
of trade unions". The term is defined to 
include an allied council, a trades council, 
a joint board or any other association of 
trade unions. The Minister explained, in 
discussing this provision in the Legislature, 
that councils of trade unions are not given 
the right to apply for certification but that 
bargaining by such councils will be acknowl- 
edged and protection under the legislation 
given to their agreements. 

As under other provincial labour rela- 
tions Acts, the Ontario Labour Relations 
Board has authority to determine the 
appropriateness of the bargaining unit. By 
an amendment, it is now given discretion 
to hold a vote of any of the employees to 
determine their wishes as to whether or not 
they should be included in the bargaining 
unit. 

By a further amendment, the Board may 
include in a craft unit persons who are 
employed with skilled craftsmen, "persons 
who according to established trade union 
practice are commonly associated in their 
work and bargaining with such group". For 
example, this would allow the inclusion in 
a unit of operating engineers of the coal 
drivers who normally work with them. 

A new* provision added to those setting 
out the general powers and duties of the 
Board gives the Board power to determine 
the form in which evidence of member- 
ship in a trade union shall be presented 
to the Board. Similarly, the Board may 
determine the form in which employees 
will file objection to certification by a trade 
union and the form of notification by 
employees that they no longer wish to be^ 
represented by a trade union. 



958 



Of the further amendments, two provide 
protection to bargaining rights. A new 
section prohibits an employer from bar- 
gaining with or signing a collective agree- 
ment with "any person or other trade 
union" so long as a trade union continues 
to be entitled to represent the employees 
in the bargaining unit. Similarly, no trade 
union may bargain or enter into an agree- 
ment with an employer so long as another 
trade union has bargaining rights. 

The Act provides that if a union does 
not make a collective agreement within a 
year after its certification, any of the 
employees in the unit may apply to the 
Board for a declaration that the union no 
longer represents the employees in the unit. 
A new subsection was added to state that, 
if a union has not signed an agreement 
within one year of certification, but if 
it has notified the employer of its desire 
to bargain and the Board has granted a 
request for conciliation services, no appli- 
cation for decertification may be made 
unless a conciliation board has been 
appointed and 30 days have elapsed after 
it has made its report or 30 days have 
elapsed after the Minister has informed 
the parties that he has decided not to 
appoint a conciliation board. 

An amendment designed to speed up 
arbitration proceedings in a disagreement 
arising out of the terms of a collective 
agreement enables the Minister to appoint 
arbitrators at the request of either party, 
if the parties themselves fail to do so. 

Finally, the provision forbidding any 
alteration of working conditions during 
negotiation of a collective agreement and 
conciliation proceedings, unless with the 
consent of the trade union, was made to 
apply to both trade union and employer. 
It previously applied only to employers. 

Quebec 

The Quebec Labour Relations Act was 
amended, retrospective to the date the Act 
went into effect in 1944, to provide that 
a union which has any officer or organizer 
who belongs to a Communist party or 
movement is not eligible to be recognized 
as a bargaining agent. The Labour Rela- 
tions Board must refuse an application for 
certification made by such a union or 
revoke its certificate, if already granted. 

The Board is required, before giving a 
decision in a matter affecting an associa- 
tion, to hold a hearing and to give the 
interested parties five days' notice of its 
time and place. The Attorney-General has 
been given power to take part in any such 
proceeding before the Board. 



If a union of employees of a school 
corporation, a hospital or charitable insti- 
tution or a public utility service goes on 
strike,, it will automatically lose its certi- 
fication as bargaining agent. This penalty 
was provided for in an amendment to the 
Public Services Employees Disputes Act, the 
legislation which prohibits all strikes and 
lockouts in public services, providing in- 
stead for the settlement of disputes by 
arbitration. This amendment, too, was 
made retroactive to 1944. 

Saskatchewan 

An amendment to the Saskatchewan 
Trade Union Act makes it an unfair labour 
practice for an employer or his agent to 
deprive or threaten to deprive an employee 
of any pension rights or other benefits 
because he ceases to work as the result 
of a lockout enforced by the employer or 
a strike called in accordance with the Act 
by the trade union representing the 
employee, or exercises any right conferred 
by the Act. The federal Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act and 
the labour relations Acts of Alberta, New 
Brunswick and Newfoundland contain a 
similar provision. 

Another amendment to the Saskatchewan 
Act provides that the Labour Relations 
Board in dealing with a union's application 
for certification has discretion to refuse to 
receive evidence regarding any matter or 
event happening after the date on which 
the application was filed with the Board. 
Both amendments became effective on 
May 1. 

Manitoba 

Manitoba has enacted legislation similar 
to that in effect in Quebec, Ontario, 
Saskatchewan, Alberta and British 
Columbia, providing for the arbitration of 
disputes between a municipality and its 
firefighters who by the nature of their 
responsibilities and the requirements of 
their union constitutions may not partici- 
pate in a strike. 

The Fire Departments Arbitration Act 
empowers the Minister of Labour in a 
dispute between a municipality and a 
certified union of firemen to establish an 
arbitration board to formulate a collective 
agreement, or effect the renewal or revi- 
sion of an existing agreement between the 
parties, if he is satisfied that collective 
bargaining has been carried on in good 
faith but that a settlement of the dispute 
within a reasonable time appears unlikely. 
If the arbitration board fails to formulate 
an agreement satisfactory to both parties, 



959 



it is required to make an award, which 
will be binding on both parties, setting out 
the manner in which the matters in dispute 
must be settled. 

The Act applies only to a certified union 
which has a clause in its constitution pro- 
hibiting a strike. The Act also declares 
that no fireman may strike and that no 
municipality may cause a lockout of 
firemen. 

WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION 

Only five Workmen's Compensation Acts 
were amended — those of British Columbia, 
Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario and 
Saskatchewan. In addition, a small amend- 
ment was made to the Saskatchewan 
individual liability statute which is appli- 
cable to a few classes of railway workers. 
A new Act to provide compensation for 
members of the Legislative Assembly in 
the event of accidental death or total 
disability was passed in Alberta. 

British Columbia 

In British Columbia, amendments 
amounting to a substantial revision of 
the Workmen's Compensation Act imple- 
mented many of the recommendations of 
the Sloan Royal Commission Report not 
dealt with in the amendments made in 
1952. 

The 1954 revision, made after continued 
study and consultations with employers' 
and workers' organizations over the past 
two years, provided for extended coverage, 
an increase in the scale of benefits for 
disability, greater emphasis on physical 
impairment in calculating pension awards, 
higher pensions for pensioners who suffered 
disabilities before March 1943, extension 
of medical aid and treatment, an appeal 
formula for contested medical cases, and 
other changes. 

As regards coverage, a "learner" who is 
not actually employed but is undergoing 
training or doing probationary work in 
preparation for future employment is now 
deemed a "workman" under the Act. 
Municipal firefighters working with or with- 
out remuneration were also given coverage. 

As recommended by Chief Justice Sloan, 
domestic servants were brought under the 
Act on an elective basis, that is, an 
employer of a domestic servant or a 
domestic servant may apply for and be 
granted the protection of the Act. 

By a new provision, an independent 
operator "not being an employer or a 
workman but performing work of a nature 
which, if he were a workman, would be 
within the scope of this Part" may be 



brought under the Act on application. 
This provision would appear to cover 
commercial fishermen who had strongly 
pressed for coverage. 

Two important changes were the in- 
crease from 70 to 75 in the percentage 
rate of average earnings taken in com- 
puting compensation for disability and the 
increase from $3,600 to $4,000 in the 
maximum yearly earnings on which com- 
pensation is calculated. The percentage 
rate was raised from 66| to 70 and the 
ceiling on yearly earnings from $2,500 to 
$3,600 in 1952 following the recom- 
mendations of the Sloan Report. British 
Columbia, Ontario and Saskatchewan are 
the only provinces with a $4,000 ceiling 
on earnings. In four other provinces 
besides British Columbia, the rate of com- 
pensation is 75 per cent. 

In addition to the provisions already 
noted, w T hich will permit higher compen- 
sation awards to present-day workmen who 
are injured in their employment, the 
Legislature provided for an increase in the 
benefits of those workmen who suffered 
permanent disability before March 18, 1943, 
when earnings and rates of compensation 
were very much lower than they are at 
present. In the original Act of 1916 the 
rate of compensation was 55 per cent. 
This was increased to 62J in 1935 and to 
66f per cent in 1938. 

Increases in pensions are to begin from 
January 1, 1955. For a person receiving 
compensation for permanent total dis- 
ability incurred before March 18, 1943, the 
compensation rate is to be 66-f per cent 
and the earnings on which compensation 
is based are to be his actual average earn- 
ings at the time of the accident. These, 
however, are not to be taken as less than 
$2,000 and may not be more than $2,500. 
Compensation for permanent partial dis- 
ability is to be re-calculated on a 
comparable basis. 

There are two alternative methods which 
may be used by Workmen's Compensation 
Boards in calculating compensation awards 
in permanent partial disability cases. One 
is to award compensation solely on the 
basis of physical impairment, using a 
rating schedule (for example, loss of an 
arm might represent a 76 per cent impair- 
ment of earning capacity) and the other 
is to calculate awards on the basis of loss 
of earnings. Chief Justice Sloan recom- 
mended an amendment to the Act to give 
statutory authority to the Board to use 
the former method, that is, to base com- 
pensation on physical impairment, which, 
he stated, the British Columbia Board and 
other provincial boards normally used. 



960 



This amendment has now been made. 
However, the Board has authority, if it 
considers it more equitable, to base awards 
on difference in earnings before and after 
the injury. The latter method was 
previously given priority in the Act. 

Three new industrial diseases — occupa- 
tional deafness and injury to the lungs and 
injury to the heart as a result of fire- 
fighting — were added to the schedule. The 
Act also provides for medical examination 
of workmen who are exposed to dust con- 
ditions in their employment. It states 
that when an industrial disease is of such 
a nature that its presence is evidenced 
by specific X-ray appearance, the Board 
may require an employer in an industry 
to which the disease applies to have any 
or all of his workmen medically examined 
at least once a year. Further, the Board 
may require an employer to employ only 
such workmen as have been found on the 
examination to be physically suited for 
employment in the industry. This new 
provision is in addition to the clauses 
regarding silicosis already in the Act. 

Again following the Sloan recommenda- 
tions, certain conditions which tended to 
restrict the payment of compensation in 
hernia cases were removed. These required 
the workman to be operated on, if an 
operation was considered surgically advis- 
able, within two weeks of the occurrence 
of the hernia, and limited the period during 
which compensation could be paid for 
uncomplicated hernia to seven days before 
an operation and 42 days afterwards. The 
Board will now have discretion to pay 
for any period of disablement which it 
considers proper. 

Treatment of an injured workman by 
a chiropractor, chiropodist, naturopath or 
dentist (termed "qualified practitioners" in 
the Act) on the same terms as a physician 
was provided for. Since 1943, the Act has 
permitted the Board to pay for treatment 
by "persons authorized to treat human 
ailments" but such treatment has been 
subject to certain restriction with respect 
to supervision by the Board. These 
restrictions are now removed. The Act 
makes it clear, however, that any medical 
aid furnished by a physician or qualified 
practitioner is subject to the supervision 
and control of the Board. 

In the Sloan Report, much consideration 
was given to the question of referring 
controversial medical cases to an appeal 
tribunal and the Commissioner recom- 
mended that, in addition to the usual 
system of referral to individual specialists, 
an impartial Medical Appeal Board of 
three doctors should be established. 



In the 1954 amendments, provision was 
made for an appeal from a Board decision 
much in the manner of the Alberta Act. 
On the written request of any workman 
who disagrees with the findings of the 
Board's medical staff, the Board is required 
to arrange for him to be examined by 
two specialists — one to be appointed by 
the workman, the other by the Board — 
from a panel of not less than three 
previously nominated by a duly recognized 
medical association. Their joint signed 
decision (which is to be sent to the work- 
man) is, unless the Board at any time 
directs otherwise, to be final and conclusive. 
All costs are to be borne by the Accident 
Fund. 

A new provision was added regarding 
medical aid for seamen. Normally, medical 
aid is not payable from the Accident Fund 
to a seaman for any period during which 
he is eligible for medical care under the 
Canada Shipping Act. The new section 
gives the Board discretion to pay medical 
costs if it happens that the seaman, for 
reasons beyond his control, cannot get 
"prompt, necessary or emergent medical 
care" from the Sick Mariners' Fund under 
the Canada Shipping Act. 

A few further changes have to do with 
the Workmen's Compensation Board. The 
Board is authorized to raise the funds 
required for the Accident Fund by assess- 
ing employers on the basis of "a unit of 
production" as an alternative to the present 
method of assessment upon the employer's 
payroll. It is stipulated that the estab- 
lished practice of assessment and levy is 
to be varied only with the approval of the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 

As regards the inspection work of the 
Board, an inspector must, following an 
inspection, post an inspection report in a 
conspicuous place at or near the mine, 
works or establishment and furnish a copy 
of this statement to the manager. This 
is a requirement with which mines in- 
spectors must comply under B.C. mines 
legislation. 

The authority of the Board was extended 
by increasing from $50 to $300 the 
maximum penalty for non-observance of 
any of its safety or other regulations. 
Chief Justice Sloan recommended an 
increase to a maximum of $500. 

The provision for a ten-year tenure of 
office for members of the Board was 
removed and, as with most other Work- 
men's Compensation Boards in Canada, 
members are to hold office during the 
pleasure of the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council. As before, they must retire at 



961 



70. Salaries of members arc no longer set 
out in the Act but arc to be fixed by the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 

Closer tics with the Department of 
Labour arc provided for in that for the 
first time the annual report of the Board 
is to be submitted to the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council by the Minister of 
Labour. Further, statutory provision is 
made for a "Compensation Counsellor", an 
official of the Department of Labour 
appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council to help and advise injured work- 
men concerning workmen's compensation 
problems. A Compensation Counsellor was 
named as of September 15, 1953. Provision 
for a similar appointment was made in 
the revision of the Manitoba Act last year. 

Nova Scotia 

In Nova Scotia, a new consolidation of 
the Workmen's Compensation Act was 
adopted, the first since 1938. Through a 
general revision, embodying many small 
amendments, greatly improved arrangement 
of sections and the deletion of redundant 
and unused provisions, the Act is now 
more usable and up-to-date. No change 
was made in benefits. 

Of most importance, perhaps, was the 
fact that the coverage of the Act was 
extended by bringing within it, from 
January 1, 1955, the following industries 
not previously covered: hotels, restaurants, 
catering, dairies, wholesale and retail stores, 
broadcasting stations, manufacture, sale and 
distribution of artificial ice, peat process- 
ing, landscaping, and operation of bridges. 

All provisions relating to navigation were 
omitted, since the industry has for many 
years been excluded from the Act by 
regulation. 

In Nova Scotia, as in British Columbia 
and five other provinces, "learners" are now 
regarded as workmen under the Act. For 
compensation and assessment purposes, the 
average earnings of a learner are to be 
determined at an amount which the Board 
thinks fair. 

By another amendment, it was provided 
that compensation in respect of an invalid 
child of a deceased workman should be 
continued, without regard to the age of the 
child, until recovery or death. The earlier 
provision was that compensation was to be 
paid only as long as the Board considered 
that the workman would, if living, have 
contributed to the child's support. In 
recent years several provinces have made 
a. similar change in this provision. 

It was also provided that the amount 
which the Board may fix as the minimum 



assessment to be levied on an employer 
under the Act may not exceed $25. The 
amount specified was formerly $5. 

Silicosis was removed from the schedule 
of industrial diseases and a provision was 
added to the Act to state that, subject 
to certain conditions (principally, exposure 
to silica dust in employment in Nova 
Scotia for periods amounting to five years 
preceding disablement) a workman disabled 
by silicosis is entitled to compensation, 
medical aid and burial expenses as if the 
disease were a personal injury by accident 
and the disablement were the happening of 
the accident. 

A new provision requires a claim for 
compensation for disability due to silicosis 
to be filed while the workman is regularly 
employed in the industry in which he was 
exposed to silica dust or within three years 
after leaving such employment. This pro- 
vision is not to prevent the Board from 
paying a claim for uncomplicated silicosis 
if at the time of making the claim the 
claimant is a resident of Nova Scotia and 
has not been exposed to silica dust else- 
where. Compensation is not payable for 
any period of time previous to the filing 
of the claim. 

Newfoundland 

The Newfoundland Workmen's Com- 
pensation Act was amended to exclude 
from its operation executive officers or 
directors of corporations subject, however, 
to the provision that they may be 
admitted on application. 

Other amendments make the same change 
with respect to compensation for permanent 
partial disability as was made in British 
Columbia on the recommendation of Chief 
Justice Sloan. As amended, the Act now 
authorizes the Board to calculate compen- 
sation on the basis of loss of physical 
function, whereas previously it was 
required to compensate on a wage-loss 
basis. Using this method, the Board may 
compile a rating schedule of percentages 
of impairment of earning capacity for 
specified injuries. A workman who is found 
to have, for example, a 50 per cent impair- 
ment of earning capacity is awarded a 
pension based on this percentage of 66f 
per cent of his average earnings at the 
time of the accident. This pension will be 
unaffected by his subsequent earnings. 

As in British Columbia, the Board has 
discretion, where it considers it more 
equitable, to award as compensation two- 
thirds of the difference between the work- 
man's average wage at the time of the 
injury and his actual or potential wages 
after the accident. These amendments in 



962 



Newfoundland and British Columbia bring 
tin Acts into line with those of several 
other provinces, including Ontario and 
Saskatchewan. 

In a further amendment, the Newfound- 
land Board was given authority to make 
regulations, subject to the approval of the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council, providing 
for the establishment of a pension fund 
for the Board and its staff. It was also 
authorized to acquire property and to erect 
buildings as it deems necessary for its 
purposes. 

Ontario 

In Ontario, the amount which the 
Workmen's Compensation Board may 
spend in any calendar year for the reha- 
bilitation of injured workmen was in- 
creased from $100,000 to $200,000. In all 
provinces the Workmen's Compensation 
Boards are authorized to adopt any means 
considered expedient to lessen or remove 
physical handicaps resulting from injuries 
and to help in getting injured workmen 
placed in suitable work in keeping with 
the nature of their disabilities. Costs are 
paid from the Accident Fund. In six 
other provinces besides Ontario, annual 
expenditure for rehabilitation is limited to 
a definite amount fixed in the Act. In 
Alberta, British Columbia and Saskat- 
chewan, the amount is left to the discre- 
tion of the Board. 

Saskatchewan 

In Saskatchewan, locomotive engineers 
and maintenance of way employees have 
been brought under the Workmen's Com- 
pensation (Accident Fund) Act. When 
this Act was passed in 1929 providing for 
a collective liability system, railway 
workers engaged in train operation were 
exempted at their own request, preferring 
to remain under an earlier individual 
liability law. Provision was made that, on 
the holding of a vote which indicated that 
a majority of its members wished to receive 
compensation under the Accident Fund 
Act, a union of such railway workers could 
be admitted by order of the Board 
approved by the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council. 

The two groups noted above, locomotive 
engineers and maintenance of way 
employees, having been admitted by Order 
in Council in 1953 and 1954, the Act was 
amended accordingly. Since the amend- 
ments were made, the Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen voted to come under 
the collective liability system. Thus, most 
railway employees in the province are now 
under the Accident Fund Act. 



A minor amendment to both the 
Accident Fund Act and the individual 
liability statute with regard to "learners" 
is the same as one made to the Manitoba 
Act last year. The words restricting the 
training or probationary work required of 
learners to that "specified or stipulated by 
the employer" were deleted. 

Hearings were held during a review of 
the Accident Fund Act by a committee 
equally representative of employers and 
organized workers in February 1954. The 
Act requires such a review to be made 
every four years. 

Alberta 

A new Act in Alberta, the MLA Com- 
pensation Act, provides for the payment 
of benefits, on the same basis as compen- 
sation payable under the Alberta Work- 
men's Compensation Act, to members of 
the Legislative Assembly who are totally 
disabled by accident occurring while 
performing their duties as members, and to 
their dependants in case of accidental 
death. 

VACATIONS, HOURS, WAGES 

Vacations with Pay 

An annual vacation of at least one week 
with pay after a year's employment for 
employees in the construction and mining 
industries has been made compulsory in 
New Brunswick by a new Vacation Pay 
Act, the first vacation with pay statute 
in the province, The Act will come into 
force on proclamation; according to the 
Minister of Labour, this will probably not 
take place before 1955. 

New Brunswick is the seventh province 
to enact this type of legislation. As in 
four of the other provinces, it provides 
for a system of vacation with pay credit 
stamps for the benefit of employees who 
are not employed for a full year by the 
same employer; 225 working days or shifts 
are to be considered a year's employment. 
The vacation pay to be granted is two per 
cent of the employee's earnings. 

An employee who is entitled to a week's 
vacation with pay must be given his vaca- 
tion not later than four months after the 
end of the year in which he has earned 
it and he must be told at least a week in 
advance of the day on which his vacation 
will begin. 

Stamps may be cashed at any chartered 
bank after June 30 each year. A point 
of interest in connection with vacation 
stamps is that the Minister was authorized 
to make a reciprocal arrangement with any 



963 



other province whereby employees may 
cash in one province the stamps they have 
ed in another. 

Weekly Rest 

A weekly rest period of at least 24 
consecutive hours is now required for the 
fiftt time by law in New Brunswick. 
Seven other provinces have legislation of 
varying coverage making similar provision. 
The New Brunswick Weekly Rest Period 
Act. not yet proclaimed, applies to all 
employees other than farm workers, part- 
time workers, those required to cope with 
an emergency, and any group designated 
by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council as 
being outside the scope of the Act. An 
employer may be exempted from the Act 
by Order in Council. 

The 24-hour rest period is to be taken 
on Sunday, if possible. If a weekly rest 
is not practicable, an arrangement may be 
made, with the approval of the Minister 
of Labour, permitting the rest periods to 
accumulate and to be taken later, either 
part at a time or all together. 

Hours 

The only changes with respect to hours 
were amendments to the Hours of Work 
Act and to the overtime provisions of the 
Factories Act in Saskatchewan. 

Ordinarily, under the Hours of Work Act, 
time and one-half the regular rate must be 
paid for any work done in excess of 44 
hours in a week. An amendment to the 
Act, effective from May 1, provided that, 
in any week in which a public holiday 
occurs, time and one-half becomes payable 
after 36 hours. Eight public holidays must 
be observed and paid for in Saskatchewan. 
In calculating the time worked by an 
employee in a week in which a holiday 
occurs, no account is to be taken of time 
worked on the holiday. 

Under the Factories Act, the limits set 
for special overtime work by women and 
young persons under 18 years were reduced 
from 12i to 10 hours in a day and from 
72£ to 60 hours in a week. Such 
extended hours, which are permitted by 
the inspector only in emergencies to make 
up for time lost because of an accident or 
because of the customs or exigencies of 
certain trades, are restricted to 36 days 
in a year. Under normal circumstances, 
hours of women and young persons are 
limited to 48 in a week. 

Wages 

Minor amendments were made to the 
British Columbia Public Works Fair Wages 
and Conditions of Employment Act, an 



Act passed in 1951 which requires con- 
tractors carrying out public works contracts 
for the provincial Government to pay their 
workmen the wages generally accepted as 
current in the district in which the work 
is to be performed for the class of work 
in which the workmen are engaged. An 
amendment gives the Minister of Labour 
authority to determine wages and condi- 
tions of employment if a dispute arises as 
to the current wages and conditions of 
employment in any district. The Minister 
of Labour was also given greater respon- 
sibility for the enforcement of the Act. It 
is now the Minister of Labour who may 
require a contractor to submit his pay 
lists for inspection and who, on a claim 
being filed, directs payment of wage claims 
in cases where a contractor has failed to 
pay fair wages. Formerly, these responsi- 
bilities rested with the Minister of the 
contracting department. 

Changes were made in Alberta and 
Saskatchewan in the legislation which 
enables an employee to recover unpaid 
wages from his employer by making a 
complaint before a police magistrate. In 
Alberta, a new Masters and Servants Act, 
repealing and replacing the former Act, 
provides that a magistrate may order pay- 
ment of a claim for wages not exceeding 
six months' wages or $500. The $500 limit 
is new. Under the Saskatchewan Wages 
Recovery Act enacted in 1951, the amount 
of wages which a magistrate could order 
an employer to pay to a complainant was 
limited to $200. This limit was increased 
to $400. 

ANTI-DISCRIMINATION 

The Fair Accommodation Practices Act 
passed in Ontario is a further step in a 
program of legislation against discrimina- 
tion on the grounds of race or creed which 
has developed over the past 10 years and 
is embodied in four other statutes. The 
new piece of legislation prohibits the denial 
of the accommodation, services or facilities 
available in any place to which the public 
is customarily admitted to any person 
because of his race, creed, colour, nation- 
ality, ancestry or place of origin. 

Combined in the Act with the prohibi- 
tion of discrimination in public places is 
a prohibition of the publication or display 
of notices, signs or other material, including 
newspaper and radio advertising, indicating 
discrimination because of race or creed. 
The latter provisions were formerly con- 
tained in the Racial Discrimination Act, 
1944, which is now repealed. 

Complaints of a violation of the Act are 
to be dealt with in the same manner as 



964 



complaints under the Fair Employment 
Practices Act, that is, by investigation and 
conciliation and, if necessary, through a 
commission of inquiry. Prosecution in the 
courts is also provided for. A person 
found guilty of an offence is subject to a 
fine of $50 and a corporation to a fine 
of $100. 

It is expected that the Act will be 
administered by the Minister of Labour 
through the Fair Employment Practices 
Branch. 

SAFETY 

In the field of safety legislation one new 
Act was passed, the Ontario Trench 
Excavators Protection Act, designed to 
protect workers from the dangers present 
in trench excavation. It is the first Act 
of its kind in Canada, although control 
of trench excavation work is provided for 
by regulations of the Workmen's Compen- 
sation Boards in Alberta, British Columbia 
and Saskatchewan and in regulations under 
the Building Trades Protection Act in 
Manitoba. 

In brief, the Act requires that, before 
work is begun on a trench more than four 
feet in depth, the owner or contractor must 
notify an inspector, who is required to 
ensure that the provisions of the Act are 
complied with. The Act sets out measures 
to be taken to minimize the danger of 
cave-ins, explosions, falling objects, accu- 
mulations of gas and rock dust and other 
hazards met in trench construction and 
requires trenches to be shored and timbered 
in accordance with standards set out in 
the Act and in regulations. The employ- 
ment of persons under 16 years of age is 
prohibited. The Act will be administered 
in each municipality by inspectors appointed 
by the municipal council. 

The Ontario Elevators and Lifts Act, 
passed last year to provide for provincial 
control over the licensing and regulation 
of elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, man- 
lifts and incline lifts, was amended, chiefly 
to clarify certain sections prior to the Act 
being proclaimed in force. The amend- 
ment states that when the qualifications 
and licensing of elevator operators are 
provided for by regulation no unqualified 
person may operate an elevator or incline 
lift. Urban municipalities are specifically 
empowered to pass by-laws prescribing fire 
safety requirements for hoistway enclosures. 
The Act otherwise forbids urban muni- 
cipalities, with the exception of Toronto, 
from passing by-laws relating to any 
matter covered by the Act. The amend- 
ment also authorizes inspection fees to be 
fixed for the compulsory annual inspection 



of every elevator and hoist. The Act was 
proclaimed in force on June 17 and regu- 
lations were gazetted June 19. 

A number of changes were made to the 
New Brunswick Stationary Engineers Act, 
bringing it more into line with similar 
legislation in other provinces. The appli- 
cation of the Act was extended to cover 
hot water boilers. A fourth class engi- 
neer's certificate is now provided for, in 
addition to the three former classes of 
certificates and the boilerman's licence. An 
inspection of boilers and pressure vessels 
is now required during installation, whether 
or not they are insured. The Act requires 
boilers and pressure vessels to be inspected 
annually and there is the further provision 
that the Chief Inspector may require a 
boiler to be inspected at any time. 

In British Columbia, proposed amend- 
ments to the Boiler and Pressure-vessel 
Act were held over until the next session. 

Two provinces enacted legislation affect- 
ing workers in mines. The Coal Mines 
Regulation Act of Nova Scotia was 
amended to raise the minimum age for 
employment underground in mines from 17 
to 18 years and to set out stricter safety 
requirements with respect to hoisting ropes 
and sockets. Amendments to the section 
of the Ontario Mining Act which governs 
the safe operation of mines were chiefly 
designed to minimize the possibility of air- 
line explosions. 

APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING 

Two provinces, Saskatchewan and New- 
foundland, amended their apprenticeship 
legislation. 

As a result of the changes, the Saskat- 
chewan Apprenticeship and Tradesmen's 
Qualification Act was made more flexible. 
An apprentice may now be indentured to 
the Director of Apprenticeship who will 
provide him with a course of instruction 
and training in one of the designated 
trades. Furthermore, the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council is authorized to 
prescribe the maximum number of appren- 
tices who may be employed in a desig- 
nated trade based on the number of 
journeymen in the trade as an alternative 
to setting a quota on the basis of the 
number of journeymen engaged in the busi- 
ness of an individual employer. Together, 
these changes will enable a larger number 
of apprentices to be trained. Under the 
present quota system, in all but four of 
the 14 designated trades the employer is 
allowed only one apprentice for every three 
journeymen he employs. 



965 



In Newfoundland, the apprenticeship 
training program under the 1951 Act is 
well under way with a number of trades 
having been designated and advisory 
committees having been set up. The Act 
.mended this year to state that no 
D between 16 and 21 years eligible 
for apprenticeship may be employed in a 
designated trade for more than three 
months, except under a contract of 
apprenticeship. As in some other pro- 
vincial Acts, there is provision for 
exceptions to be allowed by permit of 
the Provincial Apprenticeship Board. 
A further amendment authorizes the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council, on the 
recommendation of the Board and with 
the approval of the Minister of Labour, 
to limit the application of the Act to 
designated areas of the province. In this 
provision the Act is like the Act of Nova 
Scotia. 

Other amendments authorize the Board 
to make regulations providing for the 
issuing of certificates of qualification and 
requiring all persons other than registered 
apprentices in any area to hold a certificate 
of qualification. 

A new Act in Nova Scotia provides for 
the training, examination and registration 
of nursing assistants. At least five other 
provinces have legislation of this type. 

SOCIAL LEGISLATION 

Five provinces passed Acts to enable 
them to take advantage of the new federal 
Disabled Persons Allowances Act. Three 
provinces, Alberta, Ontario and Newfound- 
land, already had legislation providing 
pensions for disabled residents. These Acts 
were amended to enable the province to 



participate in the joint scheme. Prince 
Edward Island has also indicated its inten- 
tion to take advantage of the federal 
legislation. 

ruder the new legislation, the federal 
Government will pay one-half and the 
provincial Government one-half of the cost 
of pensions of up to $40 a month for 
needy persons 18 years of age and over 
who are totally and permanently disabled. 
The residence requirement for eligibility is 
set at 10 years and income ceilings pro- 
vided for are the same as those in the 
federal Old Age Assistance Act. As with 
the joint scheme for old age and blind 
persons' assistance, the program will be 
administered by the provinces. 

Alberta passed a new law authorizing 
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to 
spend up to $100,000 to assist in the 
rehabilitation of coal miners who have 
become unemployed in areas designated by 
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 

In Alberta, three social measures were 
amended to provide increased benefits. 
The supplementary allowance paid to 
needy persons receiving old age assistance, 
old age security or a blind person's allow T - 
ance was increased from $10 to $15, 
effective from April 1. Physically and 
mentally disabled persons may now receive 
training under the Public Welfare Act, 
which previously provided training only to 
persons suffering from paralysis caused "by 
poliomyelitis. The Students Assistance Act 
was amended to authorize the Alberta 
Government to make grants to students 
in cases where the Government of Canada 
also contributes to their assistance under 
the Vocational Training Agreement. Under 
the Act as passed in 1953, grants were 
authorized only to student nurses. 



Equal Pay for Women Civil Servants Introduced in Britaii 



Women in Britain's non-industrial civil 
service are to be put on an equal pay basis, 
it was announced by Chancellor of the 
Exchequer R. A. Butler in the House of 
Commons in May. The cost to the 
Treasury is estimated at £13,400,000 
annually. 

The change is to be introduced by 
stages but it is hoped that the Govern- 
ment's decision will be fully implemented 
within the present fiscal year. 

The principle of equal pay has long been 
accepted by all governments in Britain but 
for economic reasons was not given effect. 

Referring to the subject in an address 
before the National Marriage Guidance 
Council a few days prior to the announce- 



ment, Mr. Butler said he regarded the 
introduction of equal pay for women as a 
definite step forward. 

"For the first time, I think, in the 
history of our country is such a step being 
taken, and as such it will not be entirely 
popular even among women," he said. "I 
do believe that the granting of equivalence 
in status to women for work of equivalent 
value should be introduced gradually, so 
that we can become accustomed to the 
effect on the body politic and the body 
economic. I think any shock treatment in 
this matter would let us into problems to 
which we are not fully aware of the 
answers." 



966 



83 rd Annual General Meeting of the 
Canadian Manufacturers' Association 

Speech by Minister of Labour opens session on subject, "What's Ahead 
in Industrial Relations", during which speakers discuss the role of 
legislation in collective bargaining, forward trends in collective 
bargaining, impact of business outlook on employer-employee relations 



Industrialists from all parts of Canada 
attended the 83rd annual meeting of the 
Canadian Manufacturers' Association at 
Jasper, June 7-9, the theme of which was 
Canadian Industry on the March. 

Discussions covered a wide range of 
subjects, from "What's Ahead in Industrial 
Relations" and "Industrial Trends in a 
Progressive Canada" to problems of inter- 
national trade. 

At the session, "What's Ahead in Indus- 
trial Relations," speakers discussed the role 
of legislation in collective bargaining, 
forward trends in collective bargaining and 
the business outlook and its impact on 
employer-employee relations. The Min- 
ister of Labour, Hon. Milton F. Gregg, 
opened the session, which was under the 
joint chairmanship of R. F. Hinton, 
Manager, Industrial Relations and Per- 
sonnel, Shell Oil Company of Canada, 
Limited, Toronto, and H. McD. Sparks, 
Vice-president, Industrial and Public Rela- 
tions, Northern Electric Company, Limited, 
Montreal, both members of the Associa- 
tion's Industrial Relations Committee. 

Speakers at this session were: J. Howard 
Kelly, QC, Solicitor, Burns & Co., Limited, 
Calgary; R. A. Mahoney, Labour Relations 
Bureau Limited, Vancouver; and W. A. 
Osbourne, President, Babcock-Wilcox and 
Goldie-McCulloch, Gait, Ont. Their 
addresses, along with those of the Min- 
ister of Labour and the CMA's retiring 
President, J. D. Ferguson, are reported 
below. 

President of the Association for 1954-55 
is Lt.-Col. J. A. Calder, ED, Vice-president 
and Treasurer, Imperial Tobacco Company 
of Canada, Montreal; Vice-president, T. A. 
Rice, International Harvester Co. of 
Canada, Limited, Hamilton, Ont.; and 
Treasurer, J. Ross Belton, Gutta Percha 
& Rubber Limited, Toronto, Ont. John C. 
Whitelaw, QC, was appointed General 
Manager in December 1953, following the 
death in November of G. K. Sheils. 

Association membership at April 30 
totalled 6,490. 



President's Address 

An optimistic note was sounded by the 
President. "Canadian industry is certainly 
on the march," declared J. D. Ferguson. 
"Our gross national product and our 
national income touched historic heights. 
There were more people employed than 
ever before and, as these people spent 
freely, the economy prospered." 

There were, however, some sobering 
signs, he said, as the year came to a close. 
Production dropped somewhat, wholesale 
prices retreated and as 1954 got under way 
the number of unemployed caused every 
thinking man to look carefully at the 
picture; not, he said, -by putting one's 
bifocals right up against it but by standing 
back and viewing it in its right perspective. 

"It is patently impossible," stated Mr. 
Ferguson, "for economic records to be 
smashed year after year with no pause at 
all — even by such a spectacular nation as 
Canada. Progress and prosperity depend 
on constantly improving production 
methods, better tools to do the job, better 
use of resources both human and natural, 
better organization and better methods of 
selling and distributing the goods that are 
made. 

"But securing these things entails the 
facing of problems which occasionally call 
for adjustment by the leaders of our 
country's economy." 

The Canadian economy, said Mr. 
Ferguson, cannot do anything else but 
expand over a period of time. If nothing 
else, population, which is predicted to 
reach 25 million just 25 years from now, 
will force its expansion. Industries will be 
forced to mechanize even further to keep 
pace with demand. New investment, 
which is usually a good guide to the future, 
is expected to reach a total this year of 
$5.84 billion — three per cent more than 
last year's record. 

But, he warned, the important basic 
truth must never be forgotten, that Cana- 
dian industry must not only compete for 



967 



business in the home market but for busi- 
ness abroad as well, if it is to gather in 
the benefits of expansion. 

"We must never forget," he said, "that 
management and capital can face complete 
and utter frustration in their battle 
towards successful competition if the men 
who operate the machines and handle the 
materials refuse to admit that they, like 
management and capital, are part of the 
competitive economic system — in fact, are 
part of the country's business team. 

"If one section of the team, so to speak, 
persists in pursuing demands that are 
designed to guarantee an income regardless 
of the ability of the company to pay and 
still exist, then it is in fact refusing to 
admit that it is part of the social and 
economic system in which it lives and 
works. 



"I am optimistic enough to believe that, 
in the last analysis, most men know that 
their wages can only come out of earnings 
and that any long-continued payment of 
wages from capital reserves can do nothing 
more than destroy the industry paying the 
wages." 

Mr. Ferguson noted that in 1953 Canada 
bought considerably more goods from the 
United States than that country bought 
from Canada and, conversely, the United 
Kingdom bought more goods from Canada 
than Canada bought from her. 

Some countries want more Canadian 
goods than they can afford, he said, and 
others earn more dollars than they have 
any desire to spend. It would be to our 
national advantage, he pointed out, to 
select our purchases from those countries 
which want our dollars to buy more goods 
from us. 



What's Ahead in Industrial Relations? 



Hon. Milton F. Gregg 

Three factors, at least, will be of special 
importance in industrial relations of the 
future, stated the Hon. Milton F. Gregg, 
Minister of Labour, who, at the invitation 
of the Association, opened the discussion, 
"What's Ahead in Industrial Relations". 

These will be, he said: — 

1. A growing vigour in collective 
bargaining ; 

2. An increasing stress on the need for 
year-round employment opportunities; 

3. A growing sense of responsibility for 
the w r elfare of the community, as well as 
for the rewards of the two immediate 
partners in industry. 

Mr. Gregg began with a reference to 
this visit last year — his first — to the Inter- 
national Labour Conference at Geneva. He 
was proud, he said, to talk to the confer- 
ence on industrial relations because "it is 
my firm belief that Canada has something 
to say to the rest of the world on this 
question of industrial relations". He 
continued: — 

Our labour-management negotiations are 
carried on in a free atmosphere, and the 
basic labour relations legislation is, I think, 
accepted in Canada in a satisfactory spirit 
of give and take. 

The essence of our labour legislation is 
its reliance on collective bargaining, rather 
than government decree, by any government, 
as the normal means of establishing wage 
levels and working conditions, and its 
emphasis on a close working relationship 
between the parties in industry. 

This arrangement allows a flexibility which 
is in keeping with our whole approach to 
economic problems in Canada. 

I mention my experience at the ILO, 
because I should like to emphasize to you 



today my belief that the question of what 
lies ahead for Canada in industrial relations 
and in our economic outlook has a signifi- 
cance that extends beyond our border. 

Canada is looked on abroad as a land in 
which great developments are occurring. 
Canadian industry is admired and respected 
abroad for the imagination and ingenuity 
which have brought it so rapidly ahead in 
recent years. 

Present trends in industrial relations have 
been strongly influenced, there is no doubt, 
by the expanding economic activity of the 
past 15' years. Industry has enjoyed pros- 
perous conditions. This has contributed to 
the general success of collective bargaining 
relations in Canada. 

Seasonal Unemployment 

Mr. Gregg then turned to the problem 
of seasonal unemployment. With careful 
study and planning on the part of manage- 
ment, labour and government, he felt 
confident that much could be done towards 
stabilizing employment on a year-round 
basis. 

While there are those who anticipate that 
the coming months will produce a different 
economic background for industrial rela- 
tions, and who feel also that a change 
would be not altogether a bad thing, he 
said, he was not anticipating any marked 
change nor could he see any good reason 
for welcoming it. 

We, in Canada, have got past the point 
where we are prepared to tolerate any 
prolonged or avoidable unemployment. 
Undoubtedly, some dislocations will continue 
to arise from time to time affecting 
particular industries or areas or groups of 
workers. During recent months, many firms 
have certainly found themselves subject to 
competition somewhat keener than existed 1 
in the period of peak activity. 



968 



Such developments, however, whether their 
cause lies within Canada or beyond our 
borders, need not cause us to lose sight of 
the tremendous basic strength and potential 
of our economy. 

As my colleague, Mr. Howe, has declared 
on a number of occasions, the Canadian 
Government still adheres to the policy of 
doing everything possible to maintain an 
economic climate in which may flourish a 
high and stable level of employment and 
income. 

However, although this policy does 
envisage various types of direct government 
action under certain circumstances, it is not 
on such projects that we place our main 
reliance. 

I believe there is a growing recognition 
in Canada that the attainment of such goals 
as high employment and better standards of 
living entails responsibilities for all sections 
of the community. The economic progress 
of our nation depends not merely on govern- 
ment action, but on sound policies and imag- 
inative and creative activity on the part of 
all groups. 

It is on this reservoir of initiative that 
we must rely in coping, for example, with 
such a persistent Canadian economic 
problem as that of seasonal unemployment. 

In Ottawa, he went on, "we have been 
greatly encouraged by the interest with 
which non-governmental bodies are 
approaching this question." He cited the 
Quebec City branch of the CMA, some 
of whose members intend this year to 
devote "a good deal of attention" to the 
problem and to "experiment with remedies". 

Probably more than 250,000 workers are 
seasonally idle each year, Mr. Gregg said, 
and this represents a loss of about 
$150,000,000 annually in wages. The figure 
was higher this winter, he admitted. 

Between December 1953 and April this 
year, the Minister reported, almost 
$140,000,000 was paid out in unemployment 
insurance benefits ; a large part of that sum 
went to those seasonally unemployed. 

"Like all other kinds of unemployment, 
this kind also exacts intangible personal 
and social costs that cannot be expressed 
in dollar terms but are nonetheless real," 
he pointed out. Then he asked: — 

How can we tackle this problem? Our 
climate is against us. Yet, I know that 
some employers have been able to reduce 
the seasonal swings in their operations and 
employment. I believe that a great deal 
more can be done if employers, workers, 
consumers and governments will attack this 
problem as a team. 

The National Advisory Council on 
Manpower and the National Employment 
Committee, which are made up of repre- 
sentatives of employers, organized labour 
and other interested groups have, said 
Mr. Gregg, been studying this problem 
since early in 1952. 

The National Employment Committee 
has recently completed a study (L.G., May, 



p. 655), based on a survey of employers 
in 18 of Canada's seasonal industries, to 
get opinions on such questions as: (a) what 
causes seasonal changes in their employ- 
ment; (b) what methods have they 
developed' to promote employment 
stability; and (c) what do they suggest 
to achieve further results. 

Possible Solutions 

The study, said Mr. Gregg, points to a 
number of courses of possible action. 

It has found that many employers are 
alive to the problem and have developed 
a large number of different methods suited 
to promoting year-round employment for 
their workers. 

Since some firms have been able to main- 
tain much greater employment stability 
than others in the same seasonal, industry, 
it would appear that study groups within 
particular industries might help in widen- 
ing the use of good ideas, the Minister 
suggested. Such study groups might in- 
clude representatives of employers, unions, 
employers' associations and consumers 
where possible. He continued: — ■ 

The construction industry has particular 
importance in this program. Effective 
action here requires the co-operation of con- 
tractors, architects, engineers, building 
exchanges, trade unions and those who place 
construction contracts. 

This suggests the importance for those 
who place construction contracts to time 
their placement to offset as much as possible 
the employment slackness during the winter 
months. 

The Committee does not believe that, in 
seeking a solution for seasonal unemploy- 
ment, the Government can provide pat 
answers for industry to follow. Rather, it 
suggests that each industry study its own 
situations so as to develop methods that 
best fit each case. 

The Committee has pointed to the 
importance of governments at all levels 
planning their expenditure programs as a 
means of assisting in the stabilization of 
employment on a year-round basis. 

I am able to tell you that as far as the 
Federal Government is concerned w T e shall 
continue to do our utmost to arrange con- 
tracts and other undertakings so that the 
maximum amount of employment therefrom 
shall be made available to Canadian workers 
during the winter months. 

I am quite confident that we can all — 
in industry, in the labour force and in 
government — do much to stabilize employ- 
ment on a year-round basis. 

In this same spirit, the people of Canada, 
working through government, employer, 
labour and other groups, will be competent 
to cope with any economic dislocations' that 
inevitably occur from time to time. 

This is the economic background, I 
suggest, against which we should consider 
the outlook for labour-management relations. 

In the light of conditions, Mr. Gregg 
continued, it would appear to be a safe 



969 



forecast that in the coming months we 
shall see a sharper examination by man- 
agement of labour costs. This, he said, 
creates problems for both parties, which, 
while demanding, are by no means 
insoluble. 

The Challenging Question 

Mr. Gregg then suggested that in some 
- - the answer may "lie along the lines 
of greater attention to productivity". This, 
he said, calls for a "joint approach" and 
the challenging question for labour and 
management is the extent to which a joint 
approach will be forthcoming. 

A growing recognition by both parties 
of each other's needs and aspirations has 
emerged, he said. Most employers today 
accept unionism as a constructive and 



potentially beneficial force, and labour, for 
the most part, has gained a greater 
appreciation of the responsibilities of 
management and is learning to consider 
the welfare of the firm, the industry and 
the community. 

"These changing attitudes on both sides 
are important," the Minister of Labour 
concluded. "They have gradually made it 
possible, in some industries at least, for 
labour and management to develop the 
mutual respect and confidence that are the 
underlying fundamentals of sound labour- 
management relations. 

"It means further that, outside the imme- 
diate bargaining issues, they are able to 
work co-operatively on the many problems 
of productivity and health of the enter- 
prise and community in which their 
interests are so closely interwoven." 



Role of Legislation in Collective Bargaining 



J. Howard Kelly, QC 

"Fundamentally, I do not consider the 
law should be invoked to effect a settle- 
ment of the terms of any agreement 
between individual subjects, groups or 
corporate bodies, be the agreement for 
lumber, fish, textiles, automobiles, services, 
labour organizations or anything else", said 
J. Howard Kelly, QC, solicitor and execu- 
tive, Burns & Co., Limited, Calgary, Alta. 

"We deny the basic principle of free 
enterprise by invoking laws to force 
observance to any specific terms which 
human judgment and an obedience to 
tolerance and human rights can in time 
effect." 

It would be well, said Mr. Kelly at the 
outset, to adopt ourselves to the basic 
concept that management is limited by 
the power of labour unions. "It is almost 
wholly a negative power; the union can 
tie up a company but it cannot run it or 
even administer the provisions of a con- 
tract arrived at between it and the com- 
pany; that it has to leave to manage- 
ment. But the obstructive power of union 
leaders may be very great. 

"Having accepted this basic concept, let 
us proceed to a review of bargaining under 
auspices which finds management in that 
cramped position of defensive isolation. A 
union, in fact, has little to give in its 
contact with management. However, by 
virtue of its nomination by the collective 
group of workers, its power is extensive, 
chiefly through the control it has over that 
collective manpower, as well as the legal 
status with which it has been vested by 
governments." 



While the purpose of our laws is achieve- 
ment of the common good of all, Mr. 
Kelly said, he suggested it might be well 
for legislators to reflect on the ultimate 
economic consequences of "striving to 
provide greater reward and privileges with 
an obvious reduction in the compensating 
returns," the result of which might be 
detrimental to both human well-being and 
economic stability. 

Proposed General Provisions 

Reminding the conference that Canadian 
labour laws come under provincial juris- 
diction, with operations of an interpro- 
vincial character directed by federal labour 
enactment, he said that some persons 
propose that some general provisions be 
made common to all labour laws. Some 
of these proposals, he said, were: — 

1. Comprehensive provisions to deal with 
problems on which public policies are 
needed — problems of relations between 
unions and individual workers, between 
unions and unions, and between unions and 
employers on the one hand and the com- 
munity on the other. 

2. Provisions to protect against abuses 
the essential institutions of industrial rela- 
tions that have proved themselves worthy 
of protection and to make them work 
more satisfactorily. 

3. Provisions to narrow the area of 
industrial conflict. "Certain uses of strikes 
and boycotts are not appropriate," Mr. 
Kelly said, "and it is high time that unions 
and the community dropped the naive 
notion that the unlimited right to strike 



970 



is an inherent and necessary right of free 
men. It is inappropriate that the strike 
should be used by unions to battle other 
unions or that strikes or lockouts should 
be used to coerce the government or to 
compel changes in public^ policy". 

4. Provisions to deal with specific prob- 
lems, including: protection of the right to 
organize, protection of the right of workers 
to pick their bargaining agents free of 
interference from any source, safeguarding 
of the rights of a worker to be a union 
member or not to be a union member, the 
making of strikes over union jurisdiction 
an unfair labour practice, the provision of 
all reasonable facilities for workers to 
express their decision by secret ballot on 
such issues as calling a strike and settling 
a strike, and provision of adequate arrange- 
ments for handling disputes that imperil 
the national health and safety. 

On protection of the right to organize 
he said: "Now that coercion by employers 
is unlawful, public policy should also pro- 
hibit the use of economic coercion by 
unions to force men to join a union. It 
is anomalous for the legality of economic 
coercion to depend on who uses it." 

On the protection of the right of workers 
to pick their bargaining agents he said that 
inter-union rivalry can be controlled only 
by public policy and that the growth of 
unions makes such control imperative. 

On the secret ballot he said workers 
should also have the right to vote, by 
secret ballot, on proposals advanced from 
time to time in strike settlement nego- 
tions. Union leaders should not be 
permitted to reject "arbitrarily" such pro- 
posals, advanced by employers, without 
reference to the workers, he said. 

"There is need for improved legislation 
designed to assist in the adjustment of 
differences between employers and 
employees," Mr. Kelly said, "but legisla- 
tion alone will not insure industrial peace." 

He said: — 

Labour organizers have pursued the tech- 
nique of consolidating many of their 
advanced positions by having their gains 
incorporated as part of labour legislation. 
This rates the springboard for still further 
gains over management across the bargain- 
ing table. The points they struggled to 
extract from employers are no longer sub- 
ject to negotiations when made obligatory 
by law. A wide difference of opinion has 
developed as to the relative justice of this 
course as labour concessions have assumed 
a political complexion in some quarters in- 
stead of continuing as issues to be deter- 
mined through collective bargaining. 

Scope of Collective Bargaining 

When the actual scope of collective 
bargaining is considered, the likelihood of 
litigation and administrative regulation 



becomes more imminent, Mr. Kelly felt. 
So far, he said, there have not been many 
serious disputes as to what are and what 
are not appropriate subjects for collective 
bargaining, but it is questionable how long 
this will continue. Employers have per- 
haps been to prone to consider that there 
are qualitive boundaries to the subjects 
which are bargainable. He said, adding: — 

Traditionally, collective bargaining has in- 
volved wages, hours of work, overtime, 
seniority, vacations, grievance procedure and 
protective measures for the unions' own 
security. Since the unions have been mainly 
preoccupied with such matters, probably 
there has been a failure to recognize that 
the longer parties bargain periodically with 
one another, the likelier it will be that one 
or both of them will seek new subjects for 
contractual treatment. Recent experience 
demonstrates that there are few legal 
barriers capable of containing the force of 
collective bargaining. 

Most labour Acts provide for negotiations 
on terms or conditions of employment with 
a view to the conclusion of a collective 
agreement. How extensive an area this 
phrase was intended to cover may have 
to be determined, but it seems unlikely to 
be a narrow one. The history of collective 
bargaining, whether under private auspices 
or under the aegis of legislation, shows that 
it is dynamic and expanding in content and 
that continual encroachment upon tradi- 
tional preserves of management will be 
difficult, if not impossible to resist. It is 
probably better for society that such 
encroachments, if inevitable, should be 
developed in an ordinary manner rather 
than through economic conflict. 

We do not advocate, said Mr. Kelly, 
any further interference by government 
with the relationships between employers 
and employees as, generally speaking, out- 
side parties can only exercise an influence 
of a compromise character. No one, he 
said, knows the problems more intimately 
than the employer and his own employees. 

"For that reason it appears reasonable 
to recommend that a number of regular 
employees should be included in all nego- 
tiating and grievance committees that 
meet and deal with management. The 
practice of barring such practical repre- 
sentatives and restricting the contact unit 
to outside agents to the exclusion of the 
workers affected is a practice which should 
be reformed," he said. 

Conciliation and Arbitration 

On the question of conciliation and 
arbitration boards, Mr. Kelly had this to 
say: — 

One cannot escape the fact that tjie tech- 
nique of bargaining agents is to extract 
everything possible out of the employer and 
then resort to conciliation or arbitration on 
the grounds of membership dissatisfaction. 
The abuse of this practice is pronounced. 



92110—4 



971 



It is often found that conciliators or arbi- 
trators, relying on the theory that labour 
must gel at least something more than the 
negotiations produced, will grant awards 
quite unwarranted under the circumstances 
to provide a solution. This may or may 
not be a true compromise. Some employers, 
realising that conciliation or arbitration is 
inevitable, will resist demands, or only grant 
so much in order to provide some leeway 
for a conciliator to give some further con- 
cession. This is an indication of the lack 
of genuine sincerity in negotiations but it is 
obviously an essential technique as a pro- 
tective measure. 

If conciliation or arbitration is to pro- 
vide practical measures in the realm of 
labour, then, thought the speaker, govern- 
ments should be equipped with thoroughly 
competent men for such boards, men 
capable of subscribing something of a 
mature and sound nature to the questions 
at issue. For this reason, he suggested, it 
might be well to consider permanent 
appointees, who would provide manage- 
ment and labour with the benefit of 
thorough study and conscientious delibera- 
tion on all issues, in place of casual review 
and compromise "frequently unsound but 
designed to placate one side or the other 
and get rid of the problem". 

Boards of reference, if well constituted, 
he added, might also prove a useful aid 
in maintaining harmony in labour rela- 
tions where debatable issues could be 
determined on a reliable basis. 

Although of the opinion that government- 
sponsored collective bargaining is not 
desirable, Mr. Kelly thought it could pro- 
vide methods of dealing with problems of 
particular types. The trend towards in- 
creasing government regulation is causing 
concern, he said, to those who believe in 
industrial self-government as the sound 
way to achieve both maximum production 
and the greatest personal freedom. 

Disillusionment over the prospects of 
ever attaining that goal, he felt, is largely 
responsible for the trend in a national 
labour policy. 

Design for National Policy 

The national program, said Mr. Kelly, 
should be designed to maintain industrial 
relations on an even keel through a balance 
of power policy. Neither organized labour 
nor management should be permitted to 
possess sufficient power to effectuate its 
demands unilaterally. Nor should either 
party be permitted to exercise its power 
to enforce greater demands through collec- 
tive bargaining than deemed socially 
ible. 

"What constitutes equality of power 
between these two groups is a variable," 
he said. "It depends upon public 



appraisals from time to time of the 
legitimacy of the objectives that are 
pursued." 

A positive program voluntarily under- 
taken by labour and management to 
improve their relationship should not be 
overlooked, said Mr. Kelly, as one possible 
factor bearing upon the question of how 
much government control there will ulti- 
mately develop. 

"To attain improved industrial relations, 
with a de-emphasis on government control, 
collective bargaining will have to be con- 
ducted much more effectively by organized 
labour and management themselves," he 
declared. "Legislative and administrative 
rules to bolster up collective bargaining by 
requiring the parties to follow procedures 
that seem to facilitate agreement-making 
won't suffice. Collective bargaining is much 
more than a series of procedural steps; it 
pre-supposes coherence to the philosophy 
that management and labour can and should 
be reconciled around the conference table by 
understanding, compromise and agreement. 

"Whether labour and management each 
holds this conviction is the master key to 
the future of collective bargaining. . . . 
Collective, bargaining will be created as a 
sound institution only if organized labour 
and management first adopt its basic 
premise and then consciously devote their 
efforts towards developing the agreement- 
making potentialities of their joint dealing." 

The Co-operative Spirit 

Much has been said about the funda- 
mental importance to collective bargaining 
of the co-operative spirit, Mr. Kelly con- 
tinued. While not in any way deprecating 
the essentiality of that attitude, much 
more, he believed, is required for successful 
collective bargaining: — 

Without industrial relations intelligence 
and know-how, a co-operative spirit may 
be unavailing. A constructive development 
of collective bargaining calls for sustained 
attention to (a) the resolution of numerous 
conceptual differences that exist between 
labour and management, and (b) the per- 
fection and affectuation of the techniques of 
joint dealing. 

Problems inherent in labour relations go 
far beyond the negotiation of an agreement. 
Collective bargaining is not suspended 
during the term of the agreement. The legal 
duty to bargain exists only with a view to 
the conclusion of an agreement, but the 
terms of the agreement itself will involve 
a continuation of a bargaining relationship. 
Such bargaining will be concerned chiefly 
with administering the terms of the agree- 
ment. Whether such administration will be 
harmonious and co-operative depends pri- 
marily on the attitudes of the parties. 



972 



An agreement between an employer and 
his employees, whether made in an atmos- 
phere of peace or under stress of strike or 
lockout, resembles in many ways a treaty, 
Mr. Kelly suggested. As a safeguard of 
social peace, it should be construed not 
narrowly and technically but broadly so 
that it can accomplish its evident aims. 
It should, on both sides, be kept faith- 
fully and without subterfuge. "In no other 
way can confidence and industrial harmony 
be sustained." 



Concerning differences between manage- 
ment and labour, he would not say what 
is rigjit or wrong; but he did know that 
"nothing is right that won't work and any 
arrangement that will work will have to be 
reconciled on both sides. 

"If the forces of management and labour 
are going to commit themselves to a 
struggle for power within the highly 
delicate mechanism of our economy, 
neither can win and democracy will lose," 
he declared. 



Forward Trends in Collective Bargaining 



R. A. Mahoney 

"The trade union movement has estab- 
lished itself and is to remain an integral 
part of our industrial society for a long 
time to come; thus business should make 
every effort to live with it and adapt to 
it," declared R. A. Mahoney, Labour Rela- 
tions Bureau Limited, Vancouver, B.C. 

Mr. Mahoney, who has been a labour 
relations consultant for eight years and has 
taken an active part in collective bargain- 
ing negotiations for four and a half, was 
speaking on "Forward Trends in Collective 
Bargaining". 

He saw four main trends in future 
collective bargaining in Canada. They 
were: — 

1. More national and more intelligent 
bargaining techniques on both sides; 

2. Increasing stress on seniority measures 
as opposed to straight wage increases; 

3. A trend towards wage agreements that 
will run for more than one year; 

4. More companies banding together for 
the purpose of industry-wide bargaining 
within a given area. 

Bargaining Techniques 

Mr. Mahoney felt that development of 
more national and more intelligent bargain- 
ing techniques was inevitable. There is, 
he stated, an ever-increasing mature frame 
of mind on the part of union leaders and 
management officials in their thinking 
about collective bargaining. 

"We have gone," he said, "through 
roughly a ten-year period when both 
sides, particularly trade unions, have flexed 
their muscles and resisted each other 
economically. Both sides are growing up, 
possibly not to the degree we might wish, 
but the trend is there. Furthermore, the 
knowledge, experience and information 
available to the persons on both sides who 
are taking part in the bargaining procedure 
has increased. Trade unions, particularly 



the large international unions, are hiring 
staff experts to provide information who 
are top men in their field. Management 
men are becoming much more experienced 
and companies are either hiring experi- 
enced men to do the collective bargaining 
job or retaining specialists in the field in 
a consulting capacity. 

"It would appear that such a trend is 
inevitable and, I personally feel, desirable. 
If so, it may be that we shall see the old 
economic strength concept of collective 
bargaining slowly being replaced with a 
more realistic appraisal of the situation and 
a settlement of labour agreements on a 
more intelligent basis." 

Security Measures 

Increasing demands for security measures 
instead of for straight wage increases have 
already come, Mr. Mahoney said. He 
gave these reasons for that development : — 

1. A levelling-off in the upward trend 
of economic activity; 

2. Wage rates in many industries are at 
a level where there is somewhat of a 
recognition on the part of trade union 
leadership that substantial wage increases 
are no longer feasible; 

3. The fact that job security in itself 
has been a very important factor in the 
minds of most employees who have the 
memory of the great depression of the 
thirties still with them. 

With these factors in mind, he said, the 
question could well be asked, what form 
will these job security demands take? One 
obvious answer to this question, Mr. 
Mahoney stated, is that demands will vary 
from industry to industry, depending upon 
conditions within the industry. Security 
demands, however, in his opinion, fall 
roughly into two classifications: welfare 
and those leading to a guaranteed annual 
wage. 



9 mo— 4^ 



973 



Welfare demands, prevalent now, are 
concerned with such factors as: hospital 
and medical coverage, life and accident 
insurance, pension benefits, and sick leave. 

Demands for more advanced security 
benefits which lead, in a greater or lesser 
degree, to a guaranteed annual wage will 
consist, he predicted, of such things as: — 

Increased annual vacation benefits, part 
of which can be taken in slack seasons 
or are payable on termination of employ- 
ment ; 

More requirement of notice in the case 
of lay-offs or discharge; 

Separation pay upon loss of employ- 
ment ; 

A guarantee of a certain number of 
weeks' employment per year for permanent 
employees. 

This list, said Mr. Mahoney, may 
present a frightening array but the very 
fact that such demands are pending does 
not mean that they are forthcoming imme- 
diately. "Nevertheless," he added, "I 
believe that they are coming and manage- 
ment must find some way to meet them 
eventually. Incidentally, all of these 
welfare and security measures are mixed 
in with and will be affected by govern- 
ment policy along the same lines." 

Continuing, he pointed out that welfare 
plans may be handled in three ways: 
through company formation and adminis- 
tration of welfare and benefits, through 
joint union and management trustee 
administration, and through complete union 
control of welfare. The last two methods, 
he said, have come about when welfare 
has been adapted to an industry rather 
than a single company. 

"I think it needless to mention," he said, 
"that from a management standpoint plan 
two is infinitely preferable to plan three. 
As a matter of fact, joint trusteeship plans 
have proved reasonably satisfactory in our 
part of the country, particularly where a 
group of small companies has banded 
together for a welfare program that would 
be impossible for any one of them to 
handle." 

He said the third plan, in his opinion, 
was undesirable from management's stand- 
point for two reasons: it gives management 
no voice in how welfare funds are handled 
or spent, and it provides another example 
to employees of the union providing 
benefits where management has been 
unwilling or unable to do so. 

An important aspect of welfare plans, 
Mr. Mahoney strongly believed, is that 
they should be contributing, rather than be 
financed wholly by the employer. 



As regards separation pay and eventually 
a guaranteed annual wage, the speaker 
said: — 

I am sure that there is no single union 
objective which we in management feel will 
be more difficult to meet than this one. 
However, providing that economic condi- 
tions remain stable or continue their upward 
trend, there is little doubt that this demand, 
in one form or another, is coming. It will, 
I believe, not come in a sudden rush, and 
it will not come first in unstable or seasonal 
industries, but it will nevertheless come and 
management, I am sure, is thinking and will 
be thinking in the future as to how best 
this demand may be met. 

Long-term Agreements 

Mr. Mahoney said the next phase of 
his forecast, an increasing trend towards 
agreements which last for more than one 
year, was also a controversial issue upon 
which many opposing views are held. 
Since General Motors set the pattern on 
this continent for long-term agreements, 
four years ago, variations of the pattern 
have been adopted in many places with 
what, on the whole, might be regarded as 
reasonable success. 

Among the several reasons for the trend 
towards longer agreements, according to 
the speaker, the two main ones are: — 

1. The fact that two years ago (more 
or less in some industries) wage rates, 
in certain fields at least, reached a level 
which appeared to be about as high in 
relation to the general economy and the 
cost of living index as they could go, 
except for productivity increases. 

2. Both management and labour repre- 
sentatives, particularly the former, were 
thoroughly fed up with the collective 
bargaining procedure, which never seemed 
to be at an end. 

Expressing himself as favouring long- 
term agreements, Mr. Mahoney said: — 

I have in mind the two reasons just 
mentioned but I also have in mind another 
reason which I feel is much more important 
— I feel that long-term agreements can pro- 
vide a means whereby both . sides of the 
labour management situation can learn 
better to work with each other and to 
appreciate better each others' point of view. 
This, of course, stems back to the original 
premise which I explained to you, namely, 
that unions are here to stay and survival 
of our present industrial society depends 
upon management and labour being able to 
work with each other. I do not believe 
that the bargaining table is the best place 
to discover this workability. Collective 
bargaining is a time when two sides are of 
necessity presenting opposing points of view. 
It is a sort of social procedure which 
demands psychologically a certain amount of 
conflict and disagreement. For this reason, 
then, it is not the best time for the two 
parties to sit down and discuss mutual 



974 



problems and to try to work out reasonable 
solutions. The time for establishing work- 
ability is, I feel, after the agreement has 
been signed and during the day-to-day plant 
relationships which involve plant manage- 
ment and plant committees. Here is where 
an atmosphere of understanding can be best 
created, and here is where the opportunity 
is present to give the employee the informa- 
tion and knowledge of company problems 
and policies, which will mean a more co- 
operative attitude in the future rather than 
the frame of mind which today in too many 
cases appears to overshadow all else — 
namely: "We get what we want or we hit 
the bricks". 

As long as collective bargaining takes 
place every year and lasts as long as it 
does, relationships tend to remain unstable, 
but where a contract is signed for a longer 
period of time it would appear that the 
opportunities for achieving the relationships 
just described are much more prevalent. 

Industry-wide Bargaining 

Mr. Mahoney explained that by industry- 
wide bargaining in a given area — the fourth 
of the major trends he predicted — he meant 
the banding together of all or a majority 
of the companies in any one industry in a 
given area for the purpose of negotiating a 
common agreement. This trend, he said, 
is already in evidence in British Columbia. 
The reasons for it, he said, were "logical 
and sensible", because it: — 

1. Gives industry a great deal more 
economic strength to face the threat of 
strike action; 

2. Prevents a union from using one 
employer as a lever on the balance; 

3. Prevents one or more companies 
within an industry obtaining a competitive 
advantage from low wage rates; 

4. Reduces the burden of negotiation 
time on individual company officials. 

There are two main disadvantages to 
industry-wide bargaining, however, Mr. 
Mahoney pointed out. These are: — 

1. Particular conditions in individual 
plants may be sacrificed to secure a work- 
able master agreement. 

2. Personal contact between individual 
management and employees is lost. 

Commenting on the first point, he said: 
"I think the first difficulty can be overcome 
by negotiating master agreements on an 
industry-wide basis and individual plants or 
companies working out special conditions 
which are necessary, after the master agree- 
ments have been signed." 

Before leaving the subject of industry- 
wide bargaining, Mr. Mahoney said he 
would like to again emphasize the advan- 
tage of the economic strength which is 
gained by management unity. 



He continued : — 

A great deal of the collective bargaining 
which takes place in Canada today, par- 
ticularly in our part of the country, is 
economic strength bargaining. In other 
words, the union in effect says, we want 
so and so and if necessary we will strike 
to get it. Management in effect says, we 
won't grant it and we will face a strike 
rather than give in. I feel that this is a 
regrettable situation but it is nevertheless 
true and will be true, at least to a certain 
extent, for some time to come. 

Our experience has been that one com- 
pany facing strike action when its com- 
petitors are still in operation is up against 
virtual economic disaster and most com- 
panies are unwilling or unable to face the 
situation. Furthermore, the union, which 
has only the worry of a small percentage 
of striking workers out of an industry as a 
whole, has a relatively small problem on its 
hands in terms of strike pay and lost pay 
cheques as compared with the problem it 
faces if the entire industry is struck at one 
time. Therefore, if economic strength is the 
key factor in a labour dispute, it most 
certainly behooves management to avail 
itself of all the economic strength possible 
in order to equalize the situation. 

In concluding, Mr. Mahoney again quali- 
fied his observations. He had, he said, 
presented broad trends which are long 
term in nature. Specific industries and 
specific parts of the country will not 
encounter these trends as soon as others. 
He explained: — 

A sudden change in economic conditions 
could alter these trends one way or another. 
Unforeseen large increases in the economic 
indices could refocus attention on direct 
wage rates and delay the security trend. A 
serious economic recession could put man- 
agement in a strong bargaining position, 
temporarily at least. Although I do hope 
that no one in this room is short-sighted 
enough to think that economic recession or 
depression is any sort of a permanent solu- 
tion to our collective bargaining problems. 

I am also aware that many of the con- 
clusions I have drawn are subject to a 
great deal of individual opinion and preju- 
dice and that in many cases I have over- 
simplified the problems. We all know that 
the problems are by no means simple. I 
am aware, further, that I speak from 
experience which is purely local in nature 
and that many of you, particularly from 
the Prairies and the Maritimes, have a 
long way to go before you arrive at the 
stage in collective bargaining where we in 
British Columbia find ourselves at the 
present time. 

Nevertheless, and despite all the ifs, ands 
and buts, I believe the trends which I have 
outlined will prove themselves true in the 
long run. 

We live in what has been characterized 
as a troubled and changing world. We are 
beset with problems of many kinds and on 
many sides. Labour management relation- 
ships in my opinion, constitute one of our 
most, if not our most, serious industrial 
problems. Legislation alone cannot solve 
our problem. The problem is primarily one 



975 



of human nature and as such is subject to 
all the frailties and inconsistencies which 
.a integral part of human nature. 
It is difficult, and at times an extremely 
unpleasant problem, but if our industrial 
society as we know it is to survive in any- 
thing like its present form it is up to us 
who believe implicitly in this society to be 
the driving force behind a solution to this 
problem. 

During the discussion which followed 
Mr. Mahoney's address the Minister of 
L kb >'ii was questioned on the degree of 



Legislation winch he thought the Federal 
Government should exercise. Mr. Gregg 
replied that he felt there should be the 
minimum of legislation required. The 
Federal Government, he said, exerts no 
pressure whatsoever on the provincial 
governments and, conversely, neither do 
the provincial governments on the Federal 
Government. All provincial jurisdictions 
should have the right to deal with their 
own problems, he stated, but there is an 
attempt at achieving uniformity. 



Business Outlook—Impact on Employer-Employee Relations 

W. A. Osbourne 



Speaking on the impact of the business 
outlook on employer-employee relations in 
Canada, W. A. Osbourne, President, 
Babcock-Wilcox and Goldie-McCulloch, 
Limited, Gait, Ont., said: "For the present 
and on the short-term view, the employer 
is in a stronger bargaining position with 
respect to wages than he has been for 
some years, and this mixed blessing has 
been conferred on him at a time of reduc- 
tion, in business prosperity." 

This may be a good time, therefore, 
suggested Mr. Osbourne, for the employer 
to take a look at his employer-employee 
relations with" a view to laying firmer 
foundations on which to build for the 
future. "Any thought of approaching this 
very important phase of a company's 
activities in the spirit of 'now it's my turn' 
would," he said, "serve to promote the 
same reaction from the other side of the 
table in what we hope will soon again be 
a time of business expansion and rising 
employment." 

With some notable exceptions, the busi- 
ness outlook for Canadian industry follows 
a similar pattern to that of the United 
States, Mr. Osbourne observed. Many of 
our unions have United States affiliations 
and operate in accordance with policies 
originating at union headquarters; reac- 
tions on employer-employee relations in 
Canada may, therefore, be expected to be 
somewhat similar. The nature of this 
impact is already fairly well defined, he 
said, and may be roughly summarized as: 
increased resistance by employers to 
demands for increased wages; acceptance 
by unions of the necessity for a scaling- 
down of their demands for wage increases 
and, in some cases, for forgoing increases 
or accepting a wage decrease; a "tactical" 
shift by unions in their negotiations to a 
greater emphasis on fringe items and to 
the guaranteed annual wage. 



As examples of union acceptance of 
wage decreases Mr. Osbourne cited the 
United Automobile Workers' agreement at 
the Willys Motors, Inc., Toledo, to abandon 
an incentive system and as a result to 
accept a 5-per-cent pay cut (L.G., May. 
p. 643) and the employees at Dominion 
Woollen and Worsted Limited, Hespeler, 
Ont., who in February voted to accept a 
reduction in rates (L.G., March, p. 349). 

Enlarging on the shift in emphasis in 
negotiations, he said he referred to it as 
a "tactical" shift because it does not rep- 
resent any basic change in labour's long- 
term objective for higher wages. "The 
unions," he said, "recognizing that resist- 
ance to demands for higher wages is 
backed by powerful arguments, are hoping 
for additional fringe benefits which may 
be played up as a substitute for wage 
increases in a time of reduced employ- 
ment." 

He said the guaranteed annual wage had 
received considerable publicity since several 
large unions in the United States adopted 
it as a "main plank in their platform" and 
that "their Canadian counterparts have 
followed the headquarters head in this 
connection". 

What these indications add up to, said 
the speaker, is that for the present and on 
the short-term view the employer is in a 
stronger bargaining position with respect to 
wages than he has been for some years. 

"The subject of employer-employee rela- 
tions is something," he said, "which far 
transcends bargaining tactics and is the 
background against which all negotiations 
proceed and which largely influences them 
irrespective of the changing business out- 
look." Therefore, he said, he intended 
in his address to view the subject generally 
in the light of today's business outlook 
and to discuss some of the principles which, 
to him, seemed to characterize the attitude 
and approach of some companies which he 



976 



believed were laying a good foundation 
for their future employer-employee rela- 
tions. 

Importance of Management Concept 

In looking at these companies, said Mr. 
Osbourne, the first consideration that 
impresses one is that they have a concept 
or philosophy of employer-employee rela- 
tions on which they draw for inspiration 
and guidance in the handling of the varied 
problems which are constantly arising. In 
explanation he said: — 

They recognize that such relations are 
changing and dynamic. They have certain 
rules and regulations for the guidance of 
their staff and supervision, but these rules 
are kept to a minimum and are of secondary 
importance. What is of prime importance 
is that, emanating from the top, there is an 
attitude of mind which permeates the entire 
organization and is reflected in all the deci- 
sions which are made down the line, with 
the knowledge that no marks will be given 
for interpretations and applications which 
depart from certain basic ideals and 
objectives. . . . 

The cleavages in labour relations, if there 
are any, are most apparent at the super- 
visory level and if such differences and fric- 
tions as do arise are accentuated on their 
way up the ladder of grievance procedures, 
you are likely to have a fluctuating policy 
in employer-employee relations whose insta- 
bility is like an inverted pyramid. In such 
cases, the relations are being determined at 
the lower level and on the basis of day-by- 
day handling of problems at the point where 
frictions are most likely to arise. On the 
other hand, if there is a broad-gauged 
approach and a well defined concept at the 
top the grievance or friction gains in 
clarity and objectivity as it moves up and 
over these relations there is a stabilizing 
influence and an assurance of fair consider- 
ation. 

I have emphasized the importance of the 
top management concept or philosophy 
because from it flows the guidance and 
approach which will affect the handling and 
set the pattern of all labour relations for 
the company. 

Acceptance of Union 

It can be seen, Mr. Osbourne continued, 
that they have developed a few simple 
principles by which they operate and which 
they disseminate throughout their organ- 
ization. 

First, he said, they have accepted with- 
out reservation the fact that unions are 
here to stay. 

He went on to point out that federal 
and provincial legislation provides that a 
union must be accepted when it represents 
the majority of the employees but that 
"compliance with the letter of the law may 
leave its spirit unfulfilled". Furthermore, 
he added, "the employer who fully sub- 
scribes to an acceptance of the fact that 
unions are here to stay recognizes that 



co-existence means that there must be 
some abridgement of the outmoded, free- 
wheeling approach in which only the 
employer's conscience is his guide!." 

As a logical outcome of the principle that 
unions are here to stay, he continued, a 
second principle follows: whatever union 
represents the will of the majority of his 
employees, the employer will try to find a 
way of working with it and, if this is not 
possible, then at least a way of living with 
it. The second alternative, Mr. Osbourne 
said, is second best and implies a state of 
cold war. 

Even so, "we must learn to live with it, 
in the reasonable hope that somewhere in 
the hearts and minds of some employees 
there will develop the opportunity for an 
effective response to fair treatment and the 
rejection of radical and unprincipled 
leadership." 

However, Mr. Osbourne warned, working 
with a union means something more than 
always, or even frequently, giving in, and 
the making of gratutious concessions and 
hand-outs. Appeasement practised con- 
sistently in negotiations, he added, means 
the loss of self-respect. 

"In the case of hand-outs," he said, "the 
old principle that 'what costs nothing is 
worth nothing' has more than its usual 
validity and is, I think, a cardinal principle 
of good employer-employee relations. A 
union executive should work for what it 
gets." 

The employer should recognize, he con- 
tinued, that the union executive must 
justify its leadership in the eyes of its 
membership. "&ood leadership should, 
within limits, be allowed to lead and, on 
certain occasions, it should be expected 
and encouraged to accept responsibility" 

Management's Prerogative 

A third principle which inspires and 
actuates enlightened management, Mr 
Osbourne continued, is that it acts in the 
knowledge that it is management's pre- 
rogative and duty to run the business and 
its operations in the best interests of the 
company. 

The exercise of this authority and pre- 
rogative with fairness and firmness is an 
art and a trust. The art is in the leader- 
ship which gets things done and arrives at 
fair settlements without appearing to make 
arbitrary decisions. The trust is in pre- 
serving those essential prerogatives without 
which there cannot be adequate corporate 
direction, unity, and progress. It is well 
to recognize that there are certain rights 
and responsibilities which must be retained 
by management if direction, discipline and 
even company survival are to be assured 
Not infrequently, it becomes necessary to 
resist the ambitions of a union leader who 



977 



is out to dominate both his constituency 
and the company for which he works, and 
whose avowed policy is the gradual erosion 
of management's rights. More importantly, 
it is also necessary to resist the temptation 
to purchase peace by bartering those rights. 
Employees respect honestly held manage- 
ment views, based on sound business judg- 
ment and backed by experience and a record 
of efficient and profitable operation. The 
application of this principle may sometimes 
involve difficult decisions but these will be 
surmounted if the foundation is laid in an 
understanding that when decisions are 
arrived at they are rational, necessary and 
firm. 



Frank Employer-Employee Discussion 

The present business outlook may in- 
volve lay-offs, said Mr. Osbourne, and its 
evaluation can be a matter of frank discus- 
sion and understanding between the parties. 

"It should be remembered," he empha- 
sized, "that the business outlook is manage- 
ment's estimate of the situation. Its 
validity may be questioned by the union 
if it is produced and discussed only at 
the time of bargaining." He added: — 

The development of mutual confidence in 
its use can be assisted by additional frank 
discussions of the business outlook on occa- 
sions other than at the time of wage nego- 
tiations. An interested union executive 
should know something of the difficulties and 
successes in securing orders. They are much 
more likely to be impressed with the 
sincerity and competence of management if 
they periodically hear about these matters 
and not just at times when a falling-off in 
business is expected to produce a corre- 
sponding falling-off in wage demands. 

Interruption of Good Relations 

The final principle put forward by Mr. 
Osbourne did not, he felt, require expan- 
sion. If fundamental differences of opinion 
arise and cause temporary suspension of 
good relations it must be remembered that 
both management and employees will hope 
soon to restore these relations. He sounded 
this warning: — 

There will be times when in the heat of 
battle misrepresentations may be made in 



appealing for public support of an extreme 
point of view, or perhaps of an extreme 
course of action, which is not in the public 
interest. If such misrepresentations arise it 
is your duty to furnish correct information 
but let it be done with an economy of words 
and, if possible, with words which are not 
loaded with venom or spite. 

Business Outlook Only One Facet 

The impact of the business outlook, 
whether good or bad, is but one facet of 
employer-employee relations, Mr. Osbourne 
said in conclusion. 

It possesses the somewhat doubtful dis- 
tinction of being able to throw its influence 
from one to the other as between employer 
and employee depending on the level of 
business activity. That distinction it 
acquires in a free enterprise system which 
we support and which we want to continue. 
We should consider ourselves fortunate that 
we live in a country in which not only 
employers but also employees are over- 
whelmingly in favour of that system. They, 
too, recognize that as long as businessmen 
and corporations are free to take business 
risks, and to do so without the shackles of 
permits and the regulations which are essen- 
tial in a planned economy, we will have 
cyclical swings and, therefore, varying busi- 
ness outlooks. But they also know that for 
them, too, there is a greater freedom of 
choice and action and with it a corre- 
spondingly greater reward for initiative, 
judgment and stability. 

I have said that the impact of the present 
business outlook is not an unmixed blessing 
in employer-employee relations despite some 
temporary advantages it may give the 
employer. I believe we can also say that 
it is not an unmixed misfortune in our 
economy. During a recession the business 
man has a little more time to take a good 
look at his organization and his employer- 
employee relations. The union leader has a 
little more cause to take a look at the 
ultimate effect of a policy of demanding 
more and more ad infinitum and thus pricing 
us and them out of the market. Both busi- 
nessmen and union leaders have every 
reason to benefit by these experiences, and, 
recognizing their respective functions and 
responsibilities, they should also recognize 
that it is their duty to build towards an 
era of greater mutual understanding in 
employer-employee relations. 



Injury Frequency Rate in U.S. Factories Reaches New Low 



The injury frequency rates of factory 
workers in the United States reached a 
new low of 11-8 disabling injuries per 
million man-hours worked in the first 
quarter of 1954, according to preliminary 
reports. 

The U.S. Department of Labour 
announced that this rate was 2 per cent 



below the previous low of 12-1 recorded 
in the fourth quarter of 1953 and 14 per 
cent below the average for the first quarter 
of 1953. 

Last year was a record year for safety. 
This year promises to be better, the 
Department said. 



978 



CMA Surveys Older Worker Problem 



750 Association members reply to questionnaire on difficulties met 
in hiring or continuing to employ older workers, maximum age limits, 
collective agreement provisions etc. Firms offer many suggestions 



Twenty-two per cent of the employers 
who replied to a questionnaire distributed 
to members of the Canadian Manufac- 
turers' Association by the CMA Indus- 
trial Relations Committee reported that 
they had no difficulty in continuing to 
employ their older workers. Approxi- 
mately 750 replies were received. 

The Committee decided to prepare and 
send out the questionnaire because it had 
found that no reliable and comprehensive 
survey of the older worker problem had 
been made to ascertain the extent and 
nature of the problem in Canada. It 
wanted to learn more about the barriers 
that face older persons seeking to obtain, 
or even retain, employment. 

Many of the obstacles often cited by 
employers, it is pointed out in an article 
in the May issue of Industrial Canada, 
the CMA's official publication, were 
proved unreasonable and without founda- 
tion by the memorandum on the older 
worker prepared by the Department of 
Labour (L.G., Feb. 1953, p. 203). The 
article analyses the replies to the ques- 
tionnaire, which was prepared in co- 
operation with the Department of Labour, 
the Unemployment Insurance Commission, 
and the Department of Veterans Affairs. 

The six major questions asked of 
employers were: — 

1. What circumstances or conditions in 
your plant make it difficult to continue to 
employ the older worker? 

2. What circumstances or conditions in 
your plant make it difficult to hire older 
workers? (These two questions were 
followed by a supplementary question asking 
the employer what steps he thought should 
be taken to continue employing and to hire 
older workers.) 

3. Have you any maximum age limits on 
the hire of new employees? What are they 
and what categories of workers are affected? 
What circumstances have induced your com- 
pany to establish them? Have you had any 
difficulty in your recruiting as a result? 

4. Do the wage provisions of your collec- 
tive agreement prevent you from employing, 
at lower rates, people whose productive 
capacity has decreased? 

5. Has your company at any time made 
a survey of productivity, absenteeism, or 
labour turnover by age groups? If so, 
could we be furnishd with a report? 

6. Approximately what percentage of your 
employees are over 45? Over 55? Over 60? 
Over 65? What is the average age of your 
employees? 



Twenty-two per cent of those replying 
slated they had no difficulty in retaining 
workers while the remainder noted that 
the major problem was that work was too 
heavy or too hard for the older employee. 
Other factors, in order of importance, were 
the older worker's declining production, 
the existence of a retirement or pension 
plan and poor health. This ranking 
remained constant in all groups of plants 
with the exception of those employing more 
than 1,000 workers where a pension age 
(generally 65) was found to be the main 
difficulty. 

As for suggestions on how to keep older 
workers in employment, the survey 
revealed that most firms recommended 
moving the employee to a more suitable 
job or paying him according to produc- 
tion. Other proposals in this field in- 
cluded a deferment under the pension 
plan, raising the compulsory retirement 
age, placing older workers on half shift or 
reduced hours, taking them out of seniority 
and finally, installing machinery to make 
the work lighter. 

Some 94 per cent of the returns noted 
difficulties in the way of hiring older 
workers. Among such difficulties were 
listed the following: jobs available were 
too heavy or hard, too many older workers 
were already employed, older workers were 
too old to learn, and the existence of a 
pension plan. Other important difficulties 
were the existence of a health insurance 
or benefit plan, company policy, lower 
learning ability, younger workers worth 
more training because of longer prospec- 
tive service, and the union contract pro- 
visions with regard to seniority, wages, and 
retirement conditions which militated 
against the hiring of older workers. 

So far as making it easier to hire older 
persons, many of the replies suggested 
giving such workers preference on lighter 
and non-technical occupations and the 
hiring of an employee because of ability 
and not because of age alone. Several 
firms suggested decreasing wages. Other 
proposals were to revise the pension plan 
or not to place the worker on the plan; 
to split jobs in two; and to have a gov- 
ernment pension at age 65. 

Of the firms replying to the question- 
naire, fewer than 20 per cent reported 
having a maximum age limit and those 



92110—5 



979 



did stated that it was on account of 
the establishment of a pension plan or 
because of the heavy work involved in the 
plant's operation. 

On the question of wages, those who 
noted that the wage provisions of their 
collective agreements prevented the 
employment of older workers at lower rates 
outnumbered by one-third those who did 
not. It was pointed out here that this 
particular question may not have applied 
to some firms who answered it, several 
concerns employing fewer than 50 persons, 
few of whom have collective agreements. 



Thirteen of the plants replying had at one 
time or another made surveys of absen- 
teeism, labour turnover and production. 
These showed that younger workers were 
absent more often and that older workers 
were "steadier". 

The average age of the workers in the 
plants covered by the survey was given 
as 37 years, those of office workers as 
36-5. The article concluded by noting that 
older workers are still experiencing diffi- 
culty in obtaining employment and that 
the problem today is not improving. 



WOMANPOWER 



The 4th instalment of "Worn an power, a Handbook of Source Material on 
Wage-Earning Women in Canada", soon to be published in booklet form 

XVII— Canadian Law and Wage-Earning Women 



Jurisdiction for legislative enactments in 
Canada is divided between the Federal 
Government and the ten provincial govern- 
ments. Under the British North America 
Act, which in Canada is the highest basic 
constitutional enactment, the provinces have 
primary authority over questions concern- 
ing property and civil rights. The Federal 
Government has certain authority in these 
matters also, which is usually exercised in 
conjunction with or by assent of provincial 
governments. For instance, when the 
Employment and Social Insurance Act was 
passed by the Federal Government in 1935, 
its constitutional authority was challenged 
m the House of Commons and finally, 
following referral to the Privy Council of 
Great Britain, it was declared to be ultra 
vires of the Federal Parliament. 

To overcome this difficulty, after con- 
sultation with the provinces, the Constitu- 
tion was subsequently amended to give 
the federal authorities jurisdiction over 
unemployment insurance. In 1940, the 
Unemployment Insurance Act, having been 
previously submitted to the provinces for 
assent, was finally implemented as an 
( xclusively federal measure. 

There is now in effect in Canada an 
impressive number of statutes, passed by 
the provincial governments, that cover a 
wide range of subjects coming under the 
general headings of property and civil 
rights. These statutes are not uniform in 
all provinces, nor were they enacted at 
one and the same time. It might almost 



be said they emerged, or came into being, 
as the country developed; it must be 
remembered that there has been distinct 
variation in the rate and time of such 
development in the individual provinces. 

Thus, some provincial legislatures pro- 
vided for protection against exploitation of 
women and children in industry before 
other provinces have felt the need to do 
so, and have carried such provisions farther. 
Nevertheless, a study of legislative measures 
in effect in all provinces shows a certain 
uniformity of pattern. 

This uniformity is not accidental; a well- 
drafted, well-conceived piece of legislation 
attracts such attention that it becomes the 
example or prototype for all other prov- 
inces. For instance, all provinces have 
enacted Apprenticeship and Factories Acts, 
in one form or other and at varying times. 
The same is true of other types of labour 
enactments, social welfare provisions, and 
measures designed to safeguard the rights 
of the individual and to uphold the 
prerogative of the province. 

Most of the provincial enactments with 
which wage-earning women are most 
directly concerned may be classified as 
labour, social welfare, legal and educational. 
(For the purpose of a concise presentation 
of the most general of these, a list of 
typical statutes and the provinces in which 
they are in effect will be published in the 
booklet, WOMANPOWER, a Handbook of 
Source Material on Wage-Earning Women 
in Canada.) 



980 



To ensure proper working conditions and 
equitable hours of work, wages, etc., in 
Canada, various pieces of legislation gov- 
erning the employment of women have 
been enacted throughout the years. As 
matters of this kind come within the scope 
of provincial jurisdiction, such enactments, 
for the most part, have been made by the 
different provincial governments. A recent 



publication of the Federal Department of 
Labour, Provincial Labour Standards, sum- 
marizes, by province, the regulations gov- 
erning child labour, holidays, hours of work, 
minimum wages, weekly rest day, and work- 
men's compensation. These regulations, 
while applying to all workers, in many 
instances have special reference to condi- 
tions affecting employment for women. 



XVIII— Women are Persons 



In the lobby of the Senate Chamber 
of the Parliament Buildings at Ottawa is 



a bronze plaque 
inscription : — 



bearing the following 



THIS TABLET IS PLACED HERE BY THE 
CANADIAN FEDERATION OF BUSINESS AND 
PROFESSIONAL W O M E N ' S CLUBS 

TO HONOUR 
MRS. HENRIETTA MUIR EDWARDS, MACLEOD 
MAGISTRATE EMILY F. MURPHY, EDMONTON 
MRS. NELLIE L. MCCLUNG, EDMONTON 
MRS. LOUISE C. MCKENNY, CLARESHOLM 
HONOURABLE IRENE PARLBY, ALIX 
ALL OF THE PROVINCE OF ALBERTA 



TO FURTHER THE CAUSE OF WOMANKIND THESE FIVE OUTSTANDING PIONEER WOMEN 
CAUSED STEPS TO BE TAKEN RESULTING IN THE RECOGNITION BY THE PRIVY COUNCIL 
OF WOMEN AS PERSONS ELIGIBLE FOR APPOINTMENT TO THE SENATE OF CANADA 
THIS MOVEMENT WAS INAUGURATED BY MAGISTRATE EMILY F. MURPHY 



There is a story behind this plaque. It 
concerns the five women named in the 
inscription and commemorates their faith 
in the belief that women should have equal 
rights with men in matters of govern- 
ment. Over a period of years these women 
steadily maintained their efforts to have 
women in Canada recognized as "persons" 
and the point at issue was the request, 
first made by the Federated Women's 
Institutes of Canada, that women be 
appointed to the Senate of Canada. To 
this request the Government's reply had 
been that women were not persons within 
the meaning of the British North America 
Act, and accordingly they could not 
qualify for such appointment. 

In 1927, Mrs. Emily F. Murphy of 
Edmonton, the first woman magistrate to 
be appointed in the British Empire, inau- 
gurated a plan of campaign to carry this 
matter to a completion. Magistrate 
Murphy had had her own first decision 
appealed on the ground that she was not 
a "person" according to the meaning of 



the word in the British North America 
Act and that, therefore, under the law she 
was not eligible to sit as a magistrate. 
Subsequently, this question of Magistrate 
Murphy's eligibility was referred to the 
Appeal Court of Alberta; that court 
decided that she was a "person". 

Under Section 60 of the Supreme Court 
Act, Mrs. Murphy and her associates sub- 
mitted to the Supreme Court of Canada 
the following question: "Is a woman a 
person within the meaning of Section 24 
of the British North America Act?". The 
first decision rendered was that women were 
not "qualified persons". Whereupon, the 
five women decided to carry the matter 
to the final court of appeal for Canada 
at that time, the Judicial Committee' of 
the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. 

The Lord Chancellor of Great Britain 
recalled that on May 20, 1867, John Stuart 
Mill moved, in a committee of the same 
House of Commons that passed the British 
North America Act, an amendment to the 



92110—5^ 



981 



Representation of the Peoples Bill (an act 
to secure women's suffrage) that the word 
"man'' be deleted and the word "person" 
be substituted therefor. The Lord Chan- 
cellor ruled accordingly that the term 
"persons'' as used in the British North 
America Act must have been intended to 
include women. 

This ruling removed the major obstacle 
to the appointment of women as senators. 
The decision was handed down on October 
18, 1929, and in the same year, the first 
women senator, the Hon. Cairine W. Wilson, 
was appointed by the Right Hon. W. L. 
Mackenzie King, Prime Minister of 
Canada. In February 1935, the Right Hon. 
R. B. Bennett, who succeeded Mr. King 
as Prime Minister, appointed a second 
woman senator, the Hon. Iva C. Fallis. 

In recognition of the services of the five 
Alberta women and after more than five 
years of representation by the Canadian 
Federation of Business and Professional 
Women's Clubs, the plaque was unveiled, 
appropriately enough, in the lobby of the 
Senate Chamber. Speaking at the unveiling 



on June 11, 1938, the Prime Minister, the 
Right Hon. W. L. Mackenzie King, said: — 

In centering public opinion upon women's 
eligibility for appointment to the Senate, 
the five Alberta women performed a task 
much larger than the specific one to which 
their immediate efforts were directed. 

They helped to raise in the most effective 
manner, the whole question of women's 
rights and responsibilities with respect to 
the conduct of public affairs. They did 
more than that; they helped to throw into 
bold relief the special gifts which it is 
within the power of women to bring to the 
organized life of the community and of the 
nation. Endowed with special powers of 
intuition and sympathy, a keen insight into 
human values and, in most cases, an abiding 
loyalty to cherished institutions and prin- 
ciples, woman possesses and has revealed in 
public as in private life, a quite excep- 
tional capacity for sustained and unselfish 
service. 

On May 19, 1953, the Prime Minister, 
the Right Hon. Louis St. Laurent, 
appointed two more women to the Senate, 
the Hon. Muriel McQueen Fergusson and 
the Hon. Marianna Beauchamp Jodoin. 
Canada's fifth woman senator, the Hon. 
Nancv Hodges, was appointed November 5, 
1953. 



XIX— Women's Organizations in Canada 



Today the interests and activities of 
Canadian women are widespread. This is 
evidenced by the large number of clubs 
and organizations to which Canadian women 
belong and which have come to exert such 
a considerable influence on Canadian life. 
There are the "purpose" clubs, those con- 
cerned with the economic and social well- 
being of women; the welfare groups; the 
church-centered groups who work through 
communities; the professional and educa- 
tional organizations; the service clubs; the 
ones associated with the labour move- 



ments; and the cultural groups. All these 
are part of the Canadian scene and in 
considering Canadian women, their needs, 
rights and interests, these organizations 
must be borne in mind. Therefore, a list 
of women's groups, though necessarily less 
than all-inclusive, has been compiled as 
representative of a wide cross-section of 
women's work and life in Canada. (The 
list will be included in WOMANPOWER, 
a Handbook of Source Material on Wage- 
Earning Women in Canada when it is 
published in booklet form.) 



XX— Publications and Books of Reference 



To determine the status of women in a 
nation, there must be a comprehensive 
knowledge of the history of the country, 
the nature of its economy and its basic 
laws and practices. In Canada such infor- 
mation on these subjects is obtainable 
through the publications of various depart- 
ments of the federal and provincial 
governments. 

Most of these publications are readily 
available for interested readers in all parts 
of Canada because "the Queen's Printer is 
required by law to furnish free of charge 
one copy of any government publication, 



not of a confidential nature, to designated 
classes of libraries in Canada, for preserva- 
tion and educational purposes, so that all 
the public may have access to all govern- 
ment publications".* 

Copies of most of the publications may 
be purchased at a moderate cost. Some 
are distributed, on request, free of charge. 
(A selected list of publications of federal 
government departments that will provide 



* Canadian Government Publications, Con- 
solidated Catalogue, 1953. 



982 



much valuable reference material on wage- 
earning women in Canada will be included 
in WOMANPOWER, a Handbook oj 
Source Material on Wage-Earning Women 
in Canada. While but few of the many 



publications which might be included in 
.such a list arc given, those selected cover 
subjects bearing directly and indirectly on 
matters of interest or concern to Canadian 
wage-earning women.) 



Fatal Industrial Accidents in Canada* 

during the First Quarter of 1954 

First-quarter fatalities were 93 fewer than those in last quarter of 1953, 
with 242 being recorded compared with 335 in October -December 



There were 242 1 industrial fatalities in 
Canada in the first quarter of 1954, accord- 
ing to the latest reports received by the 
Department of Labour. This marks a 
decrease of 93 fatalities from the previous 
quarter, in which 335 were recorded, in- 
cluding 11 in a supplementary list. 

During the quarter under review, five 
accidents resulted in the deaths of three 
or more persons in each case. Two of 
them occurred on the same day, January 
22. At Lac Casse, Que., 10 men employed 
at a large hydro development were killed 
when one of the cables supporting the 
platform on which they were working broke 
loose and plunged the men 80 feet to the 
bottom of a shaft. Near Dorval, Que., 
three men empoyed by a motor transport 
company lost their lives when the truck in 
w T hich they were travelling was struck by 
a train at a level crossing. 

On January 29, near Catfish, Que., three 
lumbermen died as the result of a highway 
collision. The accident occurred when the 
truck in which they were riding crashed 
into the rear of a stalled truck loaded with 
sawn lumber. In an accident at sea on 
February 9, three fishermen from Glace 
Bay, N.S., were drowned when their fishing 
vessel was swamped during a heavy storm. 
At Beaver Cove, B.C., three loggers lost 
their lives on March 8, when the truck 
carrying them back to their camp went out 
of control and struck an embankment. 



*See Tables H-l to H-5 at back of book. 



J The number of industrial fatalities that 
occurred during the first quarter of 1954 is 
probably greater than the figure now quoted. 
Information on accidents which occur but 
are not reported in time for inclusion in 
the quarterly articles is recorded in supple- 
mentary lists and statistics are amended 
accordingly. 



The industrial fatalities recorded in 
these quarterly articles, prepared by the 
Economics and Research Branch, are 
those fatal accidents which involved 
persons gainfully employed and which 
occurred during the course of, or which 
arose out of, their employment. These 
include deaths which resulted from 
industrial diseases as reported by the 
provincial Workmen's Compensation 
Boards. 

Statistics on industrial fatalities are 
compiled from reports received from the 
various Workmen's Compensation Boards, 
the Board of Transport Commissioners 
and certain other official sources. News- 
paper reports are used to supplement 
these data. For those industries not 
covered by # workmen's compensation legis- 
lation, newspaper reports are the Depart- 
ment's only source of information. It 
is possible, therefore, that coverage in 
such industries as agriculture, fishing 
and trapping and certain of the service 
groups is not as complete as in those 
industries which are covered by compen- 
sation legislation. Similarly, a small 
number of traffic accidents which are in 
fact industrial may be omitted from the 
Department's records because of lack of 
information in press reports. 



Grouped by industries, the largest number 
of fatalities, 47, was recorded in the mining 
industry. Of these, 25 were in metalliferous 
mining, 13 in non-metallic mining and nine 
in coal mining. In the previous three 
months 45 fatalities were listed in this 
industry, including 24 in metalliferous 
mining, 13 in non-metallic mining and 
eight in coal mining. 

In manufacturing there were 42 indus- 
trial deaths during the quarter under 
review, 11 occurring in the wood products 
group, nine in the iron and steel group and 
six in each of the paper and transportation 
equipment groups. During the previous 



983 



three months 65 deaths were recorded, in- 
cluding 14 in iron and steel, 12 in wood 
products and eight in the food and 
beverages group. 

Thirty-eight persons died as a result of 
accidents in the transportation industry 
during the first quarter of 1953. Of these, 
IS were in steam railways and 14 in local 
and highway transportation. In the 
previous three-month period 47 fatalities 
wen 1 listed, of which 22 occurred in local 
and highway transportation, 11 in water 
transportation and 10 in steam railways. 

There were 37 industrial fatalities in the 
construction industry during the quarter 
under review, of which 18 occurred in 
miscellaneous construction, 12 in buildings 
and structures and seven in highway and 
bridge construction. During the fourth 
quarter of 1953, 68 deaths were recorded, 
including 32 in buildings and structures 
and 18 in each of the highway and bridge 
and miscellaneous construction groups. 

In the logging industry 34 fatalities were 
listed in the first quarter of 1954, com- 
pared with 37 in the previous three months. 
In the first quarter last year, 50 accidental 
deaths were recorded in this industry. 



An analysis of the causes of the 242 
fatalities that occurred during the quarter 
shows that 65 (27 per cent) of the victims 
had been "struck by tools, machinery, 
moving vehicles or other objects". Within 
this group the largest number of deaths 
was caused by falling trees or limbs (13), 
objects falling or flying in mines and 
quarries (12), and materials falling from 
stockpiles or loads (10). "Falls and slips" 
were responsible for 51 (21 per cent) of 
the total deaths during the period. These 
include 13 resulting from falls from scaffolds 
or stagings, seven from falls into shafts, 
pits, etc., and six from falls into rivers, 
lakes, etc. In the classification "collisions, 
derailments, wrecks, etc.," 46 deaths were 
recorded. Of these, 36 were the result of 
accidents involving automobiles or trucks. 

By province of occurrence the largest 
number of fatalities was in Ontario, where 
there were 82. In Quebec, there were 52 
and in British Columbia, 43. 

During the quarter under review there 
were 86 fatalities in January, 77 in Feb- 
ruary and 79 in March. 



UMW Seeks to Add Seamen, Longshoremen to Its Ranks 



The United Mine Workers of America 
(CIO) are apparently seeking to enroll 
seamen and longshoremen in Canada and 
the United States in its District 50, which 
represents non-mining industries. 

Silby Barrett, Canadian Director of the 
UMW, announced in Toronto recently that 
a new marine division was being set up 
within the UMW's Canadian District 50. 
He also said he was increasing the staff 
of three Montreal locals of the UMW. 

The UMW already represents about 1,000 
seamen in Canada through an affiliated 
union, the National Maritime Federation, 
headed by Captain H. N. McMaster in 
Montreal. 

Mr. Barrett's statement calls attention 
to certification proceedings now before the 
Ontario Labour Relations Board to decide 
whether the UMW or the Brotherhood of 
Railway and Steamship Clerks (AFL-TLC) 
will represent 103 dock workers, employees 
of the Eastern Canada Stevedoring Com- 
pany of Toronto, for which the UMW is 
seeking certification. 



The UMW claims it has signed up 90 
members of the Brotherhood. On June 17, 
the Brotherhood and the company formally 
signed a collective agreement. 

In the United States, John L. Lewis, 
International President of the UMW, 
announced at the end of May the forma- 
tion of a United Marine Workers Division 
of the UMW's District 50, and said it 
would henceforth represent tugboat workers 
at eight Atlantic ports. The tugboat union 
is said to number about 9,000 workers. 
There are about 45,000 such marine crew- 
men on the coastal and inland waters of 
the United States and Canada. 

Shortly before Mr. Lewis's announce- 
ment, New York Local 333 of the United 
Marine Division of the old International 
Longshoremen's Association voted to join 
the UMW as an affiliate of its District 50. 
Of the 3,942 ballots sent out by mail, 
1,857 returned marked in favour and 419 
against. More than 1,600 members of the 
local did not vote. The local now forms 
the nucleus of the UMW's new maritime 
division. 



984 



Labour Organization 



Canadian Government and Worker 
Delegates Address ILO Conference 

Deputy Minister A. H. Brown, head of delegation, and Claude Jodoin 
worker delegate, participate in debate on Director-General's report. 
Paul Ramadier, former Premier of France, chosen conference president 



"Universality is necessary to social 
justice which, in turn, is indispensible to 
peace," declared Paul Ramadier, former- 
Premier of France, at the opening of the 
37th annual conference of the Interna- 
tional Labour Organization in Geneva, 
June 2. Mr. Ramadier was elected by 
acclamation President of the conference. 
More than 650 delegates and advisers from 
66 of the 69 ILO member countries 
attended. 

The conference, which was officially 
opened by Dr. A. M. Malik, Pakistan 
Minister of Labour and Chairman of the 
ILO Governing Body, was addressed by 
A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister of Labour 
and head of the Canadian delegation, and 
Claude Jodoin, Canadian worker delegate 
and a Vice-president of the Trades and 
Labour Congress of Canada. 

Mr. Ramadier said very few countries 
in the world today have not decided to 
link their efforts and those of their people 
with the ILO. 

"We are thus coming closer to our ideal 
objective, which is to bring all the peoples 
of the world together," he said. 

On the subject of social justice, Mr. 
Ramadier said: — 

No reform, no advantage, secured by any 
worker can be regarded as permanent unless 
it is also enjoyed by all the other workers 
of the world. 

If some obtain what others still desire, 
competition on world markets endangers 
their achievement. The greater degree of 
productivity in some industries, distance, 
customs barriers and protective measures of 
all kinds may partition the world and 
impede the mass invasion of products 
obtained by more intense effort, smaller 
remuneration, lower standards of life. 

But these are feeble barriers; productivity 
may and should be raised even in the least- 
developed countries; competition becomes 
keener when output exceeds the resources 
of consumers. 

When the storm of economic depression 
shakes the capitalist economy, is there not 
a risk that social reform will be thrown 
overboard .if it has not become so universal 
that it is made fast amid the stress of 
competition by the conscience of mankind? 



In welcoming the return of the USSR 
to ILO membership, Mr. Ramadier said . 
"Religious, economic and political barriers 
do not separate us as completely as some 
exaggerated attitudes might lead us to 
believe. We co-exist, and co-existence in 
the same world at a given time creates in 
men a material solidarity which we cannot 
throw off in peace or war." 

Mr. Ramadier paid tribute to the late 
Leon Jouhaux, French trade union leader 
who was the workers' vice-chairman of the 
ILO's Governing Body when he died in 
April this year. Similar tributes were made 
by employer and worker delegates and by 
ILO Director-General David A. Morse. 

Before declaring the conference open, 
Dr. Malik reviewed the subjects to be 
discussed. He said that peace must be 
built "upon a foundation of understanding 
each other's views, an appreciation of each 
other's difficulties and sufferings, and efforts 
for the solution of these difficulties on a 
basis of mutual give and take. 

"Material exploitation, economic exploi- 
tation and the exploitation of a situation 
by one nation or group against another 
are absolutely foreign to the principles upon 
which this organization has been built. 
We must keep the cold war outside our 
arena," he said. 

A. H. Brown 

As head of the Canadian delegation at 
the Conference, Mr. Brown said the 
Director-General's review of economic and 
social conditions in his annual report 
helped Canadians to appraise their own 
problems in a broad international context. 

"The adjustments," he said, "which have 
been taking place in Canada since the last 
quarter of 1953 result mainly from two 
developments. The first is the effect of 
the transition from a lengthy period of 
rapid expansion, during which strong 
inflationary forces were frequently present, 
to a stage where production and con- 
sumption are in better balance. The 



985 




A. H. Brown 

Heads Canadian Delegation 

second is the increased competition in both 
domestic and international trade following 
the return to a buyers' market." He 
continued: — 

Canada is dependent for approximately 20 
to 25 per cent of its gross national product 
on exports to other countries, and we are 
therefore much concerned with the main- 
tenance of high levels of income and 
employment all over the world. We strongly 
support the views of the ILO in stressing 
the importance of maintaining a high level 
of demand in importing countries, as well as 
the importance of international co-operation 
in pursuing this desirable objective. 

Canada has also taken an active part in 
the development of the General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade and the International 
Monetary Fund. It has supported the 
development of assistance programs to less 
economically developed countries through the 
Colombo Plan, the United Nations Technical 
Assistance Program and in other ways. 

All this effort to lower tariff barriers and 
encourage the free movement of goods, 
although good business for a country so 
dependent on international trade, is never- 
theless a policy that is not always easy 
for Canada to maintain, particularly in 
periods of stress in certain industries when 
employers lose business and workers lose 
jobs because of imports from other coun- 
tries, said Mr. Brown, adding: — 

The Canadian Government has felt that 
the short-run temptation to restrict the 
importation of goods should be resisted in 
the interests of a healthy and expanding 
world economy. 



The economic readjustments which we have 
been experiencing in Canada have served 
to bring about a greater stability in con- 
sumer prices. This steady price level, com- 
bined with continuing increases in wages, 
has meant that we have enjoyed higher real 
incomes. On the other hand, these economic 
readjustments have brought an easing in 
manpower requirements which has caused 
some increase in unemployment. This in- 
crease in unemployment began to show up 
last winter, when we normally have a 
seasonal increase in unemployment due 
largely to our northern climate. The under- 
lying factors responsible for the great 
expansion of economic activity in Canada 
are, however, still present. This gives us 
confidence that we shall move ahead without 
any serious economic difficulties. 

Referring to the Director-General's 
emphasis on housing in his annual report, 
Mr. Brown said that in Canada we rely 
primarily on private initiative in the 
housing field although some projects are 
publicly initiated. 

The policy of the Federal Government, 
he said, is to provide financial assistance 
to those who on their own initiative desire 
to improve their housing accommodation. 
Such government assistance takes the form 
of financial help and research on housing 
designs, construction techniques and 
materials. 

"Since 1945," said Mr. Brown, "the 
number of families in Canada has increased 
by 700,000, while slightly more than 700,000 
housing units have been built in the same 
period. This means that we have not yet 
caught up entirely with the accumulated 
backlog of housing requirements. 

"We are not faced with an overwhelming 
problem in this regard, as we built more 
than 100,000 units in 1953 alone and almost 
as many in several other post-war years." 

Mr. Brown outlined the work that more 
than 1,000 labour-management production 
committees in Canada are doing to 
strengthen the worker's sense of participa- 
tion in the productive activity of his 
employment. 

Claude Jodoin 

Mr. Jodoin, Canada's worker delegate at 
the Conference, stated he would like to 
say that the lot of the Canadian worker 
has improved since last year, "but that is 
not the case". Changes have occurred in 
the economy of Canada, he said, but they 
have not all been favourable to either the 
workers or the population in general. He 
continued: — 

Our defence program is tending to stabilize 
and the prosperity we knew in the years 
immediately following the war is diminish- 
ing. Certain factors have prevented us from 
maintaining the high level of employment 



986 



and production. Among them I should 
mention the recovery of the European 
economy, the modernization of our railroad 
equipment, the poor sales of our wheat, the 
increase in production in many places where 
wages are extremely low compared to those 
of the Canadian workers, and the absence 
of even the most elementary protection of 
our sea trades, both our coast trade and our 
internal navigation. 

These factors and certain others have 
brought about in the last few months the 
worst wave of unemployment that we have 
known for many years in Canada. More 
than half a million workers in Canada were 
without employment when this wave reached 
its maximum less than three months ago. 

Mr. Jodoin said that about one million 
immigrants have been admitted to Canada 
since the war. Such a policy, he said, is 
"not logical" and "no country in the world 
can go very far on such a road without 
opening the way to severe difficulties of all 
sorts and without increasing still further 
the number of its unemployed. 

"The trade union movement of Canada 
has unanimously called for less intense 
immigration and for greater attention to 
our economic and social situation. This 
unanimous request was finally heard by our 
Government recently; but there is no 
doubt that new restrictions will have to be 
imposed and that only skilled workers 
whom our industries really need can be 
admitted." 

Mr. Jodoin continued: — 

We Canadian workers understand per- 
fectly well that according to many standards 
we are much better off than millions of 
our working brethern in many other coun- 
tries. But we consider that their lot must 
be improved, not our conditions worsened. 

It is because we think this that we do 
not approve the policy of our Government 
and employers regarding immigration and 
social security. We can hardly speak on 
social and economic policy, for the Govern- 
ment and the employers of my country have 
a policy of social security which is watered 
down; and therefore the workers suffer. 
For years past all Canadian trade unions 
have unanimously called for a social security 
program and a national health insurance 
program, but up until now we have obtained 
only timid measures such as unemployment 
insurance and old age pensions. 

Concluding his address, Mr. Jodoin said : 
"I would just like to tell the world in 
general that I have no hesitation in saying 
that Canadian workers do not subscribe to 
all the aspects of the policy of our Govern- 
ment regarding economic and social 
matters." 

Other Speakers 

K. P. Mookerjee, Minister of Labour of 
West Bengal, and Indian Government dele- 
gate, said "a silent revolution by consent" 
was under way in India. He said that the 




Claude Jodoin 

Canada's Worker Delegate 

peoples' participation was being secured in 
transforming the country's rural economy. 

"The land gift movement which seeks to 
persuade owners of big estates to make 
free gifts of land to the actual cultivators 
is daily growing in momentum. Different 
social forces which are now operating on 
the rural scene in India have the promise 
of transforming life in the countryside and 
in this process the maximum use is being 
made of the initiative and enthusiasm of 
the local population," he said. 

Nikolai I. Rogovsky, Chief of the 
Labour Department of the Planning Com- 
mission of the Soviet Union, told the 
delegates his Government considered "that 
in spite of the existing divergencies in the 
social makeup of the countries which are 
members of the ILO there is a possibility 
of reaching the necessary mutual under- 
standing based on co-operation." 

It is to be hoped, he said, that the ILO 
"will devote its activities towards relaxa- 
tion of international tension, to limiting 
armaments, and thus improve the condi- 
tion of the working masses". 

Mr. Rogovsky criticized the Director- 
General's report for glossing over "the 
difficulties of the oncoming crisis in the 
capitalistic countries". 

William L. McGrath, United States 
employer delegate, said he thought the 



987 




— photo by J. Cadoux, Geneva 
Harry Taylor, Canada's employer dele- 
gate, presiding at one of the plenary 
sessions of the 37th International Labour 
Conference. He was elected one of the 
three conference vice-presidents. Seated 
beside him is the Clerk of the Conference. 



ILO could accomplish "far more by the 
interchange of ideas than by passing 
Conventions". 

"Progress in the standard of living," he 
said, "arises primarily from better employer- 
employee relations, better production 
hum hods, better marketing methods, 
better utilization of new techniques, and 
above all, a fuller development of human 
understanding. None of these objectives 
can be achieved by legislation. Only when 
free men of labour and management 
aggressively support the principles of a 
free economy can we move forward to a 
bright future for everyone." 

Sir William Bodkin, New Zealand Min- 
ister of Social Security, declared that 
unless the underdeveloped countries are 
aided, the position of the world "will 
become progressively worse and will con- 
stitute a serious threat to world peace". 

He said his country held the opinion 
that the best way to help the under- 
developed countries was to assist them to 
help themselves. 

Steering Committee 

In a plenary session the conference 
amended its standing orders to increase the 
size of its Steering Committee to 20 gov- 
ernments, ten workers and ten employers. 
The Steering Committee was formerly 
composed of 16 governments, eight workers 
and eight employers. 

The new members are Australia, the 
Federal Republic of Germany, Japan and 
the Soviet Union. 



Resolution on Shorter Hours Unanimously Approved 



The general conference of the Inter- 
national Labour Organization gave 
unanimous approval to a resolution 
suggesting that the ILO initiate 
measures with a view to a possible 
reduction of working hours where 
desirable or practicable. 

The resolution invited the ILO 
Governing Body to consider instruct- 
ing Director-General David A. Morse 
to prepare a report on working hours 
and, in the light of this report, to 
consider what further action might be 
taken. 

Adoption of the resolution was recom- 
mended to the Conference by the Reso- 
lutions Committee, one of the vice- 
chairmen of which was Claude Jodoin, 



Canadian worker delegate. The Reso- 
lutions Committee was set up at the 
fifth sitting of the conference and con- 
sisted of 48 members representing gov- 
ernments, employers and workers. 

Pointing out that one of the prin- 
cipal aims of the ILO is the establish- 
ment of a maximum working day and 
week, and that the reduction of working 
hours in many branches of industry in 
various countries during the last 20 
years has in many cases contributed to 
social progress, the resolution suggested 
that a general solution to this problem 
must be sought at the international as 
well as the national level; in view of its 
possible repercussions on the external 
trade policy of the various countries. 



Governing Body 

The Conference elected a new Govern- 
ing Body for a term of three years. 

The Governing Body is composed of 20 
government members, ten employer repre- 
sentatives, and ten worker representatives. 
Of the 20 government seats, ten are 
allotted to countries of chief industrial 
importance and are non-elective. The 
other ten are filled by election. 

The ten elective government, seats went 
to Argentina, Australia, Burma, Columbia, 
Cuba, Egypt, The Netherlands, Norway, 
Turkey and Uruguay. 

The ten members chosen by the employer 
delegates are from France, India, Italy, 
Pakistan, Sweden, Union of South Africa, 
United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay 
and Venezuela. 



The ten members elected by the workers 
are from Australia, Brazil, Cuba, Denmark, 
Federal Republic of Germany, France, 
India,, Pakistan, United Kingdom ind the 
United States. 

Canadian Participation 

Harry Taylor, Manager of Industrial 
Relations of Union Carbide of Canada 
Limited and the employer representative 
with the Canadian delegation, was elected 
one of the three vice-presidents of the 
conference. 

The Canadian delegates participated in 
the discussions of the following committees : 
resolutions, vocational rehabilitation, 
migrant workers, penal sanctions, and 
holidays with pay. 



ILO Submits 8th Annual Report to United Nations 



Increasing effectiveness in efforts to boost 
industrial productivity in underdeveloped 
countries is described by the International 
Labour Organization in its eighth annual 
report to the "United Nations. The report 
also cites major developments during the 
past year by the ILO in the fields of 
workers' housing, forced labour and agri- 
cultural labour. The report, the eighth 
of a series commenced in 1947 under the 
terms of a 1946 UN-ILO agreement, is 
scheduled for discussion this summer by 
the 18th session of the Economic and 
Social Council of the UN in Geneva. 

In addition, continued progress has been 
made in the field of freedom of associa- 
tion, the report notes. By the end of 
March 1954, a freedom of association 
committee, established in November 1951, 
had completed a preliminary examination 
of 83 cases of complaints of violations of 
trade union rights and was holding 13 
additional cases under consideration. Of 
the total, three cases "have been regarded 
as calling for further examination," the 
report states. 

Referring specifically to productivity, the 
report states that activities in 1953 and 
early 1954 were directed towards showing 
how more can be produced by the same 
number of workers through efficient organ- 
ization, methods of work and use of 
equipment with emphasis upon techniques 
that require little or no new capital 
investment. ILO experts also attempt 



to demonstrate that the use of such 
techniques will produce better working 
conditions and that no "retrenchment or 
unemployment" will result from increased 
output. 

ILO committees have studied produc- 
tivity in coal mines and the construction 
industry and a major report on increased 
output in manufacturing will be published 
soon. 

Adequate housing for workers and the 
need to tackle the housing problem 
promptly received the major emphasis in 
the annual report of ILO Director-General. 
David Morse, this year. The ILO, which 
cannot offer financial aid to meet housing 
needs, seeks mainly to acquaint govern- 
ments with the problems connected with 
housing. Working with the UN, the 
organization has been able to offer assist- 
ance in the field of housing and town and 
country planning. 

With reference to forced labour, the 
report notes that the governing body of 
the ILO has supported the UN-ILO ad hoc 
committee on forced labour which recom- 
mended that governments maintaining such 
labour of a political nature re-examine 
their practices. 

In the past year, the ILO has placed 
emphasis, in its program to combat under- 
employment, on agricultural labour. It 
has aimed much of its technical assistance 
activity at providing slack season occupa- 
tions for farm workers. 



989 



*71 




TEAMWORK 
in INDUSTRY 



Good Record Prompts Formation of 2nd LMPC 

Victoria, B.C. — The good work of the 
Labour-Management Co-operation Com- 
mittee in the Roofing Plant Division of 
the Sidney Roofing and Paper Company 
has resulted in the formation of a second 
committee in the Paper Mill Division. The 
high degree of satisfaction found in joint 
consultation was expressed by Personnel 
Manager H. C. Langton when he said: 
''Our labour-management co-operation com- 
mittee is now going into its third year 
of operation and without a doubt has 
proven itself far and beyond expectations." 

Formed in 1952 when labour, represented 
by Local 367 of the International Brother- 
hood of Papermakers, and management 
agreed on this form of co-operation, the 
committee has rolled along in high gear 
ever since. To date, the LMCC has 
handled 120 different items. Twenty 
suggestions have been processed under the 
recently inaugurated Suggestion Award 
Plan, and four awards made. 

The LMCC has carried on an active 
campaign to reduce accidents and improve 
safety. The result has been (to the end 
of April) a period of 90,000 accident-free 
man-hours. One feature of this campaign 
has been the effective use of bulletin boards 
to display different phases of the com- 
mittee's work, and especially safety posters. 

LMPC Reduces Assembly Time on Two Jobs 

Woodstock, Ont. — In the process of manu- 
facturing an item of equipment essential in 
log-loading operations — The Timber Tosser 
Log Loader — T i m b e r 1 a n d Machines, 
Limited, Woodstock, Ontario, found that 
production costs for a part of the machine 
were increasing constantly. 

(The Timber Tosser is an ingenious 

machine used in loading logs from ground 

onto trucks and other conveyances.) 

Management, concerned by the costs 
involved in producing the "A-Frame" 
portion of the Timber Tosser, approached 
the Labour-Management Production Com- 
mittee seeking a solution to its problem. 
Investigation by LMPC members disclosed 



that it was taking five and three-quarter 
man-hours to weld and assemble each 
"A-Frame". 

Through careful study and the co- 
operation of all persons concerned, the time 
factor was reduced to the point where the 
"A-Frame" is now being completely manu- 
factured in three and a half man hours. 

In the course of the study of the 
"A-Frame" problem, one employee con- 
tributed a suggestion for reducing by 30 
per cent tHe time required for assembling 
a winch, also a part of the Timber Tosser. 

Needless to say, both management and 
labour were proud of these accomplish- 
ments, the former gaining on its production 
and the latter in prestige and the satis- 
faction of seeing a job well done. 

Of course, the work of the LMPC at 
Timberland Machines, Limited, has not 
stopped there; diligently, co-operatively, it 
is striving continually to reduce time 
required for the production of all equip- 
ment manufactured by the Company — 
working hard to meet a busy schedule on 
time and keep their customers satisfied. 

Labour members of the LMPC at 
Timberland Machines, Limited, have as 
their bargaining agency Local 246, Inter- 
national Moulders and Foundry Workers 
Union of North America (AFL-TLC). 

The Key to Improved Employee Morale 

Montreal, Que. — The key to improved 
employee morale lies in the day-to-day 
relations between supervisors and staffs, 
Dr. Nathaniel Cantor recently told the 8th 
annual conference of the Canadian Indus- 
trial Trainers' Association. 

Dr. Cantor, Chairman of the Department 
of Sociology and Anthropology, University 
of Buffalo, said that unless supervisors 
appreciate the feelings and sentiments and 
needs of their fellow human beings, they 
cannot do their jobs successfully. 

"Unless supervisors modify their own 
attitudes through their own creative effort, 
they cannot help others to become more 
effective and, hence, more efficient 
employees," he said. 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Production Committees (LMPC's) is 
encouraged and assisted by the Labour- 
Management Co-operation Service, In- 
dustrial Relations Branch, Department 
of Labour. In addition to field repre- 
sentatives located in key industrial 
centres, who are available to help both 
managements and trade unions set up 
LMPCs, the Service provides publicity 
aids in the form of booklets, films and 
posters. 



990 



Industrial Relations 
and Conciliation 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board met 
for one day during May. The Board issued 
eight certificates designating bargaining 
agents and ordered one representation vote. 
During the month, the Board received four 
applications for certification. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen 
and Enginemen, on behalf of a unit of 
locomotive engineers employed by the New 



This section covers proceedings under 
the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act, involving the admin- 
istrative services of the Minister of 
Labour, the Canada Labour Relations 
Board and the Industrial Relations 
Branch of the Department. 



York Central Railroad, lessee, on the Cana- 
dian lines of the Michigan Central Railroad 
Company (L.G., April, p. 547.) 



Scope and Administration of Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 

Conciliation services under the Indus- 
trial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act are provided by the Minister 
of Labour through the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch. The branch also acts as 
the administrative arm of the Canada 
Labour Relations Board in matters under 
the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on 
September 1, 1948. It revoked the War- 
time Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 
1003, which became effective in March, 
1944, and repealed the Industrial Dis- 
putes Investigation Act, which had been 
in force from 1907 until superseded by 
the Wartime Regulations in 1944. Deci- 
sions, orders and certifications given 
under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime 
Labour Relations Board are continued in 
force and effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, ship- 
ping, interprovincial railways, canals, 
telegraphs, interprovincial and interna- 
tional steamship lines and ferries, aero- 
dromes and air transportation, radio 
broadcasting stations and works declared 
by Parliament to be for the general 
advantage of Canada or two or more of 
its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if 
they so desire, may enact similar legis- 
lation for application to industries 
within provincial jurisdiction and make 
mutually satisfactory arrangements with 
the federal Government for the admin- 
istration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is 
directly responsible for the appointment 
of conciliation officers, conciliation boards, 
and Industrial Inquiry Commissions con- 
cerning complaints that the Act has been 
violated or that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively, and for applications 
for consent to prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the cer- 
tification of bargaining agents, the writ- 
ing of provisions — for incorporation into 
collective agreements— fixing a procedure 
for the final settlement of disputes con- 
cerning the meaning or violation of such 
agreements and the investigation of com- 
plaints referred to it by the minister that 
a party has failed to bargain collectively 
and to make every reasonable effort to 
conclude a collective agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regula- 
tions made under the Act, and the Rules 
of Procedure of the Canada Labour 
Relations Board are available upon 
request to the Department of Labour, 
Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: 
(1) Certification and other Proceedings 
before the Canada Labour Relations 
(2) Conciliation and other 
before the Minister of 



Board, and 
Proceedings 
Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the 
Department of Labour are stationed at 
Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, 
Montreal. Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's, Newfoundland. The territory of 
two officers resident in Vancouver com- 
prises British Columbia, Alberta and the 
Yukon and Northwest Territories; two 
officers stationed in Winnipeg cover the 
provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba 
and Northwestern Ontario; three officers 
resident in Toronto confine their activi- 
ties to Ontario; three officers in Mont- 
real are assigned to the province of 
Quebec, and a total of three officers 
resident in Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. 
The headquarters of the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch and the Director of 
Industrial Relations and staff are situated 
in Ottawa. 



991 



2. Biothcihood of Locomotive Firemen 
and Enginemen, on behalf of a unit of 
locomotive engineers employed on lines east 
of Detroit in the Buffalo Division of the 
Wabash Railroad Companv (L.G.. June. 
p. 814). 

3. Local 4159, United Steelworkers of 
America (CIO-CCL), on behalf of a unit 
of hotel, restaurant and bakery employees 
employed at Gander Airport, Newfound- 
land, by Commercial Caterers Limited 

L.G., May. p. 669). 

4 National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians (CIO-CCL), 
on behalf of a unit of employees of Radio 
Station CKCV Limited, Quebec (L.G., May, 
p. 669). 

5. National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians (CIO-CCL), on 
behalf of a unit of employees of Radio 
Station CHRC Limited, Quebec (L.G., Mav, 
p. 669). 

6. United Association of Journeymen and 
Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe- 
fitting Industry of the United States and 
Canada, Local 180 (AFL-TLC), on behalf 
of a unit of employees of Saanich Plumb- 
and Heating. Whitehorse, Y.T. (L.G.. May, 
p. 669). 

7. West Coast Seamen's Union (Canada), 
on behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
employed by West Coast Tug & Barge Co. 
Ltd., Vancouver (L.G., June, p. 814). 

8. Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District (AFL-TLC). 



on behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
employed by LTnited Tanker and Barge 
Ltd.. Vancouver, B.C. (L.G., June, p. 814). 

Representation Vote Ordered 

Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, 
applicant, and Dominion Atlantic Railway 
Company, Kentville, N.S., respondent (L.G., 
June, p. 814) (conductors) (Returning 
Officer: D. T. Cochrane). 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship 
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees (AFL-TLC), on behalf 
of a unit of employees of Canadian Pacific 
Express Company, Toronto (Investigating 
Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

2. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc. (TLC), on behalf of a unit of deck 
officers of Transit Tankers and Terminals 
Limited, Montreal (Investigating Officer: 
R. Trepanier). 

3. International Union of Operating Engi- 
neers, Local 115 (AFL), on behalf of a 
unit of employees of Dutton Mannix Ltd., 
Whitehorse, Y.T. (Investigating Officer: 
G. R. Currie). 

4. Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District (AFL-TLC), on 
behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel of 
Anticosti Shipping Ltd., Montreal (Investi- 
gating Officer: C. E. Poirier). 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During May the Minister appointed 
conciliation officers to deal with the follow- 
ing disputes: — 

1. Gatineau Bus Company Limited, Hull, 
Que., and Amalgamated Association of 
Street, Electric Railway and Motor Coach 
Employees of America, Division 591 (Con- 
ciliation Officer: R. Trepanier). 

2. Grand Trunk Pacific Development 
Company Limited, Prince Rupert Dry- 
dock and Shipyard (Canadian National 
Railways) and United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America, Local 
1735; International Brotherhood of Elec- 
trical Workers, Local 344; United Associa- 
tion of Journeymen, Plumbers and 
Steamfitters, Local 180; and International 
Union of Operating Engineers, Local 510 
(Conciliation Officer: G. R. Currie). 



3. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and 
International Alliance of Theatrical Stage 
Employees and Moving Picture Machine 
Operators of the United States and Canada 
(Conciliation Officer: F. J. Ainsborough), 

4. Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
(sleeping car department) and Order of 
Railway Conductors of America (Concilia- 
tion Officer: R. Trepanier). 

5. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and 
Association of Radio and Television 
Employees of Canada (Conciliation Officer: 
F. J. Ainsborough). 

6. Grand Trunk Pacific Development 
Company Limited, Prince Rupert Dry- 
dock and Shipyard (Canadian National 
Railways) and Marine Workers and Boiler- 
makers' Industrial Union of Canada, Local 
No. 2 (Conciliation Officer: G. R. Currie). 



992 



7. Canadian National Railways, West (in 
Region, and Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers (Conciliation Officer: R. H. 
Hooper). 

Settlements Reported by Conciliation Officers 

1. Newfoundland Employers' Association 
Limited (steamship labour), St. John's, 
Nfld.. and Longshoremen's Protective Union 
(Conciliation Officer: W. L. Taylor) (L.G., 
June, 1954, p. 816). 

2. Newfoundland Employers' Association 
Limited (coal and salt cargoes), St. John's, 
Nfld., and Longshoremen's Protective Union 
(Conciliation Officer: W. L. Taylor) (L.G., 
June, p. 815). 

3. Newfoundland Coal Company Limited 
(mechanical operations), St. John's, Nfld., 
and Longshoremen's Protective Union 
(Conciliation Officer: W. L. Taylor) (L.G., 
June, p. 815). 

4. Union Steamships Limited, Vancouver, 
and Canadian Communications Association 
(Conciliation Officer: G. R. Currie) (L.G., 
May, p. 669). 

5. Canadian National Railways, Western 
Region, and Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers (Conciliation Officer: R. H. 
Hooper) (See above). 

Conciliation Boards Appointed 

1. Canadian Overseas Telecommunication 
Corporation (clerical employees), Montreal, 
and Local 272, Overseas Communication 
Union (L.G., June, p. 816). The Board had 
not been fully constituted at the end of the 
month. 

2. Polymer Corporation Limited, Sarnia, 
and United Gas, Coke and Chemical 
Workers, Local 14 (L.G., June, p. 816). 
The Board had not been fully constituted 
at the end of the month. 

Conciliation Boards Fully Constituted 

The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in April to deal with 
matters in dispute between the Canadian 
National Railways (Atlantic, including 
Newfoundland District, Central and Western 
Regions), and Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Firemen and Enginemen (L.G., May. 
p. 669) was fully constituted in May, with 
the appointment of the Hon. Mr. Justice 
Ralph Maybank, Winnipeg, Man., as Chair- 
man. Mr. Justice Maybank was appointed 
by the Minister in the absence of a joint 
recommendation from the other two mem- 
bers, T. R. Meighen, QC, Montreal, and 
Hon. A. W. Roebuck, QC, Toronto, who 
were previously appointed on the nomina- 
tion of the company and union respectively. 



The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in April to deal with 
matters in dispute between the Patricia 
Transportation Company Limited, Winni- 
peg, and the Canadian Brotherhood of 
Railway Employees and Other Transport 
Workers (L.G., March, p. 410), was 
fully constituted in May with the appoint- 
ment of E. V. Caton, Winnipeg, as 
Chairman. Mr. Caton was appointed by 
the Minister on a joint recommendation 
from the other two members, Charles H. 
Attwood and Leon Mitchell, both of 
Winnipeg, who were previously appointed 
on the nomination of the company and 
union respectively. 

In January, the Minister established a. 
Board of Conciliation and Investigation to 
deal with a dispute between the Railway 
Association of Canada (extra gang 
employees) and the Brotherhood of Main- 
tenance of Way Employees (L.G., March, 
p. 411). This dispute involved wages only. 

Another dispute arising out of the same 
collective agreement, but not including the 
wage clause which had an earlier opening 
date (L.G., June, p. 816) was referred in 
May to the Board of Conciliation already- 
established. 

Conciliation Board Reports Received 

1. Ottawa Transportation Commission and 
Division 279. Amalgamated Association of 
Street, Electric Railway and Motor Coach 
Employees of America (L.G., April, p. 548). 
The text of the report is reproduced below. 

2. Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited 
(Beaverlodge Operation) and Beaverlodge 
District, Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, 
Local 193, International Union of Mine, 
Mill and Smelter Workers (L.G., June, 
p. 816). The text of the report is repro- 
duced below. 

3. Oshawa Railway Company (Canadian 
National Railways), and Division 1255, 
Amalgamated Association of Street, Electric 
Railway and Motor Coach Employees of 
America (L.G., March, p. 411). The text 
of the Board's report is reproduced below. 

Settlement Following Board Report 

Ottawa Transportation Commission and 
Division 279, Amalgamated Association of 
Street, Electric Railway and Motor Coach 
Employees of America (see above). 

Strike Following Board Procedure 

Oshawa Railway Company (Canadian 
National Railways) and Division 1255, 
Amalgamated Association of Street, Electric 
Railway and Motor Coach Employees of 
America (see above). 



993 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Ottawa Transportation Commission 

and 

Amalgamated Association of Street, Electric Railway 

and Motor Coach Employees of America 



Hon. Milton F. Gregg, VC 

Minister of Labour 
Parliament Buildings 
Ottawa, Ontario 

Majority Award of His Honour Judge 
J. C. Reynolds and James H. Stitt 

Dear Sir: 

The existing collective agreement between 
the parties was entered into on February 11, 
1953. and was effective from January 1, 1953, 
to December 31, 1954. It provided, how- 
ever, that : "Nothing in this agreement shall 
be construed to prevent a revision of wage 
rates set out in Schedule B in relation to 
wages to be paid during the year 1954." 
Pursuant to this provision the employees 
on October 30, 1953, forwarded to the 
Commission the following request: — 

In accordance with Section 5 of our 
collective agreement dated February 11, 
1953, this Union Division 279 of the 
Amalgamated Association of Street, Electric 
Railway and Motor Coach Employees of 
America, does require that Schedule "B" of 
our agreement be revised in such a manner: 

(a) To increase all hourly rated employees 
(loaders, fare collectors excepted), rates of 

pay of 20 cents per hour and an equivalent 
raise for all salaried employees within the 
bargaining unit. 

(b) To increase loaders, fare collectors 
rates of pay by 31 cents per hour, re- 
establishing the pay rates of loaders to the 
pay level of first class operators. 

(c) To complete the intent of establishing 
the 44-hour week we would request that 
Section 15 — overtime — be revised to read as 
follows: 

(1) In the case of car and bus oper- 
ators for platform time worked in excess 
of eight hours per day or 44 hours per 
week. 

(2) All other employees for time worked 
in excess of eight hours per day or 44 
hours per week. 

To speed negotiations I would appeal to 
the Commission and the Management to 
meet the Union's negotiation committee at 
their earliest opportunity so as to eliminate 
lengthy negotiations and the necessity of the 
Commission making retroactive payments. 

The negotiating committee of this Union 
stand ready to meet the representatives of 
the Commission. 

Several meetings between the representa- 
tives of the employees and the officials of 
the Commission ensued and, no agreement 
having been effected, conciliation proceed- 
ings were in due course instituted, resulting 
in the appointment of this Board. 



On May 13, the Minister of Labour 
received the majority and minority 
reports of the Board of Conciliation and 
Investigation appointed to deal with a 
dispute between Division No. 279, 
Amalgamated Association of Street, 
Electric Railway and Motor Coach 
Employees of America, and the Ottawa 
Transportation Commission. 

The Board was under the Chairman- 
ship of His Honour Judge J. C. Reynolds, 
Kingston, Ont., who was appointed by 
the Minister on the joint recommenda- 
tion of the other two members of the 
Board. The nominee of the Commission 
was V. C. McClenaghan, QC; the union 
nominee was James H. Stitt, both of 
Ottawa. 

The majority report, which under the 
provisions of the Industrial Relations 
and Disputes Investigation Act consti- 
tutes the report of the Board, was signed 
by the Chairman and Mr. Stitt. The 
minority report was submitted by Mr. 
McClenaghan. 

The texts of the majority and minority 
reports are reproduced below. 



The employees' demand for an increase 
in rates retroactive to January 1, 1953, 
is as follows: — 

1. 20 cents per hour for all hourly rated 
employees. 

2. 31 cents per hour for loaders (fare 
collectors) in order to re-establish their pay 
to that of a first-class operator. 

3. An equivalent increase to all salaried 
employees in the bargaining unit computed 
on the basis of that allowed to hourly rated 
employees working a 44-hour week, 52 weeks 
per year-. 

The reasons advanced by Counsel for the 
employees for a wage increase are: — 

1. Wages paid to members of this Divi- 
sion are lower than those paid to persons 
performing identical duties in transportation 
systems in comparable municipalities. 

2. Wages paid to members of this Divi- 
sion have not increased in proportion to 
increases enjoyed by other municipal 
employees and in particular policemen and 
firemen. 

3. Wages paid to members of this Divi- 
sion have not increased in the same propor- 
tion as the increases enjoyed by the popu- 
lation of Ottawa generally. 



994 



4. Members of this Division, by reason of 
the refusal of the Commission to increase 
wages, have not shared as all other wage 
earners in the increased productivity and 
prosperity of the country as a whole. 

5. Earnings of members of this Division 
do not provide enough to maintain an 
adequate standard of living. 

Re 1. Wages paid to members of this 
Division are lower than those paid to 
persons performing identical duties in 
transportation systems in comparable 
municipalities. 

J. Lome MacDougall, Prof, of Economics 
at Queen's University, was called as a 
witness by Mr. Mirsky in order to estab- 
lish that the earnings of the Commission 
were ample to allow a substantial increase 
in wages. Prof. MacDougall contended that 
the provision for depreciation by the 
Commission is greatly in excess of the 
average for the industry. He stated: "It 
can therefore be stated without qualifica- 
tion that the depreciation provided by the 
OTC is not only heavy, it is, proportion- 
ately to the size of the operation, one of 
the heaviest in all Canada." He further 
stated the methods adopted by the Com- 
mission in charging depreciation, and con- 
cluded that "the Commission is charging 
depreciation as if it stood upon the edge 
of disaster, and therefore upon the surface 
its income seems very poor, but in fact it 
is doing very well indeed". 

Mr. Beament cross-examined Prof. 
MacDougall as to the bases for his con- 
clusions, and obtained the admission that 
Prof. MacDougall had had no opportunity 
to examine the methods used by the 
Commission in determining the estimated 
life of the assets entering into the depre- 
ciation account. Mr. Beament, however, 
advised the Board that he did not intend 
to offer any evidence in reply to Prof. 
MacDougall for the reason that the 
Commission was not pleading inability to 
pay an increased wage. It was submitted 
by Mr. Beament that the Commission's 
policy was that their employees should 
receive a fair wage. In the light of Prof. 
MacDougall's testimony we concur in the 
observations made by Mr. McClenaghan in 
his minority report that the question of 



methods of depreciation should be exam- 
ined by the Commission at an early date. 

During the hearing the Chairman made 
the following proposal as a basis of settle- 
ment, namely: (1) Increased wage rates of 
5 cents per hour retroactive to January 1, 
1954, and to be effective until December 31, 
1955; (2) That there be no change in the 
present work-week of 44 hours. 

Mr. Beament, acting for the Commission, 
advised the Board that, although it was the 
view of the Commission that the present 
wage rates are at a satisfactory and proper 
level, the Commission was prepared, for the 
sake of bringing this dispute to a finality, 
to accept the above mentioned proposal. 
The union, represented by Mr. Mirsky, 
advised the Board that the proposal was 
not satisfactory to the employees, and that 
the employees were prepared to settle the 
wage question on the following basis: "The 
Division will accept a 74 per hour increase 
retroactive to January 1, 1954 and expiring 
December 31, 1954. In the alternative the 
Division will accept a 5$ per hour increase 
retroactive to January 1, 1954, and expiring 
December 31, 1954, and a 10^ per hour 
increase commencing January 1, 1955, and 
expiring December 31, 1955, on a two year 
contract. In both of these alternatives the 
44-hour work-week is to continue." 

Since the Commission did not plead 
inability to pay a fair weekly wage the 
Board has examined the wage rates paid 
in similar transportation units throughout 
the Province of Ontario, and we believe 
that the most comparable units are those 
in the London, Ont., and Hamilton, Ont., 
street railway systems. We have also 
considered the fact that the employees in 
the London system work a 48-hour week 
whilst the employees in Hamilton work a 
44-hour week, and we have considered the 
take home pay in both of these cases. The 
following table illustrates the hourly rates, 
the hours worked and the take home pay 
per week in these three systems for bus 
and tram operators, whose rates of pay 
appeared to be accepted by both parties as 
the basis for discussion of the wage issue. 



Ottawa . 
Hamilton 
London . 



Rate 


Hours worked 


Weekly take 


per hour 


per week 


home 


pay 


$1.38 


44 


$60. 


72 


1.57 


40 


62. 


80 


1.39 


48 


66. 


72 



In view of the foregoing the Board recom- 
mends that a two-year contract covering the 
calendar years 1954 and 1955 be entered 
into between the Commission and the 
bargaining units at the following rates of 



pay: For operators 54 per hour increase 
retroactive to January 1, 1954, and con- 
tinuing throughout that year, and 24 addi- 
tional through 1955; that is, 74 per hour 
increase over the present rate paid, to 



995 



commence January 1. 1965, and continue 
until December 31, 1955. In the result the 
operators' rate is raised from S1.3S per hour 
13 per hour for the year 1954 and to 
SI 15 per hour J or the year 1955. All other 
employees in the bargaining unit should 
receive a proportionate increase. We 
further recommend that there be no change 
in the present work-week of 44 hours. 

The Hoard is pleased to observe the good 
relationship existing between the Commis- 
sion and its employees, and strongly 
recommends that they both endeavour to 
accept these recommendations as a solution 
of the present dispute. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 
Dated this 11th day of May 1954 
(Sgd.) J. C. Reynolds, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) James H. Stitt, 
Member. 

Minority Report of V. S. McClenaghan 

The submission of the Commission to 
this Board of Conciliation made it quite 
clear that the Commission could pay and 
wished to pay a fair wage. 

During the course of the proceedings, 
His Honour Judge Reynolds made a pro- 
posal which appeared satisfactory to the 
Commission. The proposal was not satis- 
factory to the union, which made a 
counter-proposal providing for the increase 
set forth in Mr. Mirsky's letter, referred 
to in the Majority Report. 

The chief submission of the Commission 
is that it had dealt fairly with its employees 
and no increase was justified at the present 
time. I was especially impressed with the 
evidence shown "Passengers Carried and 
Revenue January-December 1952-3" and 
"January-March 1953-4". The decrease in 
passengers carried in 1953 as compared with 
1952 was 5-17 per cent. The decrease in 
revenue in this period was 4-91 per cent, 
amounting to $238,304.55. This sum is 
almost the equivalent of the extra wage 
bill over the two-year period 1954-55 in- 
volved in the Majority Report. Admittedly, 



•his fact m itself would not support the 
refusal of a fair increase if other evidence 
indicated strongly that such increase was 
justified. However, the first three months 
of this year reflect a similar trend of 
reduced revenue and number of passengers 
carried. Mr. Gill was fair in this regard 
as he drew attention to the mild weather 
conditions, but other serious factors remain 
which he emphasized; that is, the fact of 
the 5-day week which produces the 
equivalent of two Sundays a week, as far 
as the Ottawa Transportation Commission 
is concerned, and the shortened lunch hour 
of the Civil Service (45 minutes) which 
compels many who previously went home 
for lunch to remain down town. 

The present weekly wage compares 
favourably with the average weekly wage 
in this area and taking a period 1943 to 
1953 shows a percentage increase which 
compares favourably with such places as 
Hamilton, Windsor, and Oshawa. 

The evidence submitted pointed to a 
settling down of our national economy and 
this is a factor worthy of consideration. 

With reference to the evidence of Prof 
MacDougall on the question of the amount 
set aside by the Commission for deprecia- 
tion, I fail to see how any change in this 
connection can be made by the Commis- 
sion at the present time for the purpose 
of providing for this increased wage claim. 
The amount charged is based upon the 
findings in detail of experts in this kind 
of work. It may be the matter should be 
reviewed in the near future, but it is very 
doubtful if any change of importance would 
be made in view of the replacement of 
equipment and the extension of trans- 
portation facilities presently required. 

For the above set forth reasons I beg 
to report that in my opinion the wages 
paid by the Commission are fair and no 
change is justified at the present time. 

All of this is respectfully submitted. 

Dated at Ottawa this 10th day of May 
1954 

(Sgd.) V. S. McClenaghan. 
Member. 



U.S. Railroad Payrolls in 1953 Total $5,326 Million 

Railroad payrolls on United States lines in 1953 aggregated $5,326 million, about the 
.same as the two preceding years, it is reported in a review of railway operations in 1953 
published by the Association of American Railroads. 

The 1953 payroll was paid to an average of 1,206,000 employees, 20,000 fewer than in 
1952 and 70,000 fewer than in 1951. 

Annual earnings averaged $4,415 per employee in 1953, 1-4 per cent greater than the 
1952 average of $4,352. The 1953 average was 62 per cent higher than the 1944 wartime 
peak of $2,726 and nearly two and one-third times the pre-war average of $1,913 in 1940 



996 



l 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited 

and 

International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers 



The Minister of Labour 
Confederation Building 
Ottawa, Ontario 

Pursuant to arrangements made in accord- 
ance with the provisions of Section 32(3) 
of the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act, Monday the 17th day 
of May and Uranium, Saskatchewan, were 
fixed as the date and place of the sittings 
of the Conciliation Board. 

On arrival at the airport at Beaverlodge, 
the members of the board were met by the 
representatives of the Company and of the 
Union. It was then found that there was 
no suitable place for the sittings of the 
board in Uranium and by mutual agree- 
ment it was arranged to hold the sittings 
in the Staff House Lounge at Eldorado. 

The company was represented by Mr. 
R. E. Barrett, Manager of the Beaverlodge 
operation of the company, Mr. R. J. Henry, 
the Vice-President of the company, and 
Messrs. W. M. Gilchrist, R. W. Mancan- 
telli, R. E. Hamilton and K. O. Weldon. 
The Union was represented by Mr. William 
Longridge, Executive Secretary, Canadian 
Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers, Michael 
Ellis, International representative of the 
Union and Chairman of the Negotiating 
Committee, and Mr. Martin Walsh, Inter- 
national representative of the Union, and 
Messrs. Gordon H. Buckley, Arthur Draper, 
Robert Lofgren, Mike Olynick, Robert 
Dompe, also Miss Jean McAskill. A 
number of other employees sat in from 
time to time on the proceedings. 

The representatives of the Union filed a 
formal submission which was filed as 
Exhibit Ul. They also filed a folder of 
exhibits which was filed as Exhibit U2. 
Mr. Longridge then proceeded to read, 
explain and discuss the submission so 
presented and filed. In the course of doing 
this, he was questioned from time to time 
by members of the board and by repre- 
sentatives of the company. 

Following presentation of the Union's 
case, a formal brief was filed by the repre- 
sentatives of the company as Exhibit CI, 
and Mr. Barrett proceeded to read, explain 
and discuss the submissions so presented 
and filed. In support of this brief, Mr. 
Barrett filed a work sheet which had been 
used as the basis of the payroll statistics 



On May 25, the Minister of Labour- 
received the majority and minority 
reports of the Board of Conciliation 
and Investigation appointed to deal with 
a dispute between Beaverlodge District 
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, Local 
913, International Union of Mine, Mill 
and Smelter Workers, and the Eldorado 
Mining and Refining Limited (Beaver- 
lodge Operation), Uranium, Sask. 

The Board was under the Chairman- 
ship of the Hon. Mr. Justice H. F. 
Thomson, Regina, Sask., who was 
appointed by the Minister in the 
absence of a joint recommendation from 
the other two members of the Board. 
The nominee of the company was P. N. 
Pitcher, Yellowknife, NWT; the union 
nominee was Leo Nimsick, MLA, 
Kimberley, B.C. 

The majority report, which under the 
provisions of the Industrial Relations 
and Disputes Investigation Act con- 
stitutes the report of the Board, was 
signed by the Chairman and Mr. 
Nimsick. The minority report, which 
differed on only one recommendation, 
was submitted by Mr. Pitcher. 

The texts of the majority and minority 
reports are reproduced below. 



discussed by him. This was filed as 
Exhibit C2. Full opportunity was given to 
each side to make any representation and 
to submit any arguments they might wish 
to advance. Fortunately it was not neces- 
sary to subpeona any witnesses. 

During the course of these discussions, 
it was found that the parties were in agree- 
ment on a number of points, and there 
was a fair possibility of reaching an agree- 
ment on certain other points. At the close 
of the hearings in the afternoon of May 18, 
it was decided to adjourn until 2.00 p.m. 
on Wednesday, the 19th instant, to enable 
the members of the board to consider more 
fully the representations made to it, and 
to enable the representatives of the union 
and the company to do likewise, and 
prepare such further submissions as they 
might care to submit. 

At the adjourned meeting on May 19, 
it was found that considerable progress had 
been made by the parties. The company's 



997 



representatives had listed the matters which 
had been considered into three groups, 
namely: — 

Group I 

Issues Agreed Already 

Article 2 — Jurisdiction 

Article 4 — Recognition 

Article 5 — No discrimination 

Article 7 — Term of Agreement 

Article 15 — Hours of Work and Overtime 

Article 17 — Safety Committee 

Article 18 — Leave of Absence for Union 
Representatives 

Article 19 — Mailing Addresses 

Group II 
Issues in Wide Disagreement 
Article 3 — Security 
Article 13 — Statutory Holidays 
Article 14 — Bulletin Boards and Union 

Meetings 
Article 20— Shift Differentials 
Article 21 — Wages 

Article 22 — Mines' Contract Committee 
Article 24 — Union Security 
Article 25 — Maintenance of Existing 

Benefits 
Article 26 — Retroactivity 

Group III 

Issues we might resolve here 
Article 1 — Preamble 
Article 6 — Management Rights 
Article 8 — Grievances 
Article 9 — Arbitration 
Article 10 — No cessation of work 
Article 12 — Vacations with pay 
Article 16 — Strike Action 
Article 23 — Reporting Time 
Article 11 — Promotions, Transfers, Lay- 
offs and Rehiring. 

Note: The articles referred to above are 
the articles contained in the draft agree- 
ment which is Exhibit "C" in the folder of 
exhibits filed by the union as Exhibit U2. 

The company's representatives had pre- 
pared a draft of the clauses mentioned in 
their Group I, which had in effect been 
agreed upon, and also a draft of the clauses 
mentioned in Group III, which they were 
prepared to accept. It was arranged that 
the members of the board and the repre- 
sentatives of the company should retire to 
enable the representatives of the Union to 
consider these drafts. 

Upon the return of the members of the 
board and the representatives of the com- 
pany to the meeting, it was found that 
the Union was prepared to accept the 
wording of all of the clauses contained in 
the company's draft of the clauses included 
in Group I, but pointed out that the address 



to which notices should be given to the 
Union under Article 19 should be amended 
to read: — 

Beaverlodge District Mine, Mill & 
Smelter Workers, Local 913, of the 
International Union of Mine, Mill & 
Smelter Workers, Box 35, Uranium, 
Saskatchewan. 
This was agreed to. 

The Union representatives then stated 
they would accept all of the clauses in- 
cluded in the Company's draft of the 
articles listed in Group III, with certain 
amendments. The suggested amendments 
were then considered and agreed to by the 
Company's representatives. The following 
are the amendments agreed to, namely: — 

Article 6 — Management Rights 

It was agreed to delete the words "and 
to be the judge of the qualifications of 
employees" wherever the same occur in this 
article. Otherwise the article was to stand 
as drafted by the company. 

Article 8 — Adjustment of complaints and 
grievance procedure 
It was agreed: — 

(a) That clause 5 be deleted. 

(b) That clause 8 be deleted and the 
following substituted therefor: 

"Time lost by Union Stewards in in- 
vestigating disputes will be paid for by 
the company, but the time to be paid 
for under this section shall be limited to 
twenty-five hours per month". 

Otherwise the article was to stand a3 
drafted by the company. 

Article 11 — Promotions, Lay-offs, Transfers 
and Special Hiring 
It was agreed that this article should 
be entirely deleted and that Article 12 
— "Promotions, Transfers, Lay-offs and 
Re-hiring", as set out in the Collective 
Bargaining Agreement between Giant 
Yellowknife Gold Mines Ltd. and Yellow- 
knife District Miners Union, Local 802, 
International Union of Mine, Mill & 
Smelter Workers, of 31st March, A.D. 
1953, should apply with the following 
modification: that Clause "H" thereof 
should be deleted. 

The matters listed in Group II in 
Exhibit C3 were then considered, but it 
was found impossible to reach any agree- 
ment on the matters included therein. 
After some further consideration it was 
decided that the Board should adjourn and 
proceed to Edmonton to there consider 
what should be recommended in regard to 
these matters, and to prepare their report. 



998 



On arrival at Edmonton, the Board con- 
tinued their deliberations, and while they 
were able to reach an agreement on some 
of the said matters, they were not able to 
reach an agreement in regard to all of them. 

Article 3 — Security 

This article has to do with the mainte- 
nance of adequate security measures on the 
properties of the company. The board has 
now been able to consider the relevant 
provisions of the Atomic Energy Control 
Act, 1946, the regulations made under the 
said Act, and the order designating the 
premises of the company as "a protected 
place" under the said Act and regulations. 
It is quite clear from the terms of the 
said designating order that the company 
has in fact been made responsible for the 
maintenance of adequate security measures 
for the work carried out by it. Under 
these circumstances, this article should be 
inserted in the agreement in order to make 
this fact clear and avoid misunderstanding. 

Article 13 — Statutory Holidays 

It is desirable that the provisions under 
this article should conform more closely 
with the statutory provisions affecting 
statutory holidays enforced in the province 
of Saskatchewan. This article, therefore, 
should be amended as follows: — 

(a) By including "Victoria Day" and 
"Remembrance Day" as holidays. 

(b) By deleting the word "twice" in 
the fourth line of clause (b) thereof, and 
substituting the words "two and a half 
times" therefor, and 

(c) By adding as clause (c) the 
following : 

"If any of the statutory holidays above 
mentioned falls within the period of any 
employee's annual holiday, the employee's 
annual holiday shall be increased by one 
day, and his holiday pay shall be in- 
creased by one day's pay." 

Article 14 — Bulletin Boards and Union 
Meetings 
Representatives of the Union urged that 
this article should be amended to give the 
Union the right to hold regular meetings 
on the company's premises. Owing to the 
fact that the company has been made 
responsible for the maintenance of adequate 
security measures on their premises, the 
board is unable to recommend any such 
amendment. The article as it now stands 
goes as far as it is expedient under the 
circumstances to require the company to 
go and should not be altered. 



Article 20— Shift Differentials 

The company opposed the allowance of 
any shift differentials at all. Tin." repre- 
sentatives of the Union asked for the 
allowance of the following shift differ- 
entials: — 

5 cents per hour for the afternoon shift 
8 cents per hour for the night shift 
10 cents per hour for the graveyard shift. 
It is recognized that the allowance of shift 
differentials necessarily has the effect of 
increasing wages, and strictly speaking 
should be considered along with wage 
schedules, however, the board is of the 
opinion that the company should make a 
concession in this matter, and therefore 
recommends an allowance of shift differ- 
entials, as follows: — 

3 cents per hour for the afternoon shift 
5 cents per hour for the night shift 
7 cents per hour for the graveyard shift. 
This article should therefore be amended 
accordingly. 

Article 21 — Wages 

The question of wage schedules has pre- 
sented the greatest difficulty. Representa- 
tives of the Union were anxious to have 
the board place the company in very much 
the same class as the Consolidated Mining 
& Smelting Co. of Canada Ltd., and Inter- 
national Nickel Company of Canada Ltd. 
The board recognizes, however, that those 
are two of the outstanding mining com- 
panies of the world. The International 
Nickel Company almost approaches a 
monopoly in nickel, and the Consolidated 
Mining & Smelting Company is the 
fortunate owner of one of the greatest 
mines of its class on the continent. Both 
companies have been long established. On 
the other hand, the Eldorado Mining & 
Refining Ltd. is pioneering in a new field, 
and is far from established as yet — in fact 
mill production only commenced in June 
of 1953. The future alone will tell 
whether the company will be capable of 
taking its place with the other leaders in 
the mining field above mentioned. It must 
also be conceded that great efforts are being 
made and tremendous expense incurred by 
the company to create a really first-class 
mining camp, and to take care of the 
comfort and welfare of its employees. It 
is to be hoped that the management and 
labour will each endeavour to play its own 
part in stabilizing the operations of the 
company and solidifying the relations of 
the company and its employees on a satis- 
factory and amicable basis. 

The company has evidently recognized 
that owing to the remoteness of the loca- 
tion of its properties, it is necessary that 



999 



it should make concessions to attract 
employees; it has gone a long way in that 
regard. In the first place, it supplies board 
ami lodging to its employees at the rate 
of S2 a day, which is certainly much less 
than it costs the company. There may be 
some question as to how much less, but the 
members of the board are quite satisfied 
that the cost to the company is much 
greater than $2 per day. The company 
also pays a bonus of $100 to each hourly 
rated employee completing 300 shifts, and 
S300 to all Cookhouse employees who com- 
plete twelve months service. It also auto- 
matically increases the wage rate of hourly 
rated employees commencing their second 
term of employment by 5 cents per hour. 

The company has also made a substantial 
expenditure for the purpose of supplying 
first-class recreational facilities. It has 
constructed a very fine recreational hall, 
and is establishing what might be termed 
an almost model mining camp site and 
living quarters for employees living at the 
camp. There are still some of the original 
buildings used as living quarters or bunk- 
houses on the premises, but these are 
rapidly being replaced by new and much 
more modern and comfortable buildings, 
and the old ones will shortly be scrapped. 
The board is of the opinion that the union 
is also endeavouring to promote the best 
possible relationship between the company 
and its employees — that of course is essen- 
tial for the establishment and maintenance 
of cordial relations. At this point, the 
members of the board wish to express their 
appreciation of the fair and reasonable 
manner in which the cases for both parties 
were presented to them. There was 
evidence of mutual respect and a desire to 
reach an agreement if possible. 

The members of the board have endeav- 
oured to consider this question of wages 
in the light of the foregoing remarks, and 
they believe that substantial justice will be 
done if the wage scale presently in force 
be amended: — 

(a) By allowing all surface labour, 
mine labour and mill labour $1.34 per 
hour, and 

(b) Increasing the wages rates for all 
the other hourly rate employees by 4 
per cent. 

The wage rates to be allowed to the 
cafeteria and kitchen help have presented 
some difficulty. In the opinion of the 
board, it would be more satisfactory to 
continue the payment of these employees 
en a monthly basis. As above mentioned, 
the company has in the past followed the 
policy of paying employees of this class a 
bonus of $300 upon completion of 12 



months service. It was represented to the 
board that there is some turnover in this 
class of employee, and it is inclined to 
agree with the representatives of the union 
that it would be fairer to reduce the amount 
of the bonus to $100 and make a propor- 
tionate increase in the monthly rate of 
these employees. We also think that some 
further increase should be made in the 
wage scale applicable to this class. We 
therefore recommend that the wages paid 
to each of the employees in this class be 
increased by $30 per month, and that the 
bonus payable on the completion of 12 
months service be reduced from $300 to 
$100. 

Article 22 — Underground Contract Com- 
mittee 
The company has been following the 
practice of paying underground workers on 
a contract basis, and the Union is desirous 
that such practice should be continued, and 
asks that a contract committee be set up to 
negotiate the terms of all contracts for 
work done on a contract basis. The com- 
pany strenuously opposes that, and contends 
that what it pays is really an incentive 
bonus and does not come within the frame- 
work of Collective Bargaining. It appears 
that the system in vogue has been working 
with reasonable satisfaction. The mine, 
however, has been in operation for a 
comparatively short time. In our opinion 
it is as yet too early to give considera- 
tion to the establishment of a contract 
committee. 

Article 24 — Union Security 

The representatives of the union ask that 
the Rand formula be adopted. The com- 
pany, however, would not agree to that and 
opposed the adoption of any similar provi- 
sion. It has been impossible to reconcile 
these divergent views. As a compromise 
the undersigned members of the board 
recommended the adoption of Article 22 — 
"Voluntary Revocable Check-off" as con- 
tained in the aforesaid agreement between 
Giant Yellowknife Gold Mines Ltd. and 
Yellowknife District Miners Union, Local 
802. International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers, dated the 31st day of 
March A.D. 1953. 

Article 25 — Maintenance of Existing Benefits 
As above mentioned the company 
supplies board and lodging to employees 
in residence on its premises at less than 
cost, and gives various bonuses, subsidies 
and other benefits to some or all of its 
employees. It is apparently the intention 
of the company to continue these benefits, 
but for greater certainty, the board recom- 
mends that an article be inserted in the 



1000 



agreement to provide that all existing bene- 
fits are to be maintained during the life 
of the- agreement. 

Article 26 — Retroactivity 

The representatives of the union ask that 
in the event of an agreement being signed, 
it be made retroactive to November 4, 1953 
which is the date when the application for 
conciliation was first made. When agree- 
ments are in existence, it is probably usual 
in negotiating renewals thereof to insert a 
provision that the new agreement should be 
retroactive, and should take effect as of and 
from the expiration of the old agreement. 
In this case, however, there is no agreement 
in existence, and the same considerations 
possibly do not apply. Furthermore, the 
responsibility for any delay there may Lave 
been in this case, does not rest wholly with 
either party; as a compromise the board 
recommends that if the parties adopt the 
recommendations contained in this report 
and sign an agreement in accord there- 
with, it should be made effective as of and 
from the first day of March A.D. 1954. 

Attached hereto is an appendix contain- 
ing a copy of those portions of Article 12 
of the Giant Yellowknife Gold Mines Ltd., 
Agreement, which we recommend the 
adoption of, and a copy of Article 22 of 
the said Giant Yellowknife Gold Mines 
Ltd. Agreement, which we recommend 
should be adopted and incorporated in the 
new agreement. 

All of which is respectfully submitted 
this twenty-first day of May A.D. 1954. 

(Sgd.) Harold F. Thomson, 

Chairman. 

(Sgd.) Leo T. Nimsick, 
Member. 

MINORITY REPORT 

I agree with all of the above clauses in 
the report of the Board of Conciliation 
with the exception of the clause dealing 
with Union Security. I am not in agree- 
ment with the inclusion of any type of 
Union Security in the Agreement to be 
entered into. There are two reasons for 
my disagreement: — 

1. This will be the first agreement 
between the Union and the company. 
The local union is new and untried and 
I do not feel a union should normally 
be given this right until it has had time 
to prove itself. I feel it is significant 
that only one of the employees repre- 
senting the union and appearing before 
the board was a member of the original 
negotiating committee. 



2. It was obvious to me that the com- 
pany was genuinely concerned with the 
Communistic affiliations of some of the 
top' officers of the International Union of 
Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers. The 
company is engaged in the production of 
a highly strategic material, and though 
forced by law to recognize this union 
as a certified bargaining agency for their 
employees, I quite understand their 
reluctance to grant any type of Union 
Security. 
For the above reasons I cannot concur 

in the recommendation for the inclusion of 

the Voluntary Revocable Check-off, in the 

Agreement to be entered into. 
All of which is respectfully submitted 

this twenty-first day of May A.D. 1954. 

(Sgd.) P. N. Pitcher, 
Member. 

APPENDIX 

The following are copies of: — 

(a) Article 12 of the Giant Yellow- 
knife Gold Mines Ltd., Agreement, 
excluding clause (h) thereof. 

(b) A copy of Article 22 of the Giant 
Yellowknife Gold Mines Agreement. 

Article 12 

Promotions, Transfers, Lay-offs and Re- 
hiring 

(a) The Company recognizes the prin- 
cipal of seniority in promotion, transfers, 
lay-offs and re-hiring and in these matters 
the following factors shall govern: — ■ 

1. The length of continuous service 
with the Company. 

2. Ability, knowledge, dependability, 
training, skill and efficiency of the 
employee to do the job. 

When in the bona fide judgment of 
the Company, factor 2 is to all intents 
and purposes equal as between two or 
more employees, seniority shall govern. 

(b) An employee shall lose all seniority 
if he 

1. Voluntarily quits. 

2. Is justifiably discharged. 

(c) An employee is considered a proba- 
tionary employee for the first three 
months of his employment and shall have 
no seniority rights under this agreement 
and may be discharged by the Company 
at its discretion during that period. Not> 
withstanding the above, if the Company 
does discharge an employee during this 
probationary period the employee may, if 
he desires, be represented by the Union 
in presenting his case to the 'Company. 
If the Company confirms the discharge 



1001 



of the probationary employee it shall not 
be a matter for grievance under this 
Agreement. 

(d) If the Company sees fit to continue 
the employment of a probationary 
employee after the end of three months 
continuous service his name shall be 
placed on the seniority list as of the 
beginning of such three months continuous 
service. 

(e) The Company expressly reserves 
the right to employ technically trained 
men and students in reasonable numbers 
from time to time and to transfer and 
promote them as the Company may see 
fit without regard to this agreement 
providing that no employee shall be laid 
off or discharged to make place for a 
student. 

(f) A person originally hired by the 
Company to exercise a special trade or 
skill, or to participate in a particular 
assignment of work, may be discharged 
when his employment at such special 
trade, skill or particular assignment of 
work comes to an end, notwithstanding 
anything in this agreement to the 
contrary. 

(g) This agreement shall not deprive 
the Company of the right to select its 
employees or to discipline or discharge 
them for proper cause. 



Article 22 

Voluntary Revocable Check-off 

(a) The Company shall, during the 
term of the Agreement honour a written 
request by an employee for the deduction 
and remittance of dues, fees and assess- 
ments (excluding fines) payable to the 
Union if the order is substantially in the 
form set out in Schedule "B" hereto and 
is signed by the employee. Such written 
request may be revoked at any time by 
notice in writing to the Company. 

(b) The Company shall remit to the 
Union monthly the sums so deducted 
together with a written statement show- 
ing the names of the employees from 
whom the deductions were made and the 
amount of each deduction. 

(c) The Company shall not be obliged 
to deduct and remit the said sums unless 
it has on hand wages which would other- 
wise be paid to the employee. 

(d) If an employee revokes his request 
in writing the Company shall notify the 
Union of the revocation at the same time 
that it forwards its next monthly deduc- 
tions. 

(e) When an employee who has a 
written request in good standing, leaves 
the employ of the Company, the Com- 
pany shall forward the written request to 
the Union and the Union shall send the 
Company a receipt for same. 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Oshawa Railway Company (Canadian National Railways) 

and 

Amalgamated Association of Street, Electric Railway 

and Motor Coach Employees of America 



The Conciliation Board appointed in the 
above matter, consisting of His Honour 
Judge W. S. Lane of Picton, Mr. Douglas 
F. Hamilton of Toronto and Mr. R. V. 
Hicks, QC, of Toronto, has met the parties 
at the City of Oshawa on the 17th day 
of March and again on the 29th day of 
March 1954. The parties were respectively 
represented as follows: — 

For the company — 

Mr. F. A. Gaffney, General Manager, 

Department of Road Transport, 
Mr. F. E. Jones, Asst. Director Labour 

Relations, Canadian National Railways, 
Mr. D. W. Gilmour, Solicitor, Canadian 

National Railways, 



Mr. H. J. Mansfield, Asst. Supervisor, 

Mr. H. J. Mclntyre, Supt. Oshawa Bus 
Services, 

Mr. L. T. Henderson, Supt. Dept. of 
Road Transport. 

The above representation of the com- 
pany was the complete representation as 
on the meeting of the 17th of March. At 
the second meeting on the 29th of March 
Mr. Gaffney was unable to be present. 

For the union — 

Mr. J. 0. Robertson, International Vice- 
President of the union, 

Mr. C. J. D. Windover, President of 
Division 1255, 



1002 



Ill May, the Minister of Labour 
received the report and recommenda- 
tions of the members of the Board of 
Conciliation and Investigation appointed 
to deal with a dispute between Divi- 
sion 1255, Amalgamated Association of 
Street, Electric Railway and Motor 
Coach Employees of America, and the 
Oshawa Railway Company (Canadian 
National Railways). 

The Board was under the Chairman- 
ship of His Honour Judge W. S. Lane 
of Picton, Ont., who was appointed by 
the Minister in the absence of a joint 
recommendation from the other two 
members, Robert V. Hicks, QC, and 
D. F. Hamilton, both of Toronto, 
nominees of the company and union 
respectively. 

Under the provisions of the Indus- 
trial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act the majority recommendations 
of the Chairman of the Board, His 
Honour Judge Lane, together with those 
of Mr. Hamilton, constitute the report 
of the Board. 

The text of the report is reproduced 
here. 



Mr. M. J. Patterson, Business Agent 
Division 1255. 

On the meeting of March 29, in addition 
Mr. W. E. Price, Vice-President of the 
Local, was present. 

Mr. Robertson conducted the case on 
behalf of the union and Mr. Jones on 
behalf of the company. 

The issues brought before us on this 
Conciliation were quite extensive and 
ranged from a general wage increase of 
20 cents per hour through demands for 
change in statutory holidays, for change in 
the provisions dealing with sick pay, 
medical examination, Sunday work, night 
work, accident reports, grievances and 
suggestions, copies of agreement, duration 
of agreement, vacation provisions, working 
conditions as they affect uniforms, spread 
time, lunch period, to a basic request for 
a differential for lead hand mechanics in 
the shop. 

The union, in presenting their case, 
sought to justify their position on their 
various requests by comparison with other 
transit properties in certain instances, by 
comparison with general wage levels and 
general working conditions in industry, by 
which comparisons they sought to show that 
conditions at Oshawa were not favourable 
and that their requests were justified. The 
company, against this, took two positions: 
first, that the union by comparison with 



industry were not realistic and that the 
conditions in a transit employment were 
substantially different than were conditions 
in industry generally and that a comparison 
was not fair for many reasons; and 
secondly, a comparison against the transit 
industry was difficult because, while certain 
comparisons would show the situation 
unfairly in certain instances, there were 
oilier comparisons which would show the 
Oshawa situation much the best and with- 
out making a complete comparison of all 
factors invoked a comparison might very 
well be misleading in its effect. The com- 
pany's other point, which was probably 
more importantly stressed, was that the 
Oshawa operation was not a paying one. 
They argued that the company in the 
fiscal year past lost $125,000 on this small 
operation and that they had on at least 
two occasions offered almost to give the 
transit system to the City of Oshawa in 
so far as the franchise was concerned and 
to sell their equipment at a very reduced 
price. And lastly, the company urged that 
this small unit of some 90 men should 
not be allowed to dictate the bargaining 
between the CNR and their large member- 
ship which were at present in conciliation 
before the Hon. Mr. Justice Kellock. 
They argued that to allow this small unit 
to set a pattern would be in the nature 
of the "tail wagging the dog" and that, 
they felt, would be unfortunate. 

The Board have considered all the 
elements of this conciliation thoroughly. 
In the first place, we recognize that it is 
very difficult for this company to conclude 
its negotiations for a new agreement with 
the very small number of employees so 
long as there is outstanding a much larger 
negotiation to which the company referred 
in their argument. As a practical matter, 
we of the Board recognize the company's 
difficulty in this matter but at the same 
time we recognize that each group of 
employees has the inherent right to nego- 
tiate their own separate contract irrespec- 
tive of the larger group and that after all 
the local coach and railway operation in 
Oshawa is not to be compared in any way 
to the large railway operation above 
referred to. We feel that we cannot at 
this time, in spite of the various difficulties 
which we must recognize, wait to see how 
the larger negotiations are worked out. 

We must recognize, secondly, that the 
operation in Oshawa has not been profit- 
able. We must go further than that; we 
must recognize that there has been a sub- 
stantial loss of money in the last fiscal 
year. We must recognize the truth of the 
company's argument that this operation is 



92110—6 



1003 



one which they would very well like to 
get out of and we must give recogni- 
tion to the company's statement that they 
have offered this property to Oshawa City 
Council on at least two occasions at a very 
attractive figure. In this connection, it 
would be well for us to remember, for 
the union to remember, and for the citizens 
of Oshawa to remember that the fact that 
this property has not made at least ends 
meet will have a very definite bearing on 
whether or not the Canadian National 
Railways will wish to continue operation 
in the face of difficulties which may result 
from these negotiations. We must also 
bear in mind all of us the fact, whether 
it is pleasant or unpleasant, that no com- 
pany however large will be prepared to 
carry a small, losing subsidiary unless in 
some way they are able to compensate for 
their loss by the contribution of that 
subsidiary to the general weal of the main 
operation of the company. At the same 
time, it is well for us to recognize and to 
assess the situation from the standpoint of 
the men as to whether or not they are 
being fairly dealt with in wages, in working 
conditions as compared to their brothers 
in industry and in the transit industry in 
particular in the Province of Ontario. As 
we see it, it is the duty of this Board to 
attempt to correlate both positions at this 
time. 

Bearing these various factors in mind, we 
feel that we must make the following 
recommendations : — 

On the question of pay for statutory 
holidays, it would seem that the present 
practice of this property is to recognize 
seven statutory holidays and to pay time 
and one-half for all time worked on those 
statutory holidays. It has not been the 
practice to pay for these statutory holi- 
days at all if they are not worked. This 
procedure has been in line with railway 
practice generally. This Board, after con- 
sidering the matter carefully, feel that we 
must recommend, first, that the company 
recognize eight statutory holidays. In addi- 
tion, we feel that they should pay for the 
eight statutory holidays if they are not 
worked. We recognize that this is a 
departure from railway practice and may 
come as a substantial strain on the com- 
pany's general operation, "but we feel we 
recognize that certain transit properties do 
this in the Province of Ontario, particu- 
larly in Peterborough, which pays for all 
such holidays at straight time and time 
and one-half if worked. The same applies 
to Brantford except that Brantford pays 
double time if the men are required to 
work. London doesn't pay unless they are 



worked. Hamilton only pays apparently 
for four of them on the basis of full pay 
if not worked and time and one-half if 
worked. We feel that, generally speaking, 
the company should put in effect the 
recommendation which we have made in 
this connection. 

On the question of sick pay, we would 
recommend that this matter be referred 
back to the parties for further negotiation 
and in this connection it might be well if 
the parties consider setting up a committee 
composed of three members from the com- 
pany and three members from the union 
to work out a satisfactory sick benefit and 
hospitalization plan by which the cost 
would be shared between the parties with 
a limitation on the company's expenditure 
of 3 cents per hour. We do not feel that 
we can recommend any plan which might 
be called an accumulative sick benefit plan. 
We feel that to make a recommendation of 
this type in the face of the financial situa- 
tion of this company would be asking for 
a termination of the operation in Oshawa 
and that we would be doing less than 
service to both parties if such were the 
result. 

With regard to the question of medical 
examination, we feel that the company's 
present practice in connection with medical 
examinations is reasonable and we see no 
reason why the men who secure a very 
definite benefit from these examinations 
themselves should ask the company to pay 
for their time in taking them. We would, 
therefore, recommend that the present 
practice continue without change. 

The next issue is that of Sunday work. 
The request here is for time and one-half 
for all employees required to work on 
Sunday. We recognize that there is 
usually a differential for Sunday work in 
industry. We recognize the reason for that 
differential and according to our under- 
standing the reason is not that the man 
in question secures a premium payment 
but that there is a penalty put on so that 
the employer will not schedule work and 
force him to work on that day. In the 
transit industry, no matter what penalty 
might be put on work, the necessity for 
work still remains; it cannot be avoided. 
By making a differential, we would be 
allowing or suggesting that the company 
pay a premium for something that they 
cannot avoid. We do not think this could 
be justified. But, aside from all this, there 
is another very cogent argument against 
this and that is it is usually junior 
employees who would be scheduled to 
work on this type of day and, therefore, 



1004 



we see no real justification for making an 
additional payment here. We would 
recommend, therefore, in this connection 
that there be no change in connection 
with the payment for Sunday work. 

The next request is for a shift premium 
on night work. Again we would recom- 
mend here that there be no change and 
that there be no shift premium in this 
connection. It is not the practice on 
transit work to pay a shift premium either 
for Sunday work or for night work. The 
differential is obtained by scheduling the 
junior employees for the work and we do 
not see why the company should be 
penalized for something that they cannot 
avoid. 

The next issue is the request for an 
hour's pay for making out accident reports. 
It does seem to us that this is not a 
request which could be granted. It appears 
to us that company reports should be 
made out on company time and that if 
the making of a report spreads over into 
overtime, then the man who has to do 
the report should receive overtime rates 
for it but only if in fact it becomes over- 
time. We would, therefore, recommend 
that any accident reports required should 
be made out on company time and not on 
the time of the individual. 

The next request is in connection with 
grievances and suggestions. The first part 
of this is that one day per month be 
granted to the chairman of the organiza- 
tion for these purposes. We see no merit 
in this request at this time nor do we 
feel that there is any problem in connec- 
tion with the present leave of absence 
provision and we, therefore, recommend 
that there be no change in this connection. 

The next request is in connection with 
the printing of the agreement. The union 
has asked that the company prepare and 
supply to the union copies of the agree- 
ment. It seems to us that this request 
is not particularly important but that the 
parties might very well have the agree- 
ment printed and pay for it on the basis 
of a fifty-fifty split. 

On the question of the duration of the 
agreement, we would recommend that the 
agreement be for one year from the date 
of signing. 

On the question of vacations with pay, 
we would be prepared to recommend the 
employees be granted two weeks after three 
years' service and three weeks after fifteen 
years' service. 

The question of grievance procedure has 
been raised here and hag given us some 
considerable food for thought. It has not 
seemed to us that the present system of 



dealing with grievances is quite satisfactory 
in that a considerable amount of time is 
wasted in carrying the original grievance 
to the proper point for decision. We 
recognize that there is considerable diffi- 
culty on occasion in getting the grievance 
before the proper official of the Canadian 
National Railways for decision. At the 
same time, we feel there should be a time 
limit which is reasonable and which in 
spite of its difficulty could be worked and 
not leave a festering sore in the minds of 
the employees concerned. We feel, there- 
fore, that there should be a certain time 
given for local management to contact ■ 
their superiors and have direction as to 
what they should do; but we do feel that 
the decision should be given by local 
management itself in so far as the griev- 
ance is concerned. We would, therefore, 
be prepared to suggest that a term be 
written into the contract requiring the 
local management to give all decisions to 
the local committee and that they be 
allowed two weeks to arrive at a decision 
after the filing of any grievance. In addi- 
tion, we feel that the present arbitration 
machinery, which is in effect the railway 
arbitration machinery, is not satisfactory 
and there should be written into this con- 
tract a proper provision allowing for final 
arbitration of any dispute not satisfactorily 
dealt with by the local management, and 
that in this regard this grievance machinery 
be changed from the practice operating 
generally on the railroad. 

The next issue is that of spread time. 
There doesn't appear here to be any 
serious problem, and in view of this we 
would recommend that there be no change 
in the contract in this regard. 

On the question of uniforms, coats, ties 
and coveralls, we are not satisfied that the 
necessity for change has been substantially 
shown to us. We, therefore, are not pre- 
pared to recommend a change at this time. 

The next issue is that of change allow- 
ance and checking thereof. We recognize 
here that the company has the right to 
check at any time. No doubt this is a 
necessity. We, however, are prepared to 
suggest to them that the checks be made 
at such time as would be reasonable and 
the least embarrassing to the employees. 
In addition, we would also recommend that 
if the check finds only a reasonable short- 
age which is a result of a mistake that 
of necessity should not mean dismissal, but 
that there should be written into the con- 
tract a clause which would allow it as a 
discretionary matter which would be sub- 
ject to grievance procedure as to the 
reasonable application thereof. 



92110— 6| 



1005 



The next request with which we propose 
to deal is that of pay for lead hand 
mechanic in the shop. There was some 
considerable argument on this. The com- 
pany apparently is satisfied to pay a 
lal and the union asks for 
a 10-cent differential. In view of the fact 
that the job when established should be 
one of considerable importance, we feel 
that the union's request is reasonable and 
the company should establish such a differ- 
ential. Unless such a differential is paid, 
it appears to us to be a matter of con- 
doubt as to whether or not it 
would be possible to get a proper person 
'to accept the responsibility. 

The last item to be dealt with is that 
of general wage increase. The union's 
request is for 20 cents per hour across the 
board. The company takes the position 
that there is no basis for any increase. 
After considering comparisons, the Board 
have come to the conclusion that the wage 
rates in Oshawa in so far as comparable 
transit units such as Brantford, London, 
Peterborough and Hamilton, do not show 
that this wage rate is at all out of line. 
On this basis, then, it appears to us that 
the rates are not lower than is reasonable, 
although we must recognize that they are 
not as high as industry. In addition, 
we must recognize that this company 
is financially in difficulty in so far as 
its Oshawa operation is concerned. The 
railway cannot and will not operate in- 
definitely at a loss. Any wage increase 
which we might give at this time very 
definitely will make the probably con- 
tinued operation at Oshawa doubtful. It 
would appear to us, then, that if we 
should force an increase we would be 
jeopardizing the job security of the men 
and thereby doing them a great disservice. 
We have by our recommendations sug- 
gested a substantial labour cost increase in 
this report. We do not feel at this time 
that there is any other labour cost increase 



possible. We, therefore, recommend that 
there be no general increase of wages on 
this property. 

The above recommendations are made 
upon the majority recommendations of the 
Chairman and Mr. Hamilton. Mr. Hicks 
dissents from many of the recommenda- 
tions upon the following grounds: — 

He feels that the company have demon- 
strated their financial inability to assume 
a greater labour cost. He feels that the 
current wage structure taken as a whole 
is not significantly out of line and is in 
reality reasonably comparable with other 
properties. In addition, Mr. Hicks takes 
the position that in view of the fact that 
the settlement arrived at between the 
non-operating union and the parent com- 
pany, which has served in the past as a 
pattern for settlement, will no doubt be 
utilized by this union as the basis for 
settlement of this dispute in spite of our 
recommendation, and that in view of this 
from a practical standpoint it is useless 
for us to make a recommendation until 
the Kellock report is brought down. For 
these reasons, Mr. Hicks feels that any 
report such as the majority report is futile 
and not reasonable under the circumstances. 

The net result, therefore, is that in all 
of the major recommendations which are 
made as stated above by the recommenda- 
tion of the Chairman and Mr. Hamilton, 
excepting the recommendation as to no 
w r age increase, Mr. Hicks dissents. In that 
recommendation dealing with the general 
wage situation, Mr. Hicks concurs. 

Dated at Picton, Ontario, this 29th day 
of April, A.D. 1954. 

(Sgd.) Wilfrid S. Lane, 
Chairman. 

(Sgd.) D. F. Hamilton, 
Member. 

(Sgd.) R. V. Hicks, 
Member. 



Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 
Releases Decisions in Three Recent Cases 



The Canadian Railway Board of Adjust- 
ment No. 1 has released its decisions in 
three cases heard April 13, 1954. 

The three disputes concerned: two 
claims for a minimum day in passenger 
service plus a minimum day in freight 
service for service of both types performed 

1006 



on one day; a crew's claim for compen- 
sation for a period spent at an inter- 
mediate point without returning to 
terminal during that time; and two con- 
ductors' claims for payment for time 
spent travelling to another division to 
relieve men on leave. 






The Board partially sustained the con- 
tention, of the employees in the first and 
third cases. In the second, it referred the 
dispute back to the parties involved. 

The three disputes and decisions are 
summarized below. 

Case No. 643 — Dispute between Ontario 
Northland Railway and Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen concerning two train- 
men's claims for payment of a minimum 
day in passenger service plus a minimum 
day in freight service for work in both 
types of service on the same day. 

On July 31, 1953, a baggageman and a 
brakeman regularly assigned to passenger 
service from Englehart to Noranda and 
return were unable to proceed beyond 
Swastika because of a damaged bridge and 
were instead employed in the movement 
of a repair gang from Swastika to the 
bridge. On their return from that task 
they were ordered back to Englehart with 
passenger equipment. 

The employees held that passenger and 
freight service are two distinct and separate 
classes of service and men holding seniority 
in one class do not hold seniority in the 
other. As the regular passenger crew were 
used in freight service, they are entitled 
to 100 miles at through freight rates in 
addition to their regular 150 miles at 
passenger rates, they contended. 

The railway referred to Rule 17, which 
reads: — 

Road Conductors and Trainmen perform- 
ing more than one class of road service, 
in a day or trip, will be paid for the entire 
service at the highest rate applicable to any 
class of service performed. The overtime 
basis for the rate paid will apply for the 
entire trip. 

The railway argued that the crew in this 
case was used in two classes of service 
on its own assigned territory and as such 
was entitled to the highest rate applicable 
to any class of service performed. 

In its decision, the Board referred to 
Rule 13, which reads: — 

Passenger train crews when handling a 
freight car, or cars (not express) en route, 
will be paid through freight rates for the 
actual mileage with such car or cars. 

The Board ruled that the employees' 
contention be sustained to the extent that 
payment should be made under Rule 13 
for the actual mileage with a freight car 
or cars in addition to the payments 
required under Rule 17. 

Case No. 644 — Dispute between Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway (Prairie Region) and 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen with 
respect to compensation applicable to an 
unassigned freight crew handling an 



auxiliary which was tied up at an inter- 
mediate point at the instance of the 
company. 

On 'February 18, 1949, a conductor and 
crew were called at Calgary to handle an 
auxiliary train due to a derailment. This 
train left Calgary on February 18 and 
returned February 27, having tied up each 
night at Banff for rest. The conductor and 
crew claimed continuous time while at the 
scene of the accident but this claim was 
reduced by 618 miles, which constituted the 
time tied up at Banff each night. 
An article of the agreement reads: — 
Trainmen on wrecking trains will be 
allowed actual mileage and overtime at 
through freight rates to and from working 
limits and work train rates while at work 
with a minimum of one day's pay at work 
train rates for the combined service for 
every day held in such service. 

The employees referred to another clause 
of the same article, which reads, in part: — 

When an unassigned crew is used in work 
train service for two calendar days or less, 
the crew will be paid through freight rates 
and under through freight rate conditions, 
excepting that actual mileage, detention and 
overtime will be paid when going to and 
from work, and further excepting that, when 
the nature of the work is such that it is 
necessary for the crew to be run in and out 
of the original terminal from which it was 
started, it may do so without involving pay- 
ment of run-arounds or the crew being 
automatically released. 

Not less than one day's pay will be 
allowed the crew performing this combined 
service. 

If such crew is tied up at a terminal, it 
will take its turn out in unassigned service. 

If an individual crew is used longer than 
two days in such service, it will be paid 
under work train conditions after the 
second calendar day . . . 

The employees argued that the clause 
was not applicable in this case and pointed 
out that in 1926 a definite understanding 
on this point had been reached between 
the General Chairman of the Order of 
Railroad Conductors and the Brotherhood 
of Railroad Trainmen and the General 
MaDager of the Company. This agree- 
ment stated that "the time at the turn- 
around points, when trains are turned at 
intermediate points on a subdivision in 
unassigned service is an abitrary and is 
paid for irrespective of any other condi- 
tion". The employees contended that the 
crew in question was in unassigned pool 
freight service, was turned at an inter- 
mediate point and never ran into a 
terminal during the period mentioned. 

The company argued that the article 
quoted makes no reference to the pay- 
ment of continuous time while crews are 
held in wrecking train service and stated 
that the reference to a minimum of one 



1007 



lay's pay for every day held in such 
service indicates that payment for con- 
tinuous time was not contemplated. In 
addition, the company noted that the con- 
ductor and crew had been paid actual 
mileage and overtime at through freight 
to and from the working limits and 
were paid work train rates while engaged 
within the working limits. 

After hearing additional written and oral 
evidence, the Board referred the dispute 
hack to the parties with the suggestion 
that they should get together and settle 
the problem on the basis of equity. The 
Board remarked that the rule under which 
the claim was made is open to conflicting 
interpretations. 

Case No. 645 — Dispute between Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway (Eastern Division) 
and Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen 
(ex parte) concerning a claim by two con- 
ductors for deadhead mileage between 
Smiths Falls and Toronto while relieving 
employees on bona fide leave granted by 
the company. 

Agreements are in effect governing the 
manning of passenger trains on the 
Montreal - Toronto and Toronto - Ottawa 
runs. Of the six conductors required, two 
are from the Toronto district, two from 
the Havelock district and two from the 
Winchester district. 

A rule states that promotions to runs 
extending over more than one division 
will be divided and assigned between such 
divisions as nearly as possible on a mileage 
basis. The railway has issued instructions 
that men are not to be called from the 
Havelock district, of which the head- 
quarters is Smiths Falls, to relieve con- 
ductors at Toronto, Ottawa or Montreal 
unless the men being relieved are coming 
off their regular runs because they have 
been required to lay off because they have 
accumulated their mileage for the month. 

The company's instructions also state 
that no deadheading expense is to be 
incurred for men travelling to the terminals 



to relieve. "Men may, of course, dead- 
head to these points at their own expense," 
the instructions point out. 

Two conductors who had travelled from 
Smiths Falls to Toronto to relieve men 
assigned to the Toronto-Montreal run 
submitted claims for deadhead mileage. 
Both claims were denied. 

The employees argued that the rule 
mentioned above "definitely provides for 
division and assignment of the work on the 
runs in question between employees on the 
respective divisions". They also quoted 
another rule that reads: — 

Mileage will not be allowed for any extra 
deadheading incurred by men exercising their 
seniority rights . . . but this will not avoid 
payment of mileage to other men sent by 
the company to relieve men on leave of 
absence. 

The employees contended that the claims 
should be paid and that the railway's 
instructions should be cancelled and the 
schedule rules applied. 

The company pointed out that in two 
agreements it was agreed that no addi- 
tional expense would be caused to the 
company on account of conductors 
travelling deadhead to take relief work or 
returning therefrom. In addition, the com- 
pany noted that if leave is granted an 
employee and sufficient notice is given 
another man to exercise his seniority rights 
to the relief job, and he does so, then no 
deadheading mileage should be paid to 
him. 

Following the submission of additional 
oral and written evidence, the Board 
recommended that the parties concerned 
confer together with the object of arriving 
at an understanding to provide for the 
relief work on those interdivisional runs 
which would be more satisfactory to both 
the company and the employees. 

The Board ruled that one conductor was 
entitled to his claim in that his service was 
not covered by the agreement which pro- 
hibited additional expense to the company 
on account of conductors deadheading to 
take relief work on the Toronto and 
Montreal and the Toronto and Ottawa 



Three weeks' holiday with pay after five years' continuous service will be granted to 
employees of Malaspina Hotel Limited, Nanaimo, B.C., in accordance with an agreement 
recently reached between the hotel and Local 619, Hotel and Restaurant Employees and 
Bartenders International Union (AFL-TLC), the British Columbia Labour Relations 
Board has announced. 



1008 



olierfrve itgrccniems 



Recent Changes in Wages, Hours, 
and Other Employment Conditions 

Most contracts re-negotiated between October 1953 and June 1954 
provide pay increases but larger number than in earlier years renewed 
without wage boosts; survey found little indication of pay decreases 



An examination of 203 collective agree- 
ments which came into effect during the 
period October 1, 1953, to June 1, 1954, 
indicates that, as during the past several 
years, a majority of re-negotiated contracts 
are providing increases in wage rates. It 
appears, however, that a larger proportion 
of agreements are being renewed without 
wage increases than in earlier years. 

There is little indication of wage rate 
decreases actually being put into effect, 
although a number of managements have 
proposed wage decreases in recent 
bargaining. 

There are also indications that the 
amounts of the wage increases being 
bargained have declined considerably com- 
pared with those bargained in 1951 and 
1952. The increases have, however, 
remained close to those agreed upon during 
the earlier months of 1953. 

In a substantial proportion of the agree- 
ments, changes are being made in other 
conditions of employment, including weekly 
working hours, statutory holidays, vacations 
with pay, and pension and welfare plans. 
For the most part, revisions in such items 
are not being substituted for wage bargain- 
ing. In the large majority of agreements 
in which one or more of these items have 
been modified, wage rates have also been 
increased. 

Information for this analysis was obtained 
from those contracts in the 1,000-agreement 
sample maintained by the Economics and 
Research Branch that were re-negotiated to 
take effect between October 1, 1953, and 
June 1, 1954. Copies of 203 agreements 



The material in this section is pre- 
pared in the Economics and Research 
Branch of the Department. 

The two articles dealing with wage 
rate and other changes in recently 
bargained collective agreements and 
with paid vacations are based on a 
group of 1,000 collective bargaining 
agreements selected for analytical pur- 
poses from the Branch's file of collec- 
tive agreements in force throughout 
Canada. 

Major developments under the Quebec 
Collective Agreement Act and under 
the Industrial Standards Acts of other 
provinces are dealt with in a third 
article. 



which became effective during the period 
were forwarded to the Economics and 
Research Branch in time for the analysis. 
Copies of others bargained during the 
period, particularly during the two months 
preceding this survey, had not been for- 
warded by June 1 and could not therefore 
be included in the analysis. The findings, 
however, do give an indication of current 
trends. 

The 203 agreements, covering 111,000 
workers, were compared with those in effect 
previously for changes in wage rates, hours 
of work, statutory holidays and paid vaca- 
tions. Where pension or group welfare 
plans were introduced, they were also noted 
Changes in the items examined occurred as 
follows : — 



Per Cent of 
Agreements 

Change in wage rates 77.8 

Change in hours of work 21 .2 

Change in statutory holidays 22.2 

Change in paid vacation 24. 1 

Pension plan introduced 2.5 

Welfare plan introduced 7.9 



Per Cent of 

Workers Covered 

68.0 

20.5 

21.5 

17.1 

5.8 

8.1 



1009 



In many of the agreements a combination of two or more of the items examined were 
changed, as indicated by the following breakdown: — 



Per Cent of 
Agreements 

Wage change only 27. 1 

Wage change and change in one or more 

other items 50 . 7 

Change in other items only 6.9 

No change in any of the items 15.3 



Per cent of 

Workers Covered 

30.1 

37.9 
18.4 
13.6 



Wage Changes — From Table 1 it will be 
seen that approximately 78 per cent of 
the agreements included in the analysis 
provided an increase in wage rates. 
Although there were no wage decreases, in 
17 per cent of the agreements wage scales 
were the same as in the previous contract. 
Because of failure to include wage schedules 
in agreements forwarded to the Depart- 
ment, or because of changes in job classi- 
fications, it was impossible to compare 
present and previous wage rates in 5 per 
cent of the contracts. 

The proportion of agreements failing to 
provide a wage increase, 17 per cent, com- 
pares with approximately 9 per cent for a 
sample of agreements effective during the 
first nine months of 1953 (L.G., October 
1953, p. 1410); 5 per cent for 1952 agree- 
ments examined (L.G., March 1953, p. 348) ; 
and 2-3 per cent of 1951 agreements (L.G., 
1952, p. 268). 

It will be noted from the table that the 
percentage of agreements which failed to 
provide a wage increase is much less than 
the percentage of workers covered by 
agreement. This arises largely from one 
agreement in the non-manufacturing indus- 
tries, which alone covers more than half 
the workers in these industries who did not 
receive an increase. 

Table 2, dealing with the amount of 
increase in ranges of five cents an hour, 
shows that in most of the 158 agreements 
providing a wage increase the average 
amount is in the range of 5-10 cents per 
hour* Similarly, the largest fraction of 



♦Wages not expressed in cents per hour 
were converted to cents per hour for pur- 
poses of this study. Where increases of 
different amounts apply to different groups 
of employees, the increase to the largest 
number is the one used. A number of the 
agreements provide for deferred wage in- 
creases to take effect at various stipulated 
times during the life of the agreement. The 
total amount becoming effective between 
October 1, 1953, and October 1, 1954, is the 
amount shown in Table 2. 

1010 



the workers covered received increases in 
this range. This was also true for the 
analysis of agreements effective in the 
January-October period of 1953. In both 
periods, increases of less than 10 cents an 
hour were in the majority, with a stronger 
tendency towards increases of a lesser 
amount in the more recent analysis. This 
is in contrast to the agreements analysed 
for wage changes in 1952 and 1951, in which 
the greatest number of increases w T ere for 
amounts above 10 cents an hour. 

Hours of Work — In a total of 43 agree- 
ments covering 22,800 workers, weekly hours 
of work were adjusted; in all cases the 
change resulted in a reduction of normal 
straight-time hours. For 16,000 workers 
covered by more than 20 of the agreements, 
a 40-hour work week was put into opera- 
tion. For most of these workers the 
previous hours had been 42, 42^ or 44 per 
week. In only two agreements covering 
small groups of workers was the hours 
reduction not accompanied by an increase 
in wage rates. For another small group of 
workers covered by three agreements, the 
wage increase obtained failed to maintain 
take-home pay. In four contracts the wage 
increase maintains take-home pay, while 
for the remainder, wage increases were 
bargained that more than maintain take- 
home pay. 

Statutory Holidays — The number of paid 
statutory holidays was altered in 45 of the 
re-negotiated agreements covering 23,800 
workers. All provided an increase in the 
number from those previously observed, the 
usual increase being one or two days. 
Twenty-seven agreements which formerly 
granted 6 or 7 days now grant 8, and six 
agreements which previously recognized 8 
paid statutory holidays now provide for 9 
or 10. The remaining changes bring present 
observed days to less than eight. 

Annual Vacations — Changes in annual 
vacation provisions were made in 49 agree- 
ments covering 19,000 workers. 

Among the more significant changes, 12 
agreements were adjusted to provide for a 
third week of vacation after 15 years of 










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1011 



iously, the qualifying period 
was longer or no third week was allowed. 
Four agreements, all in municipal govern- 
ment, which formerly allowed a three-week 
vacation after 15 years' service, reduced the 
qualifying period to 10 years. Workers 
covered by five of the agreements will, for 
the first time, be entitled to a fourth week 
of vacation after periods of service ranging 
from 20 to 30 years. The qualifying period 



for the second week of vacation was 
reduced from 5 years to 3 years by revi- 
sions in 11 agreements. 

Pension and Welfare Plans — A pension 
plan was introduced in plants covered by 
five agreements, and group insurance plans 
covering such items as hospitalization, 
medical services and life insurance were 
included in 16 revised agreements. Details 
of these plans were generally not included 
in the collective bargaining agreements. 



Vacation with Pay Provisions in 

Collective Bargaining Agreements 

Almost 90 per cent of workers covered by 922 agreements are entitled 
to annual vacation of at least 2 weeks, usually after 3 or 5 years' 
service. Only about 4 per cent of agreements provide for fourth week 



Considerable variety was found in the 
vacation provisions of more than 900 
labour-management agreements examined 
recently by the Economics and Research 
Branch of the Department of Labour* 

Almost all the agreements had a vacation 
clause, which in most cases dealt in detail 
with the length of vacation and with the 
years of service required to qualify for vaca- 
tions of various lengths. However, other 
questions such as the actual work require- 
ments which constitute a year of service, 
the method of calculating vacation pay, 
the vacation rights of employees who leave 
the employ of the company, the problem of 
statutory holidays occurring within vaca- 
tion periods, and the question of carrying 
over unused vacations into the next year, 
were dealt with less thoroughly, if at all. 

Obviously such questions must be dis- 
posed of in one way or another; but it 
would appear that in many cases it has 
not been necessary to insert clauses in the 
agreement formally specifying the practice 
followed, either because the previously 
existing company policy is mutually satis- 
factory or because the matter is dealt with 
through a verbal understanding. 

Length of Vacation 

Almost 90 per cent of the workers covered 
by the 922 agreements analysed are entitled 



♦This analysis of vacation with pay plans 
is based on 922 collective bargaining agree- 
ments in the 1,000-agreement sample used 
for analytical purposes. Out-of-date con- 
tracts were excluded from the study. 



to an annual vacation of at least two weeks. 
Most, however, are not entitled to receive 
two weeks until they have completed a 
number of years of service with the com- 
pany, commonly three or five. Up to that 
time a majority of the workers are entitled 
to one week of vacation annually. Although 
the maximum vacation for most workers 
covered by the analysis is two weeks, 40 
per cent of the contracts go beyond this 
to permit three weeks after varying years 
of service. Allowance for a fourth week 
is much less common, being provided in 
only about four per cent of the agreements. 

Two general types of vacation plans are 
included in collective bargaining agreements. 
By far the most common type provides 
vacations of increasing length as an 
employee acquires greater continuous ser- 
vice with the company. Under a particular 
plan, for example, employees who have 
completed one year of service may be 
granted a vacation of one week, employees 
who have completed five years' service may 
be entitled to a two-week vacation annually, 
while employees with 15 years of service 
may receive three weeks. 

Under the less common arrangement, all 
employees who have completed one year 
of service receive an annual vacation with 
pay of the same length. This type will 
be referred to below as the "fixed-length" 
plan. The more common general type will 
be referred to as the "graduated" plan. 

The periods of service to qualify for 
vacations of various lengths as provided 
in the agreements examined are shown in 



1012 



Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4. In Tabic 1, 33 con- 
tracts'are shown as having no provisions for 
vacations with pay. This does not neces- 
sarily mean that the employees of these 
firms fail to receive vacations. Six of the 
ten Canadian provinces have legislation in 
force making an annual vacation com- 
pulsory for most categories of employees. 
Most of the agreements without vacation 
plans apply to concerns in provinces having 
such legislation so that the employees 
covered are assured of receiving vacations 
of the length specified in the acts. 

Provincial laws, for the most part, allow 
for vacations of only one week annually, 
which is less than the standard provided 
in the large majority of the agreements 
examined. It is also possible that vacation 
plans exist in some plants which have 
not been incorporated into the collective 
agreements. 

In the tables, no separation is made 
between fixed-length vacation plans and 
graduated plans but approximately one- 
quarter of the agreements, covering a like 
fraction of the workers, have a fixed-length 
plan. The vast majority of fixed-length 
plans provide for a vacation greater than 
one week in length after one year of 
service. Only 31 plans allowing one week 
after one year of service fail to extend 
the vacation after longer periods of service. 
On the other hand, close to 70 per cent of 
the plans which permit a vacation of two 
weeks or more following service of one 
year do not allow any further increase in 
the length of vacation. 

Sixty-five per cent of the workers covered 
by the agreements analysed are entitled to 
a vacation of one week following one year 



of service (see Table 1). An additional 
25 per cent, after one year of service, are 
entitjed to a vacation of two weeks or more. 
The 17 plans specifying a three-week vaca- 
tion after a year's service apply mostly to 
employees of various provincial govern- 
ment crown corporations or to certain 
groups of civic employees. Only three of 
them allow a longer vacation for further 
service. 

In 6-5 per cent of the vacation plans no 
reference is made to the length of vacation 
but only to vacation pay. These state 
merely that the employee will be entitled 
to a vacation allowance annually of two 
or four per cent of his wages (Table 1). 
Provisions of this nature are found most 
commonly in agreements in the construction 
industry. 

A two-week vacation after various 
periods of service is specified for employees 
covered by approximately 95 per cent of 
the agreements which provide for a one- 
week vacation after one year of service with 
the company. The most common service 
requirement for a second week of vacation 
is five years but three years service is 
also frequently specified (see Table 2). 

Among agreements providing for a third 
week of vacation the most common require- 
ment is 15 years (Table 3) ; and for the 
small proportion in which a fourth week 
is obtainable, 25 or more years of service 
is usually required. 

Comparing the findings of this study with 
statistical information on vacations from 
the Department's annual survey of working 
conditions in the manufacturing industries 
(L.G., October 1953, pp. 1529-1532). two 
significant differences are noticeable. First. 



TABLE 1. -VACATION WITH PAY AFTER ONE YEAR OF SERVICE 



Length of Vacation 


Agreements 


Workers Covered 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


One week 


550 

250 

17 

13 

18 

41 


59-6 

27-1 

1-8 

1-4 

2-0 

4-5 


501,984 

188,953 

10,589 

4,512 

29,813 

16,223 


65-2 


Two weeks 


24-5 
1-4 


Other length 


0-6 


Vacation allowance two per cent of annual earnings (equivalent to 1 
week's pay although actual length of vacation not specified) 

Vacation allowance four per cent of annual earnings (equivalent to 2 
weeks' pay although actual length of vacation not specified) .... 


3 9 
21 




889 
33 


96-4 
3-6 


752,074 
17,754 


97-7 


Total in which agreement does not mention vacations with 


2-3 






Total in Sample 


922 


100 


769,828 


100-0 



92110— 7£ 



1013 



TABLE 2.— SERVICE REQUIREMENTS TO QUALIFY FOR TWO-WEEK VACATION 

WITH PAY 



Two-Week Vacation 


Agree 


ments 


Workers Covered 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per 


Cent 


After 1 year of service (including those providing 4 per cent of 


291 
83 

144 
20 

257 
8 


31-6 
9-0 

15-6 
2-2 

27-9 
0-8 


205,176 
39,561 

110,830 
28,117 

302,609 
2.277 




26-6 




51 




14-4 




3-7 




39-3 




0-3 








803 
119 


87-1 
12-9 


688,570 
81,258 




89-4 




10-6 








922 


100-0 


769,828 




100-0 







TABLE 3.— SERVICE REQUIREMENTS TO QUALIFY FOR THREE-WEEK VACATION 

WITH PAY 



Three-Week Vacation 


Agreements 


Workers Covered 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 




17 
13 

36 

7 

180 

60 
5 

49 


1-8 
1-4 
3-9 
0-8 
19-5 
6-5 
0-5 
5-3 


10,589 
1,466 
25,570 
14,781 
188,862 
30,647 
25,312 
24,387 


1-4 


After 5 years of service 


0-2 




3-3 




1-9 


After 1 5 years of service 


24-5 


After 20 3-ears of service 


4-0 




3 3 


After 25 or more years of service 


3-2 








367 
555 


39-7 
60-3 


321,614 
448,214 


41-8 




58-2 








922 


100-0 


769,828 


100-0 











TABLE 4.— SERVICE REQUIREMENTS TO QUALIFY FOR FOUR-WEEK VACATION 

WITH PAY 



Four- Week Vacation 


Agreements 


Workers 


Covered 


Number 


Per 


Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


After 5 to 20 years of service inclusive 


6 
21 

2 

7 


0-6 
2-3 
0-2 
0-8 


671 

28,772 

1,814 

27,737 


0-1 


After 25 years of service 


3-7 


After 30 years of service 


0-2 


After 35 years of service 


3-6 








36 
886 


3-9 
96-1 


58,994 
710.834 


7-6 




92-4 






Total in Sample 


922 


100-0 


769.828 


100-0 



1014 



the survey shows a considerably lesser 
proportion of employees to be entitled to 
a two-week vacation following one year of 
service. Second, the annual survey shows 
that 50-8 per cent of the workers receive 
a third week's vacation while in this 
analysis the percentage is approximately 
42. The major reason for the differences 
is that the article based on the survey of 
working conditions applies to manufactur- 
ing concerns only. The agreements used 
in the present analysis are drawn from all 
industries. A substantial proportion of the 
agreements providing vacations of two 
weeks on completion of one year's service 
are in non-manufacturing industries. Most 
of these do not provide for any further 
vacation. Among the manufacturing agree- 
ments included in this study, 55 per cent 
of the workers are entitled to a third week 
of vacation compared with 42 per cent of 
all the workers covered in Table 3. 

Under some circumstances an employee 
who has worked less than a year for a 
company may be entitled to a fractional 
vacation. An agreement may simply state 
that after a worker has been continuously 
employed for a year, he becomes entitled 
to his first paid vacation. Presumably, 
under such plans, an employee commencing 
work at any time during the year may 
take his vacation at some mutually suit- 
able time after one year from that date. 

Other agreements state that employees 
who have completed one year of service 
as of a specified date become entitled to 
a vacation. Unless some adjustment were 
made for employees with less than a year 
of service at the cut-off date, they would 
not become entitled to a vacation until 
after the same date of the following year. 
Still other plants shut down for the vaca- 
tion period, all employees taking their 
holidays at the same time. Again, unless 
some adjustment were made, employees 
with as much as 11 months of service at 
the time of the plant shut-down would not 
receive a vacation until the following year. 

Many contracts specifying service cut- 
off dates or plant shut-downs for vaca- 
tions purposes allow partial paid vacations 
for employees having less than a year's 
service. Among the agreements analysed, 
more than 40 per cent have a provision 
of this nature. Most commonly it is stipu- 
lated that employees with less than a year 
of service will receive a fractional vacation 
proportional to their length of employment. 
Approximately 10 per cent of the agree- 
ments specify proportional pay in lieu of 
vacation. In another 10 per cent, employees 
must have worked a certain number of 



months before becoming entitled to any 
paid vacation or pay in lieu of vacation. 
Beyond this a scale of paid vacation, or 
pay .only, is provided for service up to 
one year. 

While most contracts allow vacations in 
whole weeks (for example, one week after 
one year of service; two weeks after five 
years, etc.), 139 of the agreements applying 
to 26 per cent of the workers covered 
specify graduated plans in step-ups of less 
than a week (for example, one week after 
one year of service; one week and one day 
after two years; one week and 2 days after 
three years; one week and 3 days after 
four years; two weeks after five years). 
These agreements have been included in the 
tables without regard for less than full-week 
vacations. 

Another variation concerning the length 
of vacation which does not show up in the 
tables concerns about five per cent of the 
agreements which provide fixed-length vaca- 
tions with a scale of vacation payments 
which increases with the employee's ser- 
vice. For example, an agreement may 
stipulate that all employees shall receive 
a one-week vacation annually, with two 
per cent of earnings during the preceding 
year being paid to those with less than 5 
years' service, four per cent for those with 
more than 5 years, and 6 per cent for 
employees with 20 years or more of service. 
These few agreements have been included 
in the tables on the basis of four per cent 
of earnings representing two weeks and six 
per cent being equivalent to three weeks. 

Calculation of Service Requirements 

While, as a rule, collective agreements 
state that vacations of specified lengths 
are to be allowed after various periods of 
continuous service, very few set forth the 
factors to be considered in calculating con- 
tinuous service for vacation purposes. Pre- 
sumably, employees absent with authoriza- 
tion or laid off with the right to be 
rehired would be regarded as in the con- 
tinuous service of the company. Presum- 
ably also, factors set forth in other sections 
of collective agreements dealing with 
absences not to be considered as constitut- 
ing a break in service would have appli- 
cation to the vacation plan. These 
frequently include authorized leaves of 
absence and lay-offs of a stated duration. 

A small proportion of the agreements 
analysed, approximately seven per cent, 
do specify, as part of the vacation clause, 
certain absences which are to be counted 
as time worked in calculating length of 



1015 



ice. About six per cent of the agree- 
ments mention absence because of illness 
and the majority limit the allowable time 
specified number of days per year. 
A very lew agreements mention that such 
time as periods of lay-off, periods spent 
in the armed services and periods of 
authorized leave will be regarded as con- 
tinuous service with the company for 
vacation purposes. Thus, under a plan 
that permits one week's vacation after one 
of service and two weeks after five 
years, in calculating whether an employee 
has five years of continuous service, 
authorized absences as provided for would 
be counted as time worked. 

Another aspect of vacation eligibility, 
dealt with in only a minority of the agree- 
ments, concerns work requirements to 
qualify for a full vacation in any particular 
year. For example, a vacation plan may 
specify two weeks of vacation after five 
years of continuous service. An employee 
may have completed his sixth year with 
the company but may have been away from 
work a good deal during the preceding 
year. Under 20 per cent of the agreements, 
applying to 37 per cent of the workers 
covered, the employee must have met a 
minimum work requirement during the 
preceding year to qualify fully for the 
vacation to which he would normally be 
entitled. The employee must have worked 
a specified number of hours, shifts, or days 
according to most of the provisions of this 
nature. Other provisions state that the 
employee must have worked in a specified 
number of pay periods. Many clauses of 
these types are modified so that certain lost 
time is disregarded. Thus, time lost 
through sickness and for other authorized 
leave of absence is frequently regarded as 
time worked for this particular purpose 
although the amount of such time that 
will be so recognized is usually limited to 
a specified number of days or weeks. 

Where employees have not fulfilled the 
specified minimum work requirements for 
the preceding year, one of two results will 
follow. Under some agreements, the 
worker who has not completed the minimum 
work is denied his vacation; but more 
often his vacation, or vacation pay, is 
scaled downward according to the extent 
of absence beyond that permitted. 

A number of agreements handle this 
matter by allowing a certain amount of 
vacation per period of time worked, for 
example, half a day for each 23 days 
worked during the year. A provision of 
this nature is found more commonly in 
railway agreements than in the contracts 
of other industries. 



Provisions requiring a minimum of work 
during the year in order to qualify for a 
full vacation are most frequently found 
among agreements in which the paid vaca- 
tion is calculated on the regular hours of 
work at the normal straight-time rate of 
pay. In agreements where vacation pay is 
based on a percentage of the employee's 
earnings during the previous year, any 
absence automatically reduces his vacation 
pay. 

Calculation of Vacation Pay 

Close to half the agreements examined 
did not include any reference to the amount 
of vacation pay or its method of calcula- 
tion. Among the remainder, the two 
common means set forth for calculating 
vacation pay are: (1) the product of the 
employee's standard weekly hours of work 
and current straight-time hourly wage rate 
for each week of vacation or, in the case 
of weekly- or monthly-rated employees, 
continuance of the regular salary for the 
vacation period; and (2) a specified per- 
centage of the employee's earnings during 
the preceding year (usually two per cent for 
a one-week vacation, four per cent for two 
weeks, and six per cent for three weeks). 
Each of the two methods was found to be 
the basis of vacation pay in approximately 
one out of every five agreements. Other 
bases such as regular weekly hours multi- 
plied by average hourly wage rates during 
a preceding period, average weekly hours 
during a preceding period times the current 
wage rate, or average weekly pay during a 
preceding period were each found in a 
small percentage of the agreements analysed. 

In the large majority of agreements there 
is no mention as to whether such items as 
overtime pay, shift differentials, production 
bonuses, and holiday pay are to be included 
in calculating vacation pay. The question 
would of course arise only where the per- 
centage of earnings method of computing 
vacation pay is in use or where it is not 
clearly stated that pay is based on straight- 
time rates. Only small numbers of the 
agreements specifically include or exclude 
the mentioned items from consideration. 

Other Provisions 

Employment Severance — According to 
the terms of more than 40 per cent of 
the contracts analysed, employees are 
entitled, upon severance of employment, 
to pay for any vacation earned and unused. 
Thus, an employee entitled to two weeks 
of vacation annually who left the company 



1016 



after six months of the vacation year with- 
out having taken any of his vacation would 
be entitled to vacation pay for one week. 
Such clauses are, however, not always 
unconditional. About 10 per cent of the 
agreements with a severance provision 
state that an employee must have com- 
pleted one year of service before the 
provision will apply. A small number 
stipulate that the employee must have 
earned a certain minimum of vacation 
credits to be eligible for proportionate 
vacation pay on severance of employment. 
Employees dismissed for cause will not be 
paid for any unused vacation under a few 
of the contracts. 

Statutory Holidays — About one out of 
every four agreements specifies that when 
a paid statutory holiday occurs during an 
employee's vacation period either an extra 
day of vacation or an extra day's pay will 
be allowed. 

Call-In — Only half a dozen agreements 
deal with the possibility of an employee 
being called to work during his vacation 



because of an emergency. They specify the 
payment of premium rates under these 
circumstances. 

Serliority — One-fifth of the agreements 
covering 30 per cent of the workers in- 
cluded in the sample specify that seniority 
will be considered in the selection of 
vacation periods. Older service employees 
have first choice of the times at which 
vacation will be taken. 

Accumulation — Most of the agreements 
examined have nothing to say about 
carrying over to the following year all or 
part of a current vacation. However, close 
to 30 per cent do state that vacations must 
be taken during the current year and may 
not be accumulated. Less than two pet- 
cent make any provision for accumulation. 

Plant Shut-Down — Slightly more than 
one-fifth of the workers are covered by 
agreements which apply to plants which 
shut down during the vacation period. All 
employees must usually take their vacation 
at this time and workers whose seniority 
entitles them to a vacation of lesser length 
than the shut-down may be off work with- 
out pay for a short period. 



Collective Agreement Act, Quebec; 

Industrial Standards Act, Ontario 



During May, certain changes in wage 
rates and working conditions were made 
obligatory by Orders in Council under the 
Collective Agreement Act, Quebec. Four 
of thirteen Orders in Council provided wage 
changes, as well as minor changes in speci- 
fied paid and unpaid statutory holidays, 
hours, vacations, etc. 

In the printing industry, Montreal Dis- 
trict, minimum hourly rates are now in- 
creased by from 1 to 5 cents and a new 
provision specifies that two days' wages may 
be claimed, either by employee, or employer, 
in the event that a week's notice of 
severance of employment, or dismissal, is 
not given. In addition, a new section in 
the Montreal printing trades agreement 
governs working conditions of employees in 
establishments printing weekly newspapers 
throughout its territorial jurisdiction, except 
the Island of Montreal. 

In the construction industry at Quebec, 
minimum hourly rates are increased by 5 
cents and minimum weekly rates for 
permanent maintenance men are now $2.50 
per week higher. A new clause provides 



one hour's pay to employees reporting to 
work, if no work is available, and if they 
have not been notified in advance. 

In funeral services at Montreal, minimum 
weekly rates for certain classifications are 
increased by $2 per week. In the baking 
industry at Trois Rivieres, hours in estab- 
lishments employing three or more journey- 
men bakers and apprentices, and pastry- 
cooks are reduced from 60 to 54 per week, 
with no change in weekly wage rates. In 
iron oxide mining at Red Mill, minimum 
hourly rates are increased by 9 cents and 
paid holidays are increased by one. 

Under the Industrial Standards Act in 
Ontario new schedules were made binding 
for painters at Brantford, carpenters at 
Cornwall and for plumbers at London. 
These new schedules replace those which 
have been in existence for two years or 
more (in one case as far back as 1937) 
and have been made to conform to the 
conditions set by collective agreements in 
the intervening years. As a result, wage 
changes since the last schedules range from 
10 cents to $1.25 per hour. 



1017 



Labour Law 



Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 

British Columbia appeal court holds that bargaining unit cannot be 
broken up without consent of majority of employees in it. Manitoba 
laundry union restrained from prosecuting employer. Ontario court 
prohibits all picketing during illegal strike. Quebec court refuses to 
review magistrate's ruling that plumber had violated provincial Ac+ 

The appeal court in British Columbia has allowed an appeal from a 
judgment which would have permitted the Labour Relations Board to 
entertain applications for certification as bargaining agent for three single- 
hotel units now forming part of 30-hotel bargaining unit. In Manitoba a 
laundry was granted a writ of prohibition to prevent further proceedings by 
a union which had obtained consent from the Manitoba Labour Board to 
prosecute the company for unfair labour practices. 



In one of the two Ontario decisions 
reported below, the High Court granted an 
injunction to prohibit picketing by a con- 
struction workers' union during an illegal 
strike; in the other it dismissed a union's 
application for an order to refer to the 
Labour Relations Board a question concern- 
ing collective bargaining which had arisen 
in a court proceeding. 

The Quebec Superior Court refused to 
review a magistrate's decision imposing a 
fine on a plumber for his violation of a 
provincial statute requiring him to belong 
to the corporation of plumbing contractors. 

British Columbia Court of Appeal . . . 

...holds that bargaining unit cannot be broken up 
without consent of majority of employees in it 

On March 26 the British Columbia Court 
of Appeal allowed the appeal brought by 
a hotel association and a union from a 
Supreme Court judgment permitting the 
provincial Labour Relations Board to deal 
wtih the applications of another union for 
certification as bargaining agent for the 
employees of three hotels which belonged 
to a 31-hotel bargaining unit (L.G., May, 
p. 681). The appeal court held that the 
Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act 
did not give the Labour Relations Board 
authority to break up a bargaining unit 
unless it was satisfied that a majority of 
employees in the existing unit were no 
longer members of the union certified as 
bargaining agent. 

Chief Justice Sloan gave the facts of the 
case. On February 27, 1952, Local 28 of 
the Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Union 



was certified as bargaining agent for the 
employees of 31 hotels included in the 
British Columbia Hotels Association. On 
April 1, 1953, the Labour Relations Board 
certified the Alcazar Hotel Employees' 
Mutual Benefit Association as the separate 
bargaining agent for employees of the 
Alcazar Hotel, one of the 31 hotels. On 
April 28, 1953, Local 260 of the British 
Columbia Hotel Employees' Union applied 
for certification as bargaining agent for 
employees of three other hotels in the unit, 
the Georgia, Marble Arch and Niagara 
Hotels. The hotel association obtained an 
order nisi for a writ of prohibition to 
restrain the Board from taking any steps 
toward the certification of Local 260. Its 
application to make this writ absolute was 
dismissed by the British Columbia Supreme 
Court. 

The hotel association and Local 28 then 
appealed from this judgment, contending 
that under the circumstances the Board was 
without jurisdiction to entertain the appli- 
cations of Local 260. They submitted that, 
where a bargaining unit is already in 
existence, the Board may not certify a 
bargaining agent for a different unit or 
units composed of a part of the existing 
unit unless it is satisfied that a majority 
of employees in the existing unit are no 
longer members of the union that is the 
certified bargaining agent. Their argument 



This section, prepared by the Legisla- 
tion Branch, reviews labour laws as they 
are enacted by Parliament and the 
provincial legislatures, regulations under 
these laws, and selected court decisions 
affecting labour. 



1018 



was that, since a unit is an entity created 
by the will of the majority of employees 
comprising it, it cannot be broken into 
pieces by the wishes of a minority of the 
unit but only by a majority. 

Chief Justice Sloan considered that the 
contention of the appellants must prevail. 
He emphasized that the intention of the 
ICA Act was to create and majntain 
industrial peace by putting into effect the 
principle that the will of the majority must 
be imposed on the minority. The Act 
provided that a union claiming to have 
as members a majority of employees in a 
unit appropriate for collective bargaining 
could apply to the Board for certification, 
and that, if the Board found that the unit 
was appropriate and that the applicant 
union did represent a majority of employees 
in the unit, it must certify the union. His 
Lordship considered that where these 
factual conditions had been established to 
the satisfaction of the Board certification 
was mandatory. Once it was certified the 
bargaining agent had authority to bargain 
on behalf of all employees in the unit 
whether or not they were union members. 
The collective agreement concluded between 
the union and the employer was binding 
on all employees in the unit. 

The Act did contemplate changing condi- 
tions in industry. Union membership was 
not always static. The certified union 
might have represented a very small 
majority of the employees in the unit and 
that balance might shift to a rival union 
during the life of the collective agreement. 
The Act provided that no new application 
for certification could be made during the 
first 10 months of an agreement but after 
that period an application could be made 
by a different union under Section 10(1) (c) 
of the Act. 

His Lordship considered that in the case 
of such an application, where there had 
previously been a certified bargaining agent, 
one of the questions to be determined by 
the Board on an application for certifica- 
tion, the appropriateness of the bargaining 
unit, had alreadj' been determined on the 
original application. The one remaining 
question for the Board to decide was 
whether a majority of employees in the 
unit were members of the new applicant 
for certification. If they were, then the 
Board must certify the applicant. Section 
13 indicated that the certification of a new 
bargaining agent for the unit revoked the 
original certification and that the new 
bargaining agent inherited any collective 
agreement in force. 



Chief Justice Sloan concluded: — 

In summation it seems to me that the 
one thread running throughout the Act is 
the do<) line of majority control. It follows 
that once the majority creates the bargaining 
authority for the unit the majority of the 
unit must agree before the unit can be 
represented by another bargaining authority 
either in whole or in part. To hold other- 
wise is to encourage fragmentation of exist- 
ing bargaining units and this would in time 
tend to weaken the stability of labour and 
management relations — a cornerstone of the 
present Act. 

The Chief Justice then gave his views 
on some of the arguments of the respon- 
dents, the Labour Relations Board and 
Local 260. Their counsel directed the 
Court's attention to the judgment of the 
British Columbia Supreme Court in the 
Alcazar Hotel case, in which the Board's 
certification of the Alcazar Hotel Employees' 
Mutual Benefit Association as the bargain- 
ing agent for employees of that hotel in 
place of Local 28 was called into question 
(L.G., April, p. 561). In that case Mr. 
Justice Clyne upheld the Board's jurisdic- 
tion to certify the employees' association, 
holding that it had acted within the power 
given it by Section 58(2) of the Act to 
vary or revoke any order or decision made 
by it. 

Chief Justice Sloan was of the opinion 
that this section did not apply to the 
revocation of certifications. He considered 
that the Board had an obligation to certify 
a union once it had found the required 
factual conditions to exist and that there 
was no "order" to vary or revoke. The 
necessary finding of fact leading to certifi- 
cation could perhaps be called a decision 
of the Board but once the Board had 
determined the facts it was compelled to 
issue a certificate. To hold that because 
of some change in the facts since the 
certification the Board could at any time 
thereafter, under the powers conferred by 
Section 58(2), cancel the certification in 
whole or in part was to interpret that 
section too widely, His Lordship held. 
Other sections of the Act, which contained 
the machinery for decertification, would be 
redundant if Section 58(2) vested the same 
power in the Board. He pointed out that 
Mr. Justice Macfarlane had stated in 
In re Rex and Labour Relations Board 
(B.C.) [1949] 2 WWR 873 that Section 
58(2) did not cover decertification because 
special provision was made in Section 12(7) 
for cancelling the certification of a bargain- 
ing agent. 

Counsel for the respondents also drew 
attention to Mr. Justice Davey's decision 
in United Steelworkers of America v. 
Labour Relations Board (L.G., Jan., p. 117), 



1019 



iii which he held that the word "unit" in 
Sections 10 and 13 "means both a whole 
unit or part of a unit according to the 
circumstances" and that "the fact that a 
unit applied for includes the whole or part 
of another existing unit will not prevent 
the Board from proceeding to determine 
whether the unit in respect of which the 
current application is made is one appro- 
priate for collective bargaining". Chief 
Justice Sloan agreed with that statement 
of the Board's powers but considered that 
the Act authorized the Board to break up 
an existing unit only if it was satisfied that 
a majority of employees in the existing 
unit were no longer members of the certified 
bargaining agent. He stated that the facts 
and the real issue in the case at bar were 
entirely unlike those in the case cited. 

Chief Justice Sloan stated that he agreed 
with the following sentence from the judg- 
ment of the Supreme Court in the case at 
bar: "It is a clear principle of the Act that 
employees may belong to the union of their 
choice and they have a prima facie right 
at least to have the union of a majority 
of them appointed as their bargaining 
authority." Local 28 before its certification 
must have satisfied the Board that a 
majority of the employees in the unit were 
its members. His Lordship concluded: "To 
permit dissidents after certification to apply 
to create a new unit in violation of the 
will of the majority of employees in the 
unit is, it seems to me, contrary to the 
spirit, the intention and the language of the 
Act." 

Mr. Justice Smith dissented from the 
judgment of the Court. Appellants con- 
tended that once a unit had been recog- 
nized under the Act it must remain a 
constant. In the case at bar a majority 
of the employees in the new union wanted a 
new bargaining agent but a majority of the 
employees in the old unit represented by 
Local 28 did not. The meaning of the 
word "unit" was therefore the crux of the 
matter. Mr. Justice Smith inferred from 
the Act that there was nothing to prevent 
any group of employees from forming a 
new unit, provided that they formed a 
distinguishable group that the Board con- 
sidered appropriate for collective bargaining. 
The change of a bargaining agent during a 
collective agreement would not disturb the 
conduct of the employers' business because 
Section 12(8) provides that the agreement 
remains in force. 

Appellants contended also that a new 
bargaining agent could not be certified 
because 10 months of the term of the 
second collective agreement between the 
hotel association and Local 28 had not 



elapsed at the time when the Board began 
its hearing of Local 260's application. Mr. 
Justice Smith stated that the Act only 
requires 10 months of the term of the 
current collective agreement to have elapsed 
at the time when a new union applies for 
certification, and that this was the case 
when Local 260 made its application. The 
fact that Local 28 concluded another collec- 
tive agreement after Local 260 made its 
application was not relevant. Mr. Justice 
Smith would have dismissed the appeal. 

The Court, however, allowed the appeal 
of the hotel association and Local 28 from 
the judgment refusing to make absolute the 
writ of prohibition restraining the Board 
from taking any steps towards the certifica- 
tion of Local 260. In re British Columbia 
Hotels Association and Labour Relations 
Board (British Columbia) et al [1954] 
11 WWR (NS) 685. 

Manitoba Court of Queen's Bench . . . 

...holds union not entitled to prosecute laundry 
for alleged violations of [Labour Relations Act 

The Manitoba Court of Queen's Bench 
on April 6 granted the application of a 
Winnipeg laundry for a writ of prohibition 
to prevent a union from proceeding with 
10 prosecutions against the company for 
alleged violations of the Manitoba Labour 
Relations Act. Consent to prosecute had 
been given by the Manitoba Labour Board. 

The informations had been laid under 
the Criminal Code by Emil Walterson and 
by the Laundry and Dry Cleaning Workers' 
Union. The Court held that neither of 
these was a proper informant, since neither 
was an aggrieved person. Mr. Justice 
Campbell stated that no consent had been 
given for Emil Walterson to be the prose- 
cutor. On the other hand, if the real 
prosecutor was the union, it could not be 
an informant. Section 46(1) of the Mani- 
toba Labour Relations Act provides that a 
prosecution for an offence under the Act 
may be brought against an employers' 
organization or a union but does not make 
provision for either to be an informant. 

On these grounds the Court granted the 
writ of prohibition sought by the laundry. 
In re Walterson and Dry Cleaning Workers' 
Union and New Method Launderers Limited 
[1954] 11 WWR (NS) 645. 

Ontario High Court of Justice... 

. . . grants injunction prohibiting picketing during 
strike found illegal by Labour Relations Board 

On February 12 the Ontario High Court 
of Justice granted the application of a 
construction company for an injunction to 



1020 



prevent picketing during a strike which had 
been determined unlawful by the Ontario 
Labour Relations Board. 

Mr. Justice Wells gave the facts of the 
case in his reasons for decision. The 
plaintiff, a construction company in the 
Niagara peninsula, was engaged in erecting 
a building for the Bank of Montreal in 
Niagara Falls. On January 22, Mr. Smith, 
the president of the construction company, 
was informed by the manager of the Bank 
of Montreal that district representatives for 
Local 713 of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America had told 
him that the Bank of Montreal building 
would be picketed. No negotiations had 
taken place between the company and the 
local and no application for certification as 
a bargaining agent had been made by Local 
713 or by any other union. Later the same 
day the defendants Jones and Chartrand, 
the district representatives of Local 713, 
went to Mr. Smith's office and told him 
that unless he signed a contract with the 
local all places where the company was 
performing work would be picketed on 
Monday, January 25. 

On January 25 pickets were placed at the 
Bank of Montreal building in Niagara Falls, 
with the result that plumbers and other 
tradesmen refused to go in and all work on 
the building was suspended. The evidence 
also showed that two of the plaintiff's 
employees and five plasterers and helpers 
employed by a subcontractor of the plaintiff 
refused to cross the picket line at the 
federal building in Ridgeway, another build- 
ing being erected by the plaintiff company. 
Certain other companies and persons with 
whom the company had contracts requested 
it to stop work on their jobs because the 
union representatives had threatened to 
picket their plants if the plaintiff's 
employees did any work there. An 
employee who was a member of Local 713 
told Mr. Smith that if any union member 
worked on any of the premises picketed 
he would be liable to a fine and other 
penalties. 

The company applied to the Ontario 
Labour Relations Board for a declaration 
that the strike was unlawful. On February 
3 the Board sent a letter to the company 
and to Local 713 informing them that it 
found the strike unlawful under the Ontario 
Labour Relations Act. The two labour 
members of the Board dissented from this 
decision. 

Counsel for the defendants argued that 
the evidence did not disclose any unlawful 
action and that there was an absolute 
common law right to picket peacefully. In 
support of this proposition reference was 



made to General Dry Batteries of Canada 
Limited v. Brigenshaw (L.G., 1952, p. 188) 
in which Mr. Justice McRuer refused to 
prohibit peaceful picketing. The defend- 
ants' counsel also argued that since the 
material filed gave no evidence of a strike 
at all and that this could be determined 
only after the trial of the action no injunc- 
tion should be granted in advance. He 
maintained that an injunction was an extra- 
ordinary remedy and that, since in this 
case there was no evidence of violence on 
the part of the pickets, damages would be 
quite adequate compensation. 

Mr. Justice Wells observed that when the 
decision was given in General Dry Batteries 
of Canada Limited v. Brigenshaw the 
employer had applied to the Labour Rela- 
tions Board for a declaration that the strike 
was unlawful but the application had not 
been dealt with. There was no judicial 
finding either by the Court or by the Board 
that the strike was unlawful. The Chief 
Justice in that case restrained by injunction 
the acts of the pickets that he regarded as 
unlawful but felt unable to restrain what 
he regarded as lawful conduct. 

In the case at bar there was a finding 
by the Labour Relations Board that Local 
713 had called an unlawful strike. In view 
of that, Mr. Justice Wells was of the 
opinion that the picketing could not be 
considered lawful picketing. He stated: 
"Section 50 of the Labour Relations Act 
prohibits any officer, official or agent of a 
trade union from counselling, procuring, 
supporting or encouraging such an unlawful 
strike, and what is unlawful may surely be 
restrained by the courts." 

In support of the view that what is done 
in consequence of unlawful acts may be 
restrained, His Lordship cited the case of 
National Sailors' and Firemen's Union of 
Great Britain and Ireland v. Reed [1926], 
which arose out of the general strike that 
occurred in Great Britain that year. He 
also referred to the judgment of the Ontario 
Court of Appeal in Fokuhl v. Raymond 
[1949] 4 DLR 145, a case in which some of 
the principles involved in the case at bar 
arose. Mr. Justice Roach stated there : "It 
is trite law that it is a violation of legal 
right to interfere with contractual relations 
recognized by law if there be not sufficient 
justification for the interference . . ." 

Mr. Justice Wells stated that in the case 
at bar it was perfectly clear that the effect 
of setting up the picket lines, even though 
they were peaceful and well-behaved, was 
to interfere without any legal justification 
in the contractual relation existing between 
the construction company and the owners 
of the various properties picketed. The 



1021 



mere fact that on certain occasions the right 
to picket had been held to be established 
must not blind the eyes of the Court to 
the consequences of the acts under consider- 
ation in this case. 

The Ontario Labour Relations Act set up 
a code of procedure which it was hoped 
would avoid the dislocation and monetary 
loss from acts such as had occurred in this 
rase. They were not only contrary to the 
whole policy of the Act, and indeed in 
direct breach of Section 50, but were 
obviously dangerous and irresponsible. Until 
the union brought its acts within the law 
the court must give the plaintiff company 
protection by granting its application for an 
injunction. 

His Lordship stated that it might well 
be that what had occurred was "watching 
and besetting," prohibited by the Criminal 
Code. However, he preferred to base his 
judgment on the ground that since the 
Labour Relations Board had determined 
that there was an illegal strike those wholly 
or partry responsible for the strike could be 
restrained by injunction. 

The Court granted an injunction prohibit- 
ing all picketing of any premises where the 
plaintiff company was engaged in construc- 
tion work. Smith Bros. Construction Co. 
Ltd. v. Jones et al [1954] 2 DLR 117. 

Ontario High Court of Justice . . . 

. . . dismisses union's application for an order to 
refer a question to the Labour Relations Board 

The Ontario High Court on January 18 
dismissed a union's motion for an order to 
refer to the Ontario Labour Relations 
Board the question of whether or not the 
union was the certified bargaining agent for 
a particular unit of employees. 

The question arose during a court pro- 
ceeding. The plaintiff in the case, Swift 
Canadian Co. Ltd., maintained in its 
statement of claim that Local 307 of the 
United Packinghouse Workers of America 
was the bargaining agent for certain of its 
employees in Plant No. 1 but that its 
employees in Plant No. 2 were not repre- 
sented by any bargaining agent. The 
defendants maintained that Local 307 was 
the certified bargaining agent for all the 
company's employees at Stratford below the 
rank of foreman, except office and sales 
staff, and denied the allegation that the 
plaintiff's employees in Plant No. 2 were 
not represented by a bargaining agent. 

The defendants applied for a court order 
referring the question to the Ontario 
Labour Relations Board, claiming that 



Section 68(1) of the Ontario Labour Rela- 
tions Act took away from the Supreme 
Court of Ontario jurisdiction to determine 
the question raised in the statement of 
claim. Section 68(1) states: "The Board 
shall have exclusive jurisdiction to exercise 
the powers conferred upon it by or under 
this Act and without limiting the generality 
of the foregoing, if any question arises in 
any proceeding ... (f) as to whether a trade 
union represents the employees in a bar- 
gaining unit, . . . the decision of the Board 
thereon shall be final and conclusive for 
all purposes . . ." 

Mr. Justice Ferguson was of the opinion 
that the word "proceeding" in Section 
68(1) referred to a proceeding before the 
Board and not to one before a court. 
Since no provision was made for removing 
any question from the Supreme Court to 
the Board, matters to be decided bj' the 
Board must be taken there by the parties. 
If the trial judge should decide that this 
question was beyond the jurisdiction of 
the Court, he could allow it to stand or 
stay the action until the matter had been 
decided by the Board. However, no 
machinery existed for referring the matter 
to the Board. His Lordship dismissed the 
union's motion. Swift Canadian Co. Ltd. 
v. Dancavitch et al [1954] 2 DLR 398. 

Quebec Superior Court . . . 

...refuses to review ruling that plumber violated 
Act requiring membership in plumbers' corporation 

On January 18 the Quebec Superior Court 
at Hull rejected the application of a 
plumber for a writ of certiorari to quash a 
magistrate's judgment fining him $50 for 
violating the Plumbing and Heating Con- 
tractors of the Province of Quebec Act by 
falsely representing himself as a plumbing 
and heating contractor. 

Mr. Justice Ste-Marie delivered the judg- 
ment of the Court. On September 23, 
1953, the plaintiff had been found guilty 
by a district magistrate of violating Sec- 
tion 20(c) of the Plumbing and Heating 
Contractors of the Province of Quebec Act. 
[The Act, passed in 1949, establishes a 
corporation of plumbing and heating con- 
tractors and requires all individuals and 
companies engaged in installing or repairing 
plumbing or heating systems to be mem- 
bers of the corporation.] Section 20(c) of 
the Act reads: — 

Whoever not being a member in good 
standing of the corporation: 

(c) Lets one falsely believe or assume, 
causes it to be falsely presumed either by 
a title or qualification which he assumes, 
or by affixing before or after his name 
letters or signs tending to make one believe 



1022 






or in any other manner whatsoever cause one 
to believe that he is authorized to ply the 
trade or who uses without right the name 
of plumbing and heating contractor, commits 
an infraction to the present Act and is liable 
to a fine of not less than fifty dollars . . . 

The plaintiff asked the Court to review 
the magistrate's judgment on a writ of 
certiorari. He alleged that there had been 
excess of jurisdiction and grave injustice 
in the magistrate's ruling. Article 1292 of 
the Code of Civil Procedure provides that 
in cases where no appeal is given from 
certain specified inferior courts the judg- 
ment may be revised by means of a writ 
of certiorari. 

In this case the judgment was given by 
a district magistrate apparently under the 
Quebec Summary Convictions Act. Mr. 
Justice Ste-Marie stated that this was not 
a judgment which could be revised by 
certiorari under Article 1292. 

Even if Article 1292 were applicable, 
Article 1293 provided that certiorari could 
be granted only if there had been excess 
of jurisdiction, if the judgment had been 
based upon regulations which were null, or 
if there had been serious irregularities in 
procedure. "Grave injustice" was not a 
ground for the issuing of a writ of certiorari. 

The plaintiff based his claim of "excess 
of jurisdiction" on the allegation that Sec- 
tion 20(c) of the Plumbing and Heating 



Contractors of the Province of Quebec Act 
was ultra vires because it conflicted with 
the Quebec Pipe-Mechanics Act. Section 7 
of the latter Act reads: — 

A contractor's licence must be granted: 
1. To any person who has satisfactorily 
passed the examination prescribed for 
journeymen and lias filed an application to 
be registered as a contractor and paid the 
prescribed fees . . . 

The plaintiff had obtained a licence under 
this Act. 

Mr. Justice Ste-Marie stated that a 
person who had obtained a licence under 
the Pipe-Mechanics Act did not automati- 
cally become a member in good' standing 
of the corporation of plumbing and heating 
contractors and had no right to let it be 
presumed that he was entitled to practise 
the trade of plumber. His Lordship held 
that Section 20(c) of the Plumbing and 
Heating Contractors of the Province of 
Quebec Act was not ultra vires, and that 
the writ of certiorari could not be issued. 
The magistrate had evidently come to the 
conclusion that the plaintiff had violated 
the Act. Certiorari could not be granted 
for the purpose of reviewing a case on 
its merits. 

The plaintiff's application was rejected 
with costs. Giroux v. Millar et Corporation 
des Entrepreneurs en Plomberie et Chauf- 
fage [1954] CS Montreal 185. 



Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 

New steamship machinery inspection regulations issued under Canada 
Shipping Act. Manitoba's annual fair wage schedule for construction 
industry approved. Higher minimum wage set in B.C. fruit processing 



Regulations under the Canada Shipping 
Act for the inspection of steamship 
machinery have been replaced. 

The 1954-55 schedule of wages and hours 
for both public and private construction 
work in Manitoba went into effect May 1. 
The schedule, which is drawn up by 
the Fair Wage Board chiefly on the 
basis of existing collective agreements, sets 
minimum wages and maximum hours for 
building construction in two zones, the 
Winnipeg district and the larger cities and 
towns, and for bridge and road construc- 
tion throughout the province. 

A new order for the fresh fruit and 
vegetable processing industry in British 
Columbia raises the minimum wage for 
men and women to 75 and 60 cents an 
hour, respectively, subject to the provisions 



of the Equal Pay Act which requires equal 
pay for men and women doing the same 
work in the same establishment. 

The maximum supplementary allowance 
now payable in Alberta to needy persons 
in receipt of old age assistance, old age 
security or blind persons' allowances is $15 
a month rather than $10. 

FEDERAL 

Canada Shipping Act 

Steamship Machinery Inspection 

New regulations under the Canada Ship- 
ping Act governing the inspection of 
steamship machinery were approved by 
P.C. 1954-580 on April 14 and gazetted 
April 28. They replace Sections 1 to 25 



1023 



of Part I of the regulations for the in- 
spection of boilers and machinery of 
steamships, established by P.C. 3lil of 
July 13. 1918. anil the regulations for the 
inspection of boilers fitted for any pur- 
poses other than propelling purposes, estab- 
lished by P.C. 4408 of August 31, 1949. 

The "machinery" covered by the regula- 
tions includes the propelling engines, 
boilers, pumps, steering engines, wind- 
s and all similar apparatus required 
for the safety and operation of a steamship. 
Inspection is carried out, under the super- 
vision of the Board of Steamship Inspec- 
tion, by steamship inspectors appointed 
under the Act. 

Pilotage Rates jor Botwood 
Pilotage rates for the port of Botwood, 
Newfoundland, fixed by P.C. 1954-720 of 
May 13, gazetted May 26, replace those 
established by P.C. 6456 of December 4, 
1951. Vessels up to 600 tons are now 
exempt from pilotage dues and a higher 
rate is fixed for vessels exceeding 1,300 
tons. 



PROVINCIAL 

Alberta Supplementary Allowances Act 

A monthly increase of $5 in the supple- 
mentary allowances payable to recipients 
of old age security, old age assistance and 
blind persons' allowances was authorized 
by an amendment to the Alberta Supple- 
mentary Allowances Act which came into 
force April 1. Regulations governing the 
granting of the increased allowances were 
approved by O.C. 598-54 of April 29. 
gazetted May 15, amended by O.C. 693-54 
of May 7, gazetted May 31. They replace 
regulations issued in 1952. 

The maximum supplementary allowance 
now payable is $15 a month. The regula- 
tions, effective from April 1, set out details 
of administrative procedure for the paying 
of these allowances and prescribe the means 
test with which an applicant for a supple- 
mentary allowance must comply. For 
example, a single person who receives old 
age security of $480 a year and whose 
additional yearly income does not exceed 
S240 is eligible for the supplementary 
allowance of $180 a year. Thus, his total 
annual allowable income is $900. In the 
case of a married couple where one receives 
a blind person's allowance of $480 and the 
other, old age assistance of $480, each will 
receive the supplementary allowance of 
$180 a year provided their combined addi- 
tional income is not more than $120. The 
total allowable income of such a couple is 
therefore $1,440 a year. 



The total allowable income is similarly 
set out for other cases, depending on 
marital status, blindness and the type of 
allowance (old age security, old age assist- 
ance, blind person's allowance) received by 
the man or his wife. 

The total allowable annual income in- 
cludes the allowance paid under the Act 
and assistance to the recipient or his 
spouse under the Old Age Security Act 
(Canada), the Old Age Assistance Act or 
the Blind Persons Act. The Pensions 
Board which administers the Act must also 
consider as income any interest from real 
or personal property and the value of board 
or lodging furnished either free or for a 
nominal charge. The amount considered 
as income where board and lodging are 
thus supplied may not be less than $10 a 
month for lodging, $20 a month for board, 
or $30 a month for board and lodging 
for a single person and $15, $30 and $45, 
respectively, for a married couple. 

A second Order in Council, O.C. 599-54 
of April 29, also gazetted May 15, author- 
ized an agreement between Alberta and 
British Columbia which provides for the 
payment of the Alberta supplementary 
allowances to recipients now living in 
British Columbia and for the payment of 
the British Columbia cost of living bonus 
(also up to $15 a month) to recipients now 
living in Alberta. 

British Columbia Hours of Work Act 

The regulation which exempts the fresh 
fruit and vegetable industry from the 
British Columbia Hours of Work Act 
during the summer months has been 
reissued. The new regulation, No. 21N, 
issued May 5 and gazetted May 27, 
applies from June 1 to November 30, 1954, 
to all operations in or incidental to the 
canning, preserving, drying or packing of 
any kind of fresh fruit or vegetable. 

British Columbia Male and 
Female Minimum Wage Acts 

Fruit and Vegetable Industry 
Minimum wages for men and women in 
the fresh fruit and vegetable industry were 
increased by Order 46 of May 5, gazetted 
May 27 and effective May 31. The order, 
which replaces separate orders issued in 
1946 for male and female employees, 
raises the minimum rate for men from 48 
to 75 cents an hour and for women from 
40 to 60 cents an hour. 

Special overtime rates are set for the 
busy season during which the industry is 
exempted from the limits set by the Hours 



1024 



of Work Act. From June 1 to November 
30 in each year, time and one-half the 
regular rate must be paid for the first two 
hours worked in excess of nine hours and 
double time for any hours in excess of 
11 in a day. A new section specifies that 
time and one-half must be paid for any 
overtime in excess of 54 hours in a week 
which is not calculated on a daily over- 
time basis. 

Overtime work is not permitted after 
eight hours in a day or 44 in a week during 
the period from December 1 to May 31 
except with a permit from the Board. 
When overtime work is permitted, time 
and one-half must be paid for all hours 
in excess of eight in a day or in excess of 
44 in a week where the hours worked do 
not exceed eight in any one day. In addi- 
tion to posting the order, the employer 
must now also post a schedule setting out 
the shifts of each of his employees from 
December 1 to May 31. 

The order contains the usual daily guar- 
antee of at least three hours' pay to any 
employee reporting for work on the call 
of the employer. Students reporting for 
work on school-days on the call of the 
employer must receive at least two hours' 
pay at their regular rate. 

After five consecutive hours of employ- 
ment, a rest period of at least an hour 
must be given. If, however, 75 per cent 
of the employees in the establishment sign 
a petition requesting a shorter period free 
from duty, a shorter rest period (not less 
than half an hour) may be instituted, with 
the approval of the Board. The same 
provision was contained in the earlier 
orders. 

Exemption from Acts 

Employees of the Salvation Army 
employed at Harbour Light Centre in 
Vancouver have been declared exempt from 
the operation of the Male and Female 
Minimum Wage Acts. The exemption was 
made by Regulation 2 on May 18, gazetted 
and effective May 27. 

Manitoba Fair Wage Act 

Fair Wage Schedule for 1954-55 
The annual schedule of minimum rates 
of wages and maximum hours of work 
prescribed by the Fair Wage Board for 
certain public and private construction 
work in Manitoba (Reg. 19/54) was 
gazetted April 24 and will be in effect 
from May 1, 1954, to April 30, 1955. The 
schedule as regards Zone "A" rates and 
hours (Greater Winnipeg) is chiefly based 
on provisions of existing collective agree- 
ments. Zone "A" rates apply to public 



and private work in Winnipeg and a 30- 
mile radius; Zone "B" rates apply to public 
work elsewhere in the province and to 
private work in cities and towns with a 
population of more than 2,000. These 
include Brandon, Dauphin, Flin Flon, 
Minnedosa, Neepawa, Portage la Prairie, 
Steinbach, Swan River and The Pas. 

"Public work" includes public works 
authorized by the Minister of Public 
Works for the execution of which a con- 
tract has been entered into between the 
Minister and an employer. 

"Private work" means the construction, 
remodelling, demolition or repair of any 
building or construction work in the 
Greater Winnipeg Water District or of any 
such work, irrespective of the number of 
contracts made, in any city or town with 
a population exceeding 2,000, or in any 
other part of the province to which the 
Act may be extended by the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council, provided that the 
total cost of such work exceeds $100. 

The only change in hours in Part I of 
the schedule is that a maximum 44-hour 
week is set for elevator constructors and 
helpers in Zone "B" rather than a 40-hour 
week, as before. The minimum hourly 
wage rates for these workers in both zones 
were raised from $1.92 to $2 for elevator 
constructors and from $1.34 to $1.40 for 
helpers. 

Other hourly rates raised in the new 
schedule were those for: (a) bridge and 
structural steel and iron workers in both 
zones, terrazzo and oxychloride workers 
employed as layers in both zones, and for 
stonecutters in Zone "A" (increased by 
five cents an hour) ; (b) mastic floor 
spreaders and layers in both zones and 
cement finishers (in warehouse or large 
floor area jobs) in Zone "A" (increased by 
10 cents an hour) ; and (c) roofers (mop 
handlers) and linoleum floor layers in both 
zones (increased by 20 cents an hour). The 
rates for lathers working on wood, wire 
and metal in Zone "A" were increased 
from $1.70 to $1.80 per hour until July 31 
and by an additional ten cents after that 
date. 

Mastic floor kettlemen, rubbers and 
finishers are no longer listed in the 
schedule. Oxychloride workers on floors 
without a polished terrazzo finish have 
been added to the schedule with the same 
hours and rates as cement finishers. 

The maximum hours and minimum wage 
rates in Part II of the schedule, which 
applies to public road and bridge works, 
are unchanged. 



1025 



Time worked in excess of the standard 
weekly hours listed in the schedule must 
be paid iov at not less than time and one- 
half the minimum scheduled rate and work 
on Sundays must be paid for at double 
time. 



The schedule also notes that employers 
in construction work in Greater Winnipeg 
must affix vacation-w r ith-pay stamps in a 
worker's stamp-book to the extent of two 
per cent of the total wages earned in each 
pay-period. 

The schedule follows: — 



SCHEDULE "A"— PART I 

Zone "A" Rates Apply: 

To both "public work" and "private work" as above defined, Winnipeg and a radius of thirty 
(30) miles, measured from the intersection of Osborne Street and Broadway Avenue. 
Zone "B" Rates Apply: 

(1) To "public work" as above defined, in all other parts of the province except where Zone "A" 
rates apply. 

(2) To "private work" as above defined, in cities and towns which have a population exceeding 
2.000 except where Zone "A" rates apply. 

(3) In the Town of Flin Flon the minimum basic wage rate specified in Zone "B" applies but the 
maximum hours per week shall in all cases be 48. 

The following schedule shall apply from and after May 1st, A.D. 1954, on "Private Work" and on 
"Public Works", as described above: 





Zone 


"A" 


Zone 


"B" 


Occupation 


Basic 
Minimum 

Wage 

Rate 
Per Hour 


Maximum 

Hours 
Per Week 


Basic 

Minimum 

Wage 

Rate 

Per Hour 


Maximum 

Hours 
Per Week 


1. Asbestos Workers — 


$ 

1.80 
1.50 
1.35 
2.10 
1.95 
1.90 
City of ] 

1.35 

1.90 

1.40 
Town of ] 
2.00 
1.40 

1.25 
1.05 

1.80 
1.90 


40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
Brandon 

48 

40 

40 

?lin Flon 

40 

40 

48 
48 

40 
40 


$ 

1.70 
1.45 
1.30 
1.95 
1.95 
1.75 
1.80 

1.20 
1.75 


48 


(b) 1st Class Improvers 


48 


(c) 2nd Class Improvers 


48 


2. Bricklayers 


44 


3. Bridge and Structural Steel and Iron Workers 


44 




44 


Carpenters 


44 


5. Cement Finishers and Oxychloride Workers on floors 
without a polished terrazzo finish (in warehouse or 
large floor area jobs) 


48 


6. Electrical Workers (inside wiremen, licensed journey- 


48 


Helpers with two (2) years or more experience assisting 




Licensed journeymen 


1.75 

2.00 
1.40 

1.20 
1.00 

1.35 
1.20 
1.75 
1.20 

1.45 
1.45 


48 


7. Elevator Constructors (passenger and freight) 


40 


Helpers 


40 


8. Building Labourers — 

(a) Assisting mechanics in the setting of cut stone, 
terra cotta, tile and marble, bending reinforcing 
materials, mixing mortar 


48 


(b) General Building Labourers 


48 


9. (a) Lathers, Wood, Wire and metal 

(May 1, 1954 to July 31, 1954) 




(August 1, 1954 to April 30, 1955) 




(b ) Lathers 


48 


10. Linoleum Floor Layers 


1.25 

1.90 
1.25 

1.65 
1.65 


48 
40 

48 

48 
48 


48 


11. Marble Setters 


44 


12. Mastic Floor Spreaders and Layers 


48 


13. Operating Engineers and Firemen on Construction — 

Class A: Engineers in charge of hoisting engines of 
three drum or more operating any type of 
machine, or operating clam-shells or orange 
peels, regardless of capacity; or operating steam 
shovels or dragline of one yard capacity or over; 
or operating drop hammer pile drivers; in all 
cases irrespective of motive power 


48 


Class B : Engineers in charge of hoisting engines having 
only two drums or a single drum, used in hand- 
ling building material or steam shovels and 
drag-lines not specified in "A" hereof; irrespec- 
tive of motive power 


48 



1026 



SCHEDULE "A" PART I— continued 



Occupation 



Zone "A" 



Basic 

Minimum 
Wage 
Rate 

Per Hour 



Maximum 

Hours 
Per Week 



Zone "B" 



Basic 

Minimum 

Wage 

Rate 

Per Hour 



Maximum 

Hours 
Per Week 



Class C: Engineers in charge of any steam operated 
machine not specified in "A" or "B" hereof; or 
in charge of a steam boiler if the operation of 
same necessitates a licensed engineer under the 
provisions of "The Steam Boiler Act" or air 
compressor delivering air for the operation of 
riveting guns on steel erection work, or pumps in 
caissons, or trenching machines or bull dozers 
over size D4 or equivalent; irrespective of 
motive power 

Class D: Men firing boilers of machines classified in 
"A", "B" or "C" hereof or assisting Engineers 
in charge of same 

Class E: Operators operating concrete mixers over % 
yard capacity or bull dozers up to and including 
size D4 or equivalent; irrespective of motive 
power 

Class F: Operators of gas or electric engines for 
machines not otherwise specified in "A", "B" or 
"C" hereof, of a type usually operated by skilled 
laborers 

14. Painters, Decorators, Paperhangers and Glaziers 

Swing Stage and Spray Painters 

15. Plasterers 

16. Journeymen of the Plumbing and Pipefitting Industry . 
Helpers 

17. Roofers— Mop Handlers 

18. Sewer and Underground Construction Work — 

(a) Caisson Workers 

(b) Laborers 

(c) Pipe Layers 

(d) Tunnellers 

19. Sheet Metal Workers 

20. Shinglers 

21. Stonecutters 

22. Stonemasons 

23. Terrazzo and Oxy chloride Workers — 

(a) Layers 

(b) Machine Rubbers (Dry) 

(c) Machine Rubbers (Wet) 

24. Tile Setters (including all clay product tile and Vitro- 
lite Glass) 

25. Tile Setters (plastic, metal, asphalt, rubber and lino- 
tile) 

26. Timber and Crib Men working on grain elevators or 
bridges doing the "crib work" on grain elevators, 
or rough timber work on bridges 

27. Truck Drivers (while in charge of truck on construction 
work only) 

28. Watchmen 



1.50 
1.25 

1.25 



1.25 
1.65 
1.75 
2.10 
2.00 
1.25 
1.25 

1.25 



1.75 
1.25 
1.05 

1.90 

1.40 



.35 



1.25 
.80 



48 



48 



1.35 
1.15 

1.15 



48 


1.15 


40 


1.60 


40 


1.70 


40 


1.95 


40 


1.60 


40 


1.15 


48 


1.20 


48 


1.20 


48 


1.00 


48 


1.05 


48 


1.05 


42i 


1.45 


40 


1.40 


44 


1.60 


40 


1.95 


40 


1.75 


48 


1.20 


48 


1.05 


40 


1.75 


40 


1.25 


48 


1.35 


48 


1.20 



1027 



SCHEDULE "A"— PART II 

Public Roads and Bridge Works 

29. The following (schedule shall apply from and after May 1st, 1954, on Public Works for highway, 
road, bridge or drainage construction where a contract has been entered into by the Minister of 
Public Works, in all parts of Manitoba outside the limits of the City of Winnipeg. 



Occupation 



Minimum 

Basic 

Wage Rate 

Per Hour 



Maximum 
hours of 
straight 
time rates 
over each 
two-week 
period 



30. 
31. 
32. 

33, 

*34, 

*35, 

36, 

37, 

38, 

39, 

40, 

•41. 

42, 

43, 

44, 

45, 

46, 

47, 
48, 
49, 
50, 



Aggregate Batch Man 

Asphaltic Oil Distributor Driver 

Blade Grader (12 H.P. and over) Operator 

Concrete Finisher 

Concrete Paver Operator 

Dragline, Shovel and Crane Operator 

Elevator Grader Operator 

Engineer, Stationary Boiler 

Laborers 

Motor Patrol Operator 

Roller Operator, 6-ton and over, steel wheels 

Scraper and Bull Dozer Operator 

Spreader and Finishing Machine Operator 

Teamsters 

Teamsters and Two-Horse Teams.. 

Teamsters and Four-Horse Teams 

Timber Men (timber work where use of hammers, saws, axes and augers 

only are required) 

Tractor Operators, 50 h.p. drawbar or over 

Tractor Operator, under 50 h.p. drawbar 

Truck Drivers 

Watchman and Flagman 



108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 

108 
108 
108 
108 



51. Where due to emergency or inclement weather, less than 108 hours are worked in any two week 
period an employer may, during the next two week period employ his employees at straight time 
rate for as many hours additional to the regular 108 hours as have been lost during the preceding 
two week period. 

* Probationary Rates — 

52. (1) Where a new employee agrees with his employer to prove his ability to operate one of these 

machines by a short trial period at a probationary rate, not later than the date upon which the 
employee starts work, the employer shall send to the Department by registered mail a letter 
signed by the employee and the employer, certifying that for a probationary period not ex- 
ceeding 30 days, a rate of 15c below the schedule rate has been agreed upon. 
(2) Subsection (1) is applicable only to ;Concrete Paver Operator, Dragline, Shovel and Crane 
Operator, Scraper and Bull Dozer Operator. 



Labour Legislation in Quebec in 1954 

Amendment to Labour Relations Act bars certification of an associa- 
tion with Communist officers. Change in Public Services Employees 
Act decertifies public service unions that engage in illegal strike 



The Quebec Legislature, which met on 
November 18 and prorogued on March 5, 
passed amendments to the Labour Rela- 
tions Act which declare an association 
ineligible for certification if any of its 
organizers or officers adhere to the 
Communist Party, and to the Public 
Services Employees Disputes Act to provide 



for the decertification of a union repre- 
senting, public service employees which 
engages in an illegal strike. 

A further sum was voted for the project 
under which the Government bears interest 
charges over two per cent on loans made 
by credit unions or loan societies for the 
construction of family dwellings. 



1028 



Labour Relations 

The Labour Relations Act was amended 
to provide that a union is not a bona fide 
association eligible to be certified if it 
tolerates among its organizers or officers 
one or more persons "adhering to a 
communist party or movement". Certifi- 
cation of such a union is to be refused or 
revoked by the Board. The Bill as intro- 
duced also had reference to one or more 
persons "adhering to the communist 
doctrine" but this phrase was dropped in 
passage. 

This provision is new in Canadian 
labour legislation. The usual stipulation 
in labour relations Acts is that the 
applicant for certification must be an 
association formed for the purpose of 
regulating relations between employers and 
employees. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board in 
1950, after examining the activities of the 
Canadian Seamen's Union over a period 
of time, held that it was not an associa- 
tion conforming to this definition and 
revoked its certification. This decision 
was upheld in court (L.G., 1951, p. 697). 
In 1953, in a case involving a decision 
of the Nova Scotia Labour Relations 
Board, the Supreme Court of Canada held 
that the Board did not have authority to 
disqualify a union on the ground that 
one of its officers was a Communist, the 
other conditions for certification having 
been met (L.G., Aug. 1953, p. 1172). In 
the United States the Labour-Manage- 
ment Relations Act has since its enact- 
ment in 1947 contained a provision that 
a union is denied access to the National 
Labour Relations Board unless each union 
officer has filed an affidavit that "he is 
not a member of the Communist Party 
or affiliated with such party", and that 
"he does not believe in, and is not a 
member of or supports any organization 
that believes in or teaches, the overthrow 
of the United States Government by force 
or by any illegal or unconstitutional 
methods". 

The Quebec amendment was made 
retroactive to February 3, 1944, the date 
on which the Act to constitute a Labour 
Relations Board was assented to. The 
retroactive feature was introduced by an 
amendment made in the Legislative 
Council. 

A new section provides that the Board, 
before cancelling or revising one of its 
orders, must hold a hearing and give the 
parties at least five clear days' notice of 
its time and place. If either of the 
parties fails to appear or refuses to be 



heard, the Board may nevertheless pro- 
ceed to determine the matter and no 
judicial recourse may be founded on tin: 
fact that it proceeded in the absence of 
an interested party. The Supreme Court, 
of Canada, in L' Alliance case (L.G., Aug. 
1953, p. 1177), held that the Board had a 
duty to hear both parties on any issue it 
decides and that an order made without 
a proper hearing was invalid. 

For the purposes of the Act, the 
Attorney-General, or any crown prosecutor, 
is given the powers assigned to him by 
Article 311a of the Code of Civil Pro- 
cedure, that is, he may "ex officio and 
without notice take part in the trial and 
hearing as if he were a party thereto". 
This provision was added by an amend- 
ment to the Bill introduced in the Legis- 
lative Council, following representation 
from the Quebec Federation of Labour 
that the Bill would be more acceptable 
if it provided for the Attorney-General 
initiating proceedings before the Labour 
Relations Board, since they feared indis- 
criminate charges by irresponsible persons. 

The quorum of the Labour Relations 
Board is fixed by the amendment as the 
majority of the members in office, instead 
of the majority of the members of the 
Board, as before. Under the Act, the 
Board is to consist of a chairman, vice- 
chairman, and five other members, but a 
vacancy among the members does not have 
the effect of dissolving the Board. 

The sittings of the Board are to be 
presided over by the chairman of the 
Board or member designated by him and 
the majority of votes of the members 
present constitutes the decision of the 
Board. In case of a tie, the chairman, or 
the member designated by him to act as 
chairman, has a casting vote. A decision 
signed by all the members of the Board 
is to have the same value as a resolution 
passed at a regular sitting. 

Public Services Employees 

i 

The Public Services Employees Disputes 
Act, which applies to the provincial and 
municipal public service, including school 
corporations, to hospitals and charitable 
institutions under the Quebec Public 
Charities Act, and to public utility services, 
was amended to make the decertification 
of a bargaining agent automatic if an 
illegal strike occurs. Under the Act 
strikes and lockouts are prohibited in all 
circumstances. 

The new provision states that an asso- 
ciation which orders, declares or encour- 
ages, or whose directors order, declare or 



1029 



encourage, or whose members carry out, 
a Strike or lockout prohibited by the Act 
shall forfeit, ipso facto and by operation 
of law, the right to certification as bar- 
gaining agent. The Labour Relations 
Board may subsequently grant a certificate 
to such a group whenever, for reasons 
which it deems valid, it considers it advis- 
able to do so. By an amendment in the 
Legislative Council the provision was 
made retroactive to February 3, 1944. 

Professional Syndicates 

The Professional Syndicates' Act was 
amended in respect to the provision for 
voluntary or judicial dissolution of a 
syndicate. The Act sets out the manner 
in which the assets of a syndicate, when 
it is liquidated, are to be disposed of. 
After costs of liquidation and the debts 
of the syndicate have been paid, the 
property derived from gifts or legacies has 
been disposed of as required, and provision 
has been made for the maintenance of 
any benefit plans operated by the syndi- 
cate, any remaining assets are to be 
devoted to one or more similar under- 
takings. The amendment authorizes the 
Provincial Secretary and the Minister of 
Labour, rather than the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council, as formerly, to 



designate the "one or more similar under- 
takings" which are to receive the remaining 
assets. 

Housing 

An Act to authorize further credits 
to improve housing conditions added 
815.000,000 to the $40,000,000 granted since 
1948 by the Provincial Government towards 
the payment of interest charges on loans 
for family dwellings. 

On the recommendation of the Quebec 
Farm Credit Bureau, which administers the 
legislation, the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council may now make the Act applicable 
to houses of more than two dwelling units 
in a particular city or town. Previously, 
the plan was limited to a house of one or 
two dwellings. 

Also on the recommendation of the Bureau, 
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may 
extend to employees who obtain housing 
loans from their employers the benefits of 
the guarantee and contribution of interest. 
At the same time the Act under which 
companies are authorized to make housing 
loans to their employees was amended to 
permit the company to charge interest on 
the loan at a rate up to six per cent 
instead of up to four per cent, as 
previously. 



Quebec to Consider Steps to Protect Public against Strike Abuses 



Quebec's Premier said recently that his 
Government intends to consider what steps 
could be taken ^o protect society against 
possible strike abuses. 

Hon. Maurice Duplessis made this state- 
ment to a delegation of the Professional 
Association of Industrialists when that 
Quebec employers' organization presented 
its annual brief to the provincial Govern- 
ment. 

Adding that the right to strike has, in 
certain cases, become a right to create 
disorder, the Premier promised the PAI 
that he would co-operate with employers 
and employees in seeing that the interests 
of the community are not threatened by 
strikes. 



These remarks by the Premier fitted in 
with a request made by the PAI to the 
effect that no strike should be legally 
declared or set in motion until the majority 
of the workers connected with the concern 
had decided upon it by secret ballot. 

The Quebec Premier also told the 
employers' delegation that the manufac- 
turers should get together in launching a 
publicity campaign aimed at putting the 
public on guard against agitators in 
industry. 

The PAI brief also dealt with the Labour 
Relations Board, expired bargaining certifi- 
cates, arbitration courts and the mandates 
of these courts. 



1030 



Unemployment Insurance 



Decisions of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Complete text published because of its great general interest 



Decision CUB 1035, May 13, 1954 

The appeal in respect of claimants Guthro, 
O'Reilly and Ulvestad was not brought 
within the period of time prescribed by the 
law. I have nevertheless allowed it to 
proceed by virtue of Section 60 (now 62) 
of the Act. 

The claimants, some 158 in all, are 
ordinarily employed in the fishing industry 
of the province of British Columbia, either 
as shoreworkers, tendermen or salmon 
packers. In the late summer or the early 
fall of 1952, they lost their employment. 
At that time, there was a controversy or 
dispute taking place between the fishermen 
proper and the Fisheries Association (which 
consisted of about 13 fishing companies) 
over the minimum price to be paid for 
chum salmon. A month or two previous— 
on July 25 to be precise — the United 
Fishermen and Allied Workers' Union had, 
on behalf of its "salmon-net fishermen 
members", signed an agreement with the 
Fisheries Association which was identical to 
that reached two days before between the 
said Association and the Native Brother 
hood of British Columbia, — the Native 
Brotherhood is an association of Indians 
registered under the Societies Act of British 
Columbia, the purpose of which is to 
promote the welfare and interests of the 
Indians. 

The said agreement provided for the 
minimum prices to be paid for all net- 
caught salmon except chum salmon. The 
price of fall chum salmon was to be fixed 
at a meeting of the Association and the 
Union which was to take place at a later 
date. On August 27, the Union met the 
fishing companies to open talks regarding 
that matter but no settlement was reached. 
Shortly thereafter a number of salmon- 
seine boat crews stopped fishing and pro- 
ceeded to their home ports to await a 
settlement of the dispute. 

On September 6, 1952, after a further 
session with the Association had ended in 
a deadlock, the Union decided to call a 
strike of the salmon-net fishermen. On 



September 22, 1952, at a meeting of repre- 
sentatives of the Fisheries Association and 
the Joint Fishermen's Negotiating Com- 
mittee comprised of officers of the Union 
and the Native Brotherhood, the Brother- 
hood announced that it would sign an 
agreement with the Association and that 
as far as it was concerned fishing would be 
resumed by its members on Wednesday, 
September 24. The representatives of the 
Union then announced that such an agree- 
ment would be considered as strike break- 
ing and unfair. On September 23, the 
tendermen at a meeting of their local 
"voted to reiterate the traditional union 
position that fish declared 'unfair' by the 
fishermen was 'hot' and would not be 
handled by union members". Two days 
later, the shoreworkers' local of th Union 
also held a meeting and voted to carry 
out the same policy. As there were no 
tendermen to pack any fish caught, the 
seiners manned by members of the Native 
Brotherhood which had proceeded to the 
fishing grounds returned to their home 
ports. 

On October 18, 1952, the differences 
between the Fisheries Association and the 
Union were settled and the next day 
salmon-net fishing was resumed. 

As a consequence of the vote taken by 
the shoreworkers, the tendermen and the 
packers on September 23 and 25, the Insur- 
ance Officer disqualified the claimants 
interested in this appeal from receipt of 
benefits because, as from the said dates, 
they had in his opinion become participants 
in a labour dispute within the meaning of 
the Act either because of their member- 
ship in the Union or because they belonged 
to a grade or class of workers, some of 
whom were participating in the dispute. 
Those who had filed a claim for benefit 
prior to these dates were cut off from 
benefit as from September 23 or September 
25, depending on which local they belonged 
to, and those who filed a claim subsequent 
to these dates were also denied benefit until 
the end of the stoppage of work. 



1031 



The claimants appealed to a Court of 
Referees, which, after having held lengthy 
hearings on February 5, 1953, and April 30, 
1953, during which it heard some of the 
claimants and representatives of the 
employers and the Union, unanimously 
maintained the decision of the Insurance 
Officer. 

From the decisions of the Court of 
Referees, the Union, through its Research 
Director, Mr. William Rigby, appealed to 
the Umpire on the grounds (1) that in 
view of the nature of the relationship 
between the fishing companies and the 
fishermen, there was considerable doubt that 
the controversy which took place in the 
latter part of 1952 had been a labour 
dispute within the meaning of the Act 
and (2) that even if it was a labour dispute 
within the meaning of the Act, the dis- 
qualification of the claimants under Section 
39 (now Section 41) was nevertheless 
"unjustified". 

In support of ground (2) the Union, 
briefly, contended (a) that the passage of 
a resolution at closed union meetings in 
opposition to the handling of hot fish and 
the publicity given to such resolution did 
not constitute adequate "proof of participa- 
tion in a stoppage of work"; (b) that there 
was no proof of a work stoppage by the 
tendermen on September 23 or by the 
shoreworkers on September 25, 1952 — in fact 
some workers in the grades or classes which 
were deemed to have become participants 
as from September 23 and 25 were working 
at their ordinary employment between these 
dates and October 19, 1952, while others 
had been laid off a few weeks before on 
account of economic circumstances; (c) that 
the Insurance Officer had erroneously con- 
sidered all the shoreworkers to be in a 
single grade or class since "a grade or class 
of workers (net workers, warehouse workers, 
etc.) for whom the performance of the 
intent (resolution) is an occupational 
impossibility cannot be said to have 
engaged in a stoppage of work of their 
particular grade or class"; (d) finally, that 
in view of the fact that fishermen are 
employed on boats the dispute in which 
they were engaged could not be said to 
have taken place at the "factory, workshop 
or other premises" at which any grade or 
class of shoreworkers was employed. 
* * * 
I have read with great interest the brief 
submitted by Mr. Rigby, Research Director 
of the United Fishermen and Allied 
Workers' Union, and, although I do not 
agree with many of his conclusions, I must 
say that his thorough description of the 
fishing industry in the province of British 



Columbia and of the conditions prevailing 
therein at the time of the fishermen's strike 
has helped me considerably in determining 
the merits of this case. 

Mr. Rigby has suggested that inasmuch 
as a labour dispute within the meaning 
of the Unemployment Insurance Act refers 
only to a dispute between employers and 
employees (or between employees and 
employees), the preliminary question for 
me to decide was the nature of the rela- 
tionship between the fishermen and the 
fishing companies. 

I do not think that it is either necessary 
or relevant to delve into this matter. 

Our only concern is the character assumed 
by the dispute on September 23 and 25, 
1952, when the tendermen and shoreworkers 
at union meetings decided not to handle 
any net-caught fish until the prices had 
been agreed upon. 

On those dates the tendermen and shore- 
workers, or the union on their behalf, made 
in effect their further employment condi- 
tional on their employers' acceptance of the 
terms laid down by their brother fishermen 
and, since the employers refused to yield 
to such coercion, the dispute, which so far 
had implicated only the fishermen and the 
Fisheries Association, extended also to their 
groups and consequently to the "factory 
workshop or other premises" at which they 
were employed. If the dispute had not 
been up to then a labour dispute within 
the meaning of the Act, there can be no 
doubt that at that moment it became one 
between the companies and the tendermen 
and shoreworkers. 

That the tendermen and shoreworkers' 
action created an additional stoppage of 
work leaves no doubt in my mind. I am 
not concerned with the merit of their 
decision nor the stand taken by the Native 
Fishermen on September 22 to resume 
fishing but I am satisfied, in the light of 
the evidence on file, that had they not 
decided not to handle "hot" fish caught by 
the Native Fishermen, the operations of the 
fishing industry in British Columbia would 
not have been further curtailed but in fact 
would have soon experienced an increase of 
activity. 

I differ with Mr. Rigby's opinion, there- 
fore, that the passage of resolutions in 
opposition to the handling of "hot" fish and 
the publicity given to such resolutions were 
inadequate proof of participation in a 
labour dispute. The employers had every 
right to believe that the individuals con- 
cerned would carry out their announced 
intention and accordingly they took 
measures to meet the situation. By passing 



1032 



such resolutions, the tendermen and shore- 
workers in effect were engaging in a dispute 
with their employers or at least altering the 
character of the already existing one, and 
thereby committing a positive act of 
participation within the meaning of Section 
39, now 41, of the Act. 

Mr. Rigby has contended that the shore- 
workers, like the net workers, warehouse 
workers, etc., could not be said to have 
engaged in a stoppage of work of their 
particular grade or class because the carry- 
ing out of the resolutions passed on 
September 23 and 25 was "an occupational 
impossibility". 

Section 41 of the Act prescribes that a 
person shall be disqualified from receiving 
benefit if he has lost his employment by 
reason of a stoppag of work due to a labour 
dispute at the factory ... at which he was 
employed. 

The work referred to in the expression 
"stoppage of work" is not the particular 
worker's labour but the work carried out 
at the factory or other premises at which 
the worker is employed. It is sufficient, 
therefore, for the application of that sec- 
tion (subject of course to the relief pro- 
vided under subsection (2)) that there 
exists a stoppage of work caused by a 
labour dispute at the claimant's place of 
employment and that he has lost his 
employment by reason of that stoppage. 

This brings me to the all important 
question as to whether or not all the 
claimants interested in this appeal can be 
deemed to have lost their employment 
by reason of the stoppage of work due 
to the labour dispute engaged in by the 
tendermen's and shoreworkers' locals on 
September 23 and September 25, 1952. 

In other words, can the theory of agency 
(the union participating in the dispute as 
the agent of each individual member), 
which sometimes is applied in cases dealt 
with under Section 41, serve here as the 
basis for a disqualification of all the 
claimants irrespective of whether or not 
they were actually in employment when 
the resolutions were passed at meetings of 
their union? 

The Insurance Officer has come to that 
conclusion and he has rested his finding 
mainly on a previous decision of mine, 
namely, CU-B 540. 

CU-B 540 deals with the case of 
employees of a textile factory some of 
whom had been laid off as a result of a 
partial stoppage of work due to a labour 
dispute concerning the question of a bonus 
plan for members of another department 
(weave room) and were cut off from receipt 



of benefit under Section 41 of the Act, when 
the said partial stoppage of work became a 
total one. It was found that at that stage 
they acquired a positive and direct interest 
in the dispute inasmuch as the question of 
the renewal of an existing bargaining agree- 
ment covering all the employees had then 
become part and parcel of the dispute. 

While the case before me presents similar 
aspects it differs in some essential elements. 

We have the progressive lay-off of 
employees due to the original dispute; 
we have also a complete or a nearly com- 
plete stoppage of work as a result of the 
new dispute or the change of character 
in the already existing one. 

Where it differs, however, essentially 
with decision CU-B 540 is in the fact that 
at no time during the dispute or disputes 
did the claimants have in interest within 
the meaning of Section 41 of the Act. 
Moreover, whereas in CU-B 540 it was clear 
that, at the final stage, the employment 
or re-employment of all the claimants was 
conditional on the settlement of the dispute 
in which they had a direct interest, it is 
very doubtful whether all the tendermen 
and shoreworkers concerned in this appeal, 
actually and without distinction, suffered a 
loss of emp^ment during the stoppage of 
work, because of the decision made by their 
respective locals to enter into the dispute. 

There is evidence on file which indicates 
that at least in one part of the province 
canneries had closed and fishing had 
stopped as early as August 28, 1952, in 
view of an overflowing market and the 
decision made by the federal authorities to 
close some of the fishing grounds; there 
is also satisfactory evidence that other 
canneries which had closed their doors as 
a consequence of the dispute of the fisher- 
men w T ould not have re-opened them for the 
season irrespective of the action taken by 
the tendermen's and shoreworkers' locals. 
It is true that some of the operators of 
these canneries informed the auditors of 
the Unemployment Insurance Commission 
that had it not been for the dispute, thej' 
would have, as in previous years, carried on 
their normal operations until a much later 
date. In making that statement, however, 
the operators had reference to the fisher- 
men's dispute as a whole, which cannot be 
our criterion in deciding the issue. 

For those reasons, I cannot in all fairness 
endorse the decision of the Insurance 
Officer, which decision was confirmed by the 
Court of Referees, to disqualify all the 
claimants whether they had been laid off 
prior to or as a consequence of the stoppage 



1033 



of work caused by the passage of the reso- 
lutions hereinbefore referred to. While I 
consider that the tendermen and shore- 
workers who were employed on or subse- 
quent to September 23 or 25 and were laid 
off prior to October 19 must accept the 
consequence of their membership in the 
union and be disqualified in accordance with 
the requirement of the law, I do not feel 
that I should maintain the decision of the 
Court of Referees in the case of the 
claimants who lost their employment prior 
to September 23 or 25. 



The present decision, wherein the element 
of doubt weighs considerably in favour of 
the claimants whose appeals are maintained, 
is not intended to cast a reflection on the 
adjudication of the Insurance Officer or the 
members of the Court of Referees who, it 
will be readily appreciated, went thoroughly 
and impartially into the case. 

The appeal in so far as the claimants 
who lost their employment before the 23 
or 25 of September are concerned is there- 
fore allowed and the appeal of the 
remainder is disallowed. 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Claims for unemployment insurance benefit and number of applicants 
on live register declined substantially during April, statistics* show 



Claims for unemployment insurance bene- 
fit declined during April. 

The Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
monthly report on , the operation of the 
Unemployment Insurance Act shows that 
during April a total of 158,411 initial and 
renewal claims were received at local offices 
of the Unemployment Insurance Commis- 
sion, compared with 248,421 during March 
and 117,171 during April 1953. 

There was a substantial decline in the 
number of ordinary claimants on the live 
unemployment insurance register on April 
30, when they totalled 338,374 (280,395 
males and 57,979 females) compared with 
412,999 (350,890 males and 62,109 females) 
on March 31. On April 30, 1953, ordinary 
claimants numbered 215,242 (179,024 males 
and 36,218 females). On April 30, an addi- 
tional 36,684 claimants were on short-time 
and 3,887 were on temporary lay-off. 

Entitlement to benefit was granted in 
119,633 of the 177,588 initial and renewal 
claims disposed of at adjudicating centres 
during April. Non-entitlements totalled 
65,539 (including 7,584 disqualifications on 
revised and supplementary benefit claims), 
of which 48,422 resulted from claimants' 
inability to comply with basic contribution 
requirements. Among the chief reasons for 
disqualification were: "voluntarily left 
employment without just cause" 4,945 



In a comparison of current employment 
statistics with those for a previous period, 
consideration should be given to relevant 
factors other than numbers, such as the 
opening and closing of seasonal indus- 
tries, increase in area population, influ- 
ence of weather conditions, and the 
general employment situation. 



'See Tables E-l to E-7 at back of book. 



cases; "not unemployed" 3,216 cases; and 
"not capable of and not available for 
work" 2,239 cases. 

New beneficiaries during the month 
totalled 108,692, compared with 152,611 
during March and 83,659 during April 1953. 

During April, a total of $25,381,926 was 
paid in compensation for 7,997,163 days (of 
which 88,402 were disability days), as 
against a total of $32,160,928 and 10,127,126 
days (including 100,443 disability days) 
during March and $16,389,294 and 5,225,796 
unemployed days during April 1953. 

For the week April 24-30, an estimated 
375,266 beneficiaries were paid $6,579,559 in 
respect of 2,075,460 days (including 24,563 
disability days), in comparison with an 
estimated 348,574 beneficiaries who received 
$6,376,280 in respect of 2,000,719 days (of 
which 20,639 were disability days) during 
the week March 27-April 2. During the 
week April 25-May 1, 1953, 196,315 bene- 
ficiaries were paid $6,634,010 in respect of 
1,159,164 unemployed days. 

(Continued at bottom of following page) 



1034 



w agc*&. Hours and 
Working Conditions 



Wage-Rates and Hours of Work 

in Municipal Government Service 

Majority of 77 Canadian municipalities made some upward adjustment 
in wages and salaries of police, firefighters and labourers in 1953 



The majority of Canadian municipalities 
granted pay increases to their employees in 
the 12 months preceding October 1953, it 
was revealed by an analysis of returns 
from 77 centres in the Department's 
annual survey of wage rates and salaries. 
The survey is conducted by the Economics 
and Research Branch. 

The table on the following pages indi- 
cates the maximum basic salaries* for police 
constables and firefighters, hourly wage 
rates for Works Department labourers, and 
standard hours of work per week for each 
of the three job categories. The data 
apply to the pay period preceding October 
1, 1952 and 1953. 

The salaries of both police constables and 
firefighters were highest in Vancouver, New 
Westminster and Toronto, and lowest in 
some of the smaller centres in the Mari- 
time Provinces and Quebec. In a number 
of centres, particularly throughout Ontario 
and the Prairie Provinces, police constables 
received higher salaries than firefighters, 
although the differential was not usually 
great. While the opposite relationship 
obtained in a small number of cities, it 
was more common for both classes of 
employees to receive identical salaries. 

The hourly wage rates shown for 
labourers are for Works Department 
employees only, although it is common for 
labourers in other civic departments to 
receive the same rates. In some cases 
where ranges of rates are given, the lower 
figure represents the starting wage rate and 



*The "maximum basic salary" for police 
constables and firefighters is the salary paid 
after the probationary and training period 
has been completed, frequently from three 
to five years, but before long-term service 
increases are obtained. It includes cost-of- 
living bonuses, wherever paid, but does not 
include allowances for uniforms, boots, 
transportation, etc. In almost every in- 
stance, the salaries listed are those received 
by the majority of the police constables or 
firefighters in each of the communities. 



the higher one the maximum rate paid to 
labourers, generally to those engaged in 
more arduous or difficult work or to those 
who have received a length-of-service 
increment. 

The rates paid to labourers in October 
1953 varied from 70 cents an hour, the 
starting rate for such employees in Char- 
lottetown, to $1.56, the top rate in 
Vancouver. 

In 40 of the 63 centres for which infor- 
mation was reported, firefighters received 
increases averaging about $246 a year, 
compared with $311 in 1952. In 38 of 68 
localities reporting, police constables were 
given raises that averaged $204 compared 
with $307 the year before. 

Six communities reported slightly lower 
salaries for either or both occupations. 
These decreases were the result of cost-of- 
living adjustments. 

(Continued from preceding page) 

The average daily rate of benefit for the 
week April 24-30 was $3.17, compared with 
$3.19 for the week March 27-April 2 and 
$3.14 during the week April 25-May 1, 1953. 

Supplementary Benefit 

The period during which supplementary 
benefit is operative terminated on April 15. 

Insurance Registrations 

Reports received from local offices of the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission for 
April show that insurance books or contri- 
bution cards have been issued to 3,029,605 
employees who have made contributions to 
the Unemployment Insurance Fund since 
April 1, 1954. 

At April 30, employers registered num- 
bered 257,036 for the month of April. 



92110—8 



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1037 



Non-Occupational Sickness and Accident 

Benefit Plans in Canadian Manufacturing 

Four-fifths of the 6,476 establishments that made returns in survey of 
working conditions at April 1, 1953, reported having some form of 
sickness and accident benefit plan or cash compensation for wage loss 



Some form of sickness and accident 
benefit plan, or an insurance policy 
providing cash compensation for wage loss, 
was reported in operation in about four- 
fifths of the manufacturing establishments 
making returns to the survey of working 
conditions at April 1, 1953, conducted by 
the Economics and Research Branch of 
the Department of Labour. 

Employment in plants reporting these 
sickness insurance plans constituted 94 per 
cent of the total number of plant employees 
in establishments covered by the survey 
and 96 per cent of the office workers. 1 

Employers were asked in the survey ques- 
tionnaire if a sickness and accident benefit 
program was in operation in their estab- 
lishments. The survey form provided for 
the reporting of plans providing, wholly or 
in part, for the cost of: (1) hospital care 
only; (2) physicians' services in hospital; 
(3) physicians' services in home, office and 
hospital; and (4) indemnification of 
employees against wage loss due to illness 
or accident. Employers were requested not 
to report coverage under workmen's com- 
pensation and in-plant medical care pro- 
grams; establishments in British Columbia 
and Saskatchewan were asked to exclude 
their provincially sponsored plans. 

There was considerable variation in the 
type or types of plan reported. Of the 
5,112 establishments which indicated having 
a plan or plans, 23 per cent reported only 
one of the four types; in most of these 
cases it was hospital care. In the vast 
majority of cases two or more types of 
plan were reported. 

Hospital care, either alone or in combina- 
tion with other types of sickness and 
accident coverage, was reported in effect 



x The figures given in the table under 
"Employees" do not represent the numbers 
actually covered by the plans; they repre- 
sent the total number of employees, non- 
office and office, who work in establish- 
ments in which such plans are in operation. 
The proportion of employees covered varies 
considerably from plant to plant. In some 
cases all employees of a plant are covered, 
but this is not always the case. 



in 4,700 establishments. These constituted 
92 per cent of the total number reporting 
plans of some type, and they employed 
725,000 plant and 170,000 office workers. 

More than 72 per cent of the establish- 
ments with plans reported coverage for 
the cost of physicians' services, either in 
hospital only or at the doctor's office, at 
home and in hospital. These establish- 
ments employed 625,000 plant and 150,000 
office employees. 

Cash compensation plans, either alone or 
in combination with other sickness and 
accident plans, were reported in more than 
3,000 establishments. These constituted 60 
per cent of the total having some type of 
plan and almost one-half the total which 
replied to the survey. 

Replies to another question in the same 
survey indicated that sick leave with pay 
was given to plant employees in about 16 
per cent of the establishments, while it was 
given to office employees in about 80 per 
cent of the cases. The over-all indication 
is that, for plant employees, cash compen- 
sation for wage loss during absences due to 
non-occupational accidents or illnesses is 
much more common than paid sick leave. 

Employer-Employee Sharing of Cost 

Of the 5,112 establishments which reported 
having one or more of the sickness plans in 
operation, more than 37 per cent, account- 
ing for about one-third of the plant workers 
and a similar proportion of the office 
workers, indicated a sharing of the premium 
between employers and employees on a 
50/50 basis. Almost a quarter of the 
plants, employing 16 per cent of the non- 
office and 18 per cent of the office 
employees, reported no employer participa- 
tion in the cost of the plans. In 7 per 
cent of the establishments employing 11 
and 9 per cent of the plant and office 
workers respectively, the entire cost of the 
plan was reported borne by the employer. 
Further details on the proportion of 
premium borne by employers may be seen 
in the accompanying table. 



1038 



EXTENT OF NON-OCCUPATIONAL SICKNESS AND ACCIDENT BENEFIT PLANS 

AND OF PREMIUM SHARING KETWEEN EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEES IN 

MANUFACTURING, APRIL I, 1953 



Extent of Plans 

Survey Coverage 

Plan in Operation 

No Plan in Operation 

No information 

Extent of Premium Sharing 

Plans in Operation 

Proportion of Premium borne by Employer: 

Nil 

5 to 24 per cent 

25 to 49 " 

50 " 

51 to 74 " 

75 to 99 " 

100 «* 

Premium Shared but proportions not stated 
No Information as to sharing 



Establishments 



Number 



6,476 

5,112 

1,260 

104 



Per Cent 



100-0 

78-9 

19-5 

1-6 



Employees 



Non-Office 



Number Pei ( !en1 



802,805 

753,303 

46,774 

2.728 



100-0 

93-9 

5-8 
0-3 



Office 



Number Per Cent 



183,183 

176,568 
6,246 

369 



100 



Jli-4 
3-4 
0-2 



100 

17-9 
2-0 
10-5 
34-2 
9-9 
11 
9-1 
9-4 
5-9 



5,112 



448 
1,901 
437 
104 
368 
298 
280 



100-0 

23-2 
1-7 
8-8 

37-2 
8-6 
2-0 
7-2 
5-8 
5-5 



753,303 

120,641 
15,838 
67,856 

266,111 
75,488 
10,711 
80,324 
76,348 
39,986 



100 

16 

2-1 

9-0 

35-3 

10-0 

1-4 

10-7 

10-2 

5-3 



176,568 

31.668 
3,502 
18,506 
60,361 
17,427 
1,882 
16,161 
16,675 
10,386 



Half of Building Service Employees Get 7 or More Paid Holidays 



Seven or more paid holidays a year are a 
feature in more than half the contracts 
covering workers of the Building Service 
Employees' International Union (AFL), 
according to the New York Department of 
Labor. In 15 per cent of the 1,243 con- 
tracts in effect, there is no paid holiday 
provision, although in some cases paid 
holidays are provided but are not a part 
of the collective agreement. 

Paid holiday clauses are found in every 
agreement covering building service workers 
in factories and window cleaning and are 
much more common in contracts affecting 



schools, office buildings and stores than 
among race tracks, ball parks, theatres and 
bowling alleys. 

The usual number of paid holidays found 
in collective agreements was six. Of the 
agreements surveyed, four per cent pro- 
vided for five or fewer paid holidays, 43 
per cent for six, 27 per cent for seven, 13 
per cent for eight and 13 per cent for nine. 

Collective agreements covering workers 
in Canadian cities provide more paid holi- 
days, on the average, than do those of 
cities in the United States. The majority 
of employees working on holidays earned 
double pay. 



Brazilian Minimum Wage Raised by Presidential Decree 



Sweeping upward revisions of Brazil's 
minimum wages were announced by Presi- 
dent Vargas in a radio address to the 
nation on the Brazilian Labour Day 
(May Day). 

The wage increases granted by presi- 
dential decree vary from region to region 
in the country. In Rio de Janeiro they 
raised wages 100 per cent to Cr$2400 
(about $125) per month and in Sao Paulo 



to Cr$2300 (about $120). In the state of 
Minas Gerais the increase amounted to 
300 per cent, from Cr$650 to Cr$2000 ($105). 
Other benefits granted by the President 
in his address were the extension of social 
insurance to cover more people including 
farm workers, an increase in pensions to 
equal pre-retirement earnings, and the 
extension of medical assistance. 



1039 



Labour Conditions 

in Federal <«overiuiic*iit 4 onlra**i« 



i» 



Wage Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during May 

Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During Maj^ the Department of Labour prepared 172 wage schedules for inclusion 
in contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Government and 
its Crown corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, remodelling, 
repair or demolition. In the same period, a total of 104 contracts in these categories was 
awarded. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to trade 
unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of the 
contract. 

(The labour conditions included in each of the contracts listed under this heading 
provide that: — 

(a) the wage rate for each classification of labour shown in the wage schedule included 
in the contract is a minimum rate only and contractors and subcontractors are not 
exempted from the payment of higher wages in any instance where, during the continuation 
of the work, wage rates in excess of those shown in the wage schedule have been fixed by 
provincial legislation, by collective agreements in the district, or by current practice; 

(b) hours of work shall not exceed eight in the day and 44 in the week, except in 
emergency conditions approved by the Minister of Labour; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of eight per day and 44 per week; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect to 
alleged discrimination.) 

Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts awarded in May for the manufacture of supplies and equipment were as 
follows: — 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

Defence Production (April Report) 135 $ 577,982.00 

Post Office 13 165,827.19 

(The labour conditions included in contracts for the manufacture of supplies and 
equipment provide that: — 

(a) all persons who perform labour on such contracts shall be paid such wages as are 
currently paid in the district to competent workmen, and if there is_ no current rate, then 
a fair and reasonable rate; but in no event shall the wages paid be less than those 
established by the laws of the province in which the work is being performed; 

(b) the working hours shall be those fixed by the custom of the trade in the district 
or, if there be no such custom, then fair and reasonable hours; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of those fixed by custom of the trade in the district or in excess of fair 
and reasonable hours; 

(d) No person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect to 
alleged discrimination.) 



The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour wage schedules are thereupon included 

legislation of the federal Government has with other relevant labour conditions as 

the purpose of insuring that all Govern- terms of such contracts to be observed 

ment contracts for works of construction by the contractors. 

and for the manufacture of supplies and Wage schedules are not included in 

equipment contain provisions to secure contracts for the manufacture of supplies 

the payment of wages generally accepted and equipment because it is not possible 

as fair and reasonable in each trade or to determine in advance the classifica- 

classification employed in the district tions to be employed in the execution 

where the work is being performed. of a contract. A statement of the labour 

The practice of Government depart- conditions which must be observed in 

ments and those Crown corporations to every such contract is, however, included 

which the legislation applies, before therein and is of the same nature and 

entering into contracts for any work of effect as those which apply in works of 

construction, remodelling, repair or demo- construction. 

lition, is to obtain wage schedules from Copies of the federal Government's 

the Department of Labour, showing the Fair Wages and Hours of Labour legis- 

applicable wage rate for each classifica- lation may be had upon request to the 

tion of workmen deemed to be required Industrial Relations Branch of the 

in the execution of the work. These Department of Labour, Ottawa. 



1040 



Wage Claims Received and Payments Made during May 

During May the sum of $869.90 was collected from five employers who had failed 
to pay the wages required by the labour conditi6ns attached to their contracts. This 
amount has been or will be distributed to the 27 employees concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wage Schedules Awarded during May 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 

Department of Agriculture 



Herbert River Marsh N S: Hennessy & 
Spicer, construction of dyke & aboiteau. 
Lower Truro Marsh N S: Hennessy & 
Spicer, construction of dyke & aboiteau. 
Minudie Marsh N S: George Mills & Sons, 



construction of dyke. Onslow North River 
Marsh N S: R K Chappell, construc- 
tion of dyke & aboiteau. Coyle Landry 
Marsh N B: E R Stiles, construction 
of dyke. 



Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation 



St John's Nfld: Terminal Construction 
Co Ltd, landscaping. Halifax N S: L G 
Rawding Construction Ltd, grading of 
western slope, Garrison Barracks. Wallace 
Hill N S: L G Rawding Construction Ltd, 
♦landscaping. St John N B: LG Rawding 
Construction Ltd, landscaping. Arnprior 
Ont: G James & Son, landscaping. Aylmer 
Ont: Hagersville Asphalt Paving Ltd, 
♦laying of concrete slabs at entrances to 
parking lots. Cobourg Ont: Robert J 
Evans, landscaping. North Bay Ont: H H 



Sutton, landscaping. Oakville Ont: Borg- 
strom Bros Ltd, landscaping. Trenton 
Ont: Borgstrom Bros Ltd, landscaping. 
Winnipeg Man: J H From, landscaping. 
Winnipeg, East Kildonan, St James Man: 
E Oswald & Son, exterior painting. Regina 
Sask: Yarnton Decorating Co Ltd, exterior 
painting. Claresholm Alta: Norman H 
Woods & Assoc Ltd, landscaping. Penhold 
Alta: A E Pollock, landscaping. Ralston 
Alta: Western Excavating Co Ltd, land- 
scaping. 



Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Near Amaranth Man: R E Turner, repairs to roof & parapet walls, Sandy Bay 
Residential School. 



Defence Construction (1951) Limited 



Bedford Basin N S: Arthur & Conn Ltd, 
construction of sub-station with connec- 
tions to pumps. Dartmouth N S: R E 
Stewart Construction Corporation, con- 
struction of steel hangar, HMCS "Shear- 
water". Sydney N S: J P Porter Co Ltd, 
♦dredging of berths in front of sheet piling 
walls & disposal of material, Point Edward 
Naval Base; George Mills & Sons Ltd, 
construction of base area including piling, 
walls, etc. Camp Gagetown N B: Chittick 
Ready Mixed Concrete, construction, oper- 
ation & dismantling of central concrete 
mixing plant; Atlas Construction Co Ltd, 
installation of pipelines, service tunnel, 
etc; United Steel Corporation Ltd, *supply 
of process equipment for activated sludge 
type sewage treatment plant, including 
motors & driver. Chatham N B: Caldwell 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
transmitter bldg. Coverdale N B: M F 
Schurman Co Ltd, construction of 
combination stores & recreation bldg. 
Bouchard P Q: The Key Construction 



Ltd, construction of magazines. Mont- 
real P Q: The Key Construction Ltd, 
construction of various bldgs. Three Rivers 
P Q: John F Wickendon Co Ltd, renova- 
tion of Ex-Hart Street convent for use as 
RCAF Reserve Accommodation Bldg. 
Valcartier P Q: A Deslauriers & Fils Ltd, 
construction of storage warehouse, Cana- 
dian Arsenals Ltd. Camp Borden Ont: 
Johnson Bros Co Ltd, conversion of exist- 
ing bldgs to ordnance railhead depot. 
Hamilton Ont: Canadian Engineering & 
Contracting Co Ltd, construction of head- 
quarters building; Ontario Electrical Con- 
struction Co Ltd, rewiring of armoury. 
London Ont: EPA Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of central heating plant, 
Wolseley Barracks; Sterling Construction 
Co Ltd, supply & installation of steam 
distribution system, Wolseley Barracks. 
Ottawa Ont: A S Peterson- Ltd, extension 
& additions to DCED bldgs. Trenton 
Ont: H J McFarland Construction Co Ltd, 
preparation of site & construction of OR 



1041 



Mess. Uplands Ont: Foster Wheeler Ltd, 
supply & installation of bituminous coal 
.ling units; Argo Construction Ltd, 
construction of power plant bldg; B Perini 
A S ins (Canada) Ltd, construction of 
various bldgs. Rivers Man: John Plaxton 
Co Ltd, alterations to heating systems of 
various existing bldgs. Cold Lake Alta: 
Robertson-Irwin Ltd, supply, fabrication & 
erection of wall siding, floor & roof decking 
& fixed interior partitions, GCI Towers 

Building and 

Vakartier P Q: Frost Steel & Wire Co 
Ltd, installation of chain link fence, RCOC 
Compound. Aylmer Ont: Lome N 
McEwen, construction of extension to 
existing hospital. Clinton Ont: Goderich 
Manufacturing Co Ltd, construction of 
"Pre-Philco" training benches for TTS 
bldg. Gloucester Ont: Shore & Horwitz 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of cora- 



Operations Bldg & passageway; C W 
Carry Ltd, supply, fabrication, erection & 
shop painting of structural steel, GCI 
Towers Operations Bldg & passageway. 
Edmonton Alta: Bird Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of garage & POL service 
station; Poole Construction Co Ltd, con- 
struction of a gate house, Griesbach 
Barracks. Kamloops B C: G W Leding- 
ham Co Ltd, construction of aerial tramway 
system, RCN Magazine. 

Maintenance 

bined gatehouse & fire apparatus bldg. 
Ottawa Ont: L Gendron & Fils, renova- 
tion of existing low pressure steam heating 
system, Cartier Street School. Shirley Bay 
Ont: John Inglis Co Ltd, construction of 
cold room & supply & installation of 
refrigeration system. Gimli Man: Hudson's 
Bay Co, installation of floor covering in 
bldgs. 



National Harbours Board 

Halifax Harbour N S: Brookfield Con- Kennett Construction Co Ltd, renewal of 



struction Co Ltd, construction of carpen- 
ter's shop. Vancouver Harbour B C: 



substructure & floor of shed 2 & surfacing 
& drainage of west apron, Lapointe Pier. 



Department of Public Works 



Cripple Creek N S: J P Porter Co Ltd, 
*dredging. Dingwall N S: McNamara Con- 
struction Co Ltd, *dredging. Indian Point 
N S: Cameron Contracting Ltd, wharf 
reconstruction. John Vogler's Shore N S: 
Michael C Campbell, breakwater repairs. 
Main-a-Dieu N S: R K MacDonald Con- 
struction Co Ltd, breakwater repairs & 
extension. Caissie Cape N B: Roger 
LeBlanc, *dredging. Campbellton N B: 
J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. Dalhousie 
N B: J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. 
Hardwicke (French River) N B: Roger 
LeBlanc, *dredging. Point Sapin N B: 
Yvon Leger, *dredging. St John N B: 
Hyman Davis, alterations & additions, Old 
Post Office Bldg. Blackpool P Q: Methe 
Freres Enrg, construction of bldg for Dept 
of Fisheries. Hull P Q: W D Laflamme 
Ltd, repairs to arches, Ottawa-Hull Couse- 
wa}'. Mechins P Q: Capt Irenee Verreault, 
♦dredging. Ottawa Ont: Sirotek Construc- 
tion Ltd, alterations to External Depot 
bldg, for Dept of External Affairs; J J 
Shea & Co, installation of oil burning 
equipment, Rideau Hall; Otis Elevator Co 
Ltd, installation of freight elevator, Con- 
naught Bldg; Ontario Building Cleaning 
Co, cleaning of stonework, etc, Hunter 
Bldg; Turnbull Elevator Co Ltd, supply & 
installation of Mercury Arc rectifiers, 
Jackson Bldg; Universal Electric, instal- 
lation of electrical work, Fuel Testing 
Plant, Booth St; A Lanctot Construction 



Co, alterations to elevator, fire escape & 
protection system, Elgin Bldg & Annex. 
Wheatley (Muddy Creek) Ont: Canadian 
Dredge & Dock Co Ltd, harbour improve- 
ments (breakwater repairs & extension — 
construction of sheet pile protection wall). 
Virden Man: Wyatt Construction Co Ltd, 
addition & alterations to public bldg. 
Winnipeg Man: Vulcan Iron & Engineering 
Ltd, *construction & delivery of two 
welded steel hopper scows. Athabasca 
Alta: Bird Construction Co Ltd, erection 
of public bldg. Calgary Alta: Poole Con- 
struction Co Ltd, alterations & additions, 
Col Belcher Hospital. New Westminster 
B C: Ed Walsh & Co Ltd, construction 
of concrete retaining wall, Rlwy Bridge. 
Prince George B C: A P Anderson's 
Lumber Yard Ltd, alterations to old post 
office bldg for UIC. Prince Rupert B C: 
Saanich Plumbing & Heating, installation 
of boiler, Miller Bay Indian Hospital. 
Vancouver B C: B C Marine Engineers 
& Shipbuilders Ltd, *overhaul of dredge 
"PWD No 305" (King Edward) & attend- 
ing plant; Totem Painting Co Ltd, exterior 
& part interior painting, Alvin Bldg; Totem 
Painting Co Ltd, washing down, exterior 
& part interior painting, Begg Bldg; 
Burrard Dry Dock Co Ltd, ^overhaul of 
dredge "PWD No 303". White Rock B C.- 
Vancouver Pile Driving & Contracting Co 
Ltd, construction of wharf & floats & repairs 
to breakwater. 



1042 



Department of Transport 



Belle Isle Nfld: Tower Co Ltd, prefab- 
rication & erection of staff dwelling. 
Gander Nfld: Eastern Woodworkers Ltd, 
construction of various bldgs; North Shore 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of water 
& sewer mains. Dorval P Q: Highway- 
Paving Co Ltd, additional airport develop- 
ment. Quebec P Q: Cartier Construction 
Ltd, additional airport development. Red 
Mill P Q: Rapid Construction Ltee, con- 
struction of Three Rivers Coast Station. 
White Island Reef, P Q: Foundation Co 
of Canada Ltd, construction of steel & 



concrete crib for substructure for light & 

fog 'alarm, bownsview Ont: Ontario Elec- 
trical Construction Co Ltd, airport lighting 
facilities. Kitimat B C: Northwest Con- 
struction Ltd, construction of Radio Beacon 
Station. Baker Lake NWT: Tower Co 
Ltd, prefabrication & erection of Arctic 
Staff Residence. Resolute Bay NWT: 
Tower Co Ltd prefabrication of sleeping 
quarters, utility building & connecting 
passage & installation of hot air heating 
system. 



Prices and the Cost of Living 



Consumer Price Index, June 1, 1954 

The consumer price index advanced 0-5 
per cent from 115-5 to 116-1 between 
May 1 and June 1. The rise was almost 
entirely attributable to increased food 
prices. 

Among other groups, shelter was the only 
one to advance. 

The 0-6-point advance, only the second 
rise this year, was the largest since one 
of the same size during October 1951. The 
only previous 1954 increase was one of 
one-tenth of a point during March. 

The index at June 1 stood 0-6 points 
below the 1953 high of 116-7, 1-7 points 
higher than last year's low of 114-4 and 
2-1 points below the all-time high of 118-2 
recorded January 1, 1952. 

The food index rose from 110-2 to 112-0 
as higher prices were reported for a wide 
range of items, in particular, meats, fresh 
vegetables, fresh and canned fruits, and 
coffee. A number of food items were 
unchanged in price while some others, 
notably butter and chicken, were lower. 

The increase in shelter from 125-8 to 
126-4 resulted entirely from higher rents. 

Lower prices for nylon hosiery, combined 
with small scattered decreases among other 
clothing items, resulted in a decline of 0-2 
per cent in the clothing index from 109-9 
to 109-7. 

In the household operation group, 
decreases for several electrical appliances, 
cotton sheets and garbage cans and 
seasonal declines for coal were more than 
sufficient to offset increases in a number of 



See Tables F-l to F-6 at back of book. 



services, cleaning supplies and furniture 
items. The index for this group fell from 
117-3 to 117.1. 

No significant changes were reported in 
other commodities and services and the 
index for this group remained at 117-5. 

The index one year earlier (June 1, 1953) 
was 114-9. Group indexes on that date 
were: food 111-4, shelter 123-6, clothing 
110-1, household operation 116-6 and other 
commodities and services 115-1. 

City Consumer Price Indexes, May 1, 1954 

Consumer price indexes for regional 
cities were relatively stable between April 
1 and May 1. Four of the ten series 
remained unchanged, four declined and two 
advanced; the change in any city did not 
exceed 0-2 per cent. 

Decreases for butter, eggs, fruits, lamb, 
veal and chicken and increases for coffee, 
tea, beef, pork and vegetables resulted in 
lower food indexes in five cities, higher 
indexes in four, while the Ottawa series 
was unchanged. 

Shelter indexes, reflecting advances in 
rents, moved up in all cities except St. 
John's, where no change was recorded. 

Clothing prices were practically unchanged 
and as a result clothing indexes showed 
no over-all movement in seven cities. Of 
the remaining three cities, two decreased 
slightly and one increased. 

Decreases in appliances and cleaning 
supplies and seasonally lower coal prices 
predominated in the household operation 
group, while mixed changes were reported 
for furniture, floor coverings, utensils and 
other household equipment. 



92110—9 



1043 



Other commodities and services indexes 
moved up in eight cities, principally 
because of increases in theatre admissions 
and hairdressmg prices. Tire prices were 
lower in nine centres. 

Regional consumer price index point 
changes between April 1 and May 1 were 
as follows: Halifax —0-2 to 113-6; Saint 
John —0-1 to 115-8; Winnipeg —0-1 to 
114-S; Saskatoon-Regina —0-1 to 113-5; 
St. John's +0-2 to 102-2*; Edmonton- 
Calgary +0-1 to 114-4. Four cities 
remained unchanged: Montreal at 116-3; 
Ottawa at 115-5; Toronto at 117-7; and 
Vancouver at 116-9. 

Wholesale Prices, May 1954 

Wholesale prices were slightly higher in 
May. The Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
general index rose 0-1 per cent to 218-2 
between April and May. While the change 
was small it marked the first 1954 increase 
in the total index. 

Five of the eight major groups were 
firmer, led by an increase of 1-5 per cent 
in animal products. 

Higher quotations for livestock, fresh and 
cured meats, raw furs, hides and leather 
more than offset decreases in milk and its 
products, fishery products, lard and tallow, 



♦On base 1951=100. 



footwear, fowl and eggs, and the animal 
products index advanced to 244-5 from 
240-9. 

The vegetable products index moved up 
0-3 per cent to 196-5 as advances for 
bananas, potatoes, cocoa beans, onions, 
barley and unmanufactured leaf tobacco, 
among others, outweighed decreases for 
feeds, vegetable oils, raw sugar, flour, oats, 
rye and flax. 

A rise in the fibres, textiles and textile 
products group to 233-7 from 233-3 
resulted from higher quotations for raw 
cotton, raw wool, both domestic and 
imported, worsted yarns and cloth. Nylon 
hosiery, cotton fabrics, woollen hosiery and 
knit goods and rayon fabrics were lower. 

Slightly higher prices for newsprint and 
woodpulp, due to a firmer tone for the 
United States dollar, outweighed a decline 
in cedar lumber and were reflected in a 
gain of 0-2 per cent to 286-2 in the wood, 
wood products and paper group. 

A rise of 0-2 per cent to 168-0 in the 
non-ferrous metals index reflected firmer 
quotations for copper and its products, 
gold, lead, zinc and silver, which over- 
balanced a decline in tin. 

Of the three groups which moved down, 
iron and its products showed the largest 
decrease of 1-2 per cent to 211-7. This 
resulted from weakness in structural steel 
shapes, iron and steel pipe and wire. 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX FROM JANUARY 1949 



Indei 1949=100 





, 


• FOOD y^ 


SHELTER 


..---' 


-- .• 






TOTAL J J * 


JT HOUSEHOL 

V ^ 

K 


1 OPERATION 


'. 






/ UEZi\ J OTHER COMMODITIE 


CLOTHING 
AND SERVICES 








* 


y^Jt ' | 


. 1 i 


1 . 




. i .;, • 



1044 



i 



Decreases in imported coal, sand and 
gravel overbalanced strength in building 
tile, crude oil and sulphur to lower the 
non-metallic series 0-9 per cent to 176-7. 

The index for chemicals and allied 
products weakened 0-1 per cent to 175-9 
as a result of lower quotations for sodium 
cyanide and acetylene gas which outweighed 
upturns in shellac, sodium bichromate, 
carbon black and lithopone. 

Canadian farm product prices at terminal 
markets moved up 2 per cent to 209-6 
between April and May. Animal product 
prices lent principal support as the index 
for this series advanced 2-9 per cent to 
268-0, following substantial increases in 
steers and hogs, and lesser changes for raw 
wool and eastern cheese milk and eggs. 
Decreases were noted for fluid milk, butter- 



fat, poultry in eastern Canada and eggs 
and cheese milk in western Canada. An 
increase of 0-4 per cent to 151-2 in field 
products reflected higher quotations for 
potatoes, raw leaf tobacco, eastern barley 
and western hay. Lower quotations wore 
recorded for eastern hay and western flax 
and rye. 

Residential building material prices weak- 
ened 0-1 per cent to 275-9 as lower prices 
were registered for sand, gravel and cast 
iron water pipe, which overbalanced a 
firmer tone for spruce scantling and shellac. 
The index for non-residential building 
materials declined 1.2 per cent to 121-1 in 
May as decreases for structural steel 
shapes, sand, gravel, and soil pipe, among 
others, overweighed higher quotations for 
building tile and shellac. 



Strikes and Lockouts 



Canada, May 1954* 

Fewer work stoppages resulting from 
industrial disputes were in existence during 
May than in April, only seven new 
stoppages occurring during the month. 
Comparatively little time was lost. 

Disputes involving hotel and beverage 
room employees in four Alberta cities, 
garage workers at St. John's, Nfld., and 
safety glass factory workers at Windsor, 
Ont., caused more than two-thirds of the 
total idleness. 

The question of increased wages and 
related causes was a factor in 10 of the 
20 stoppages during May, causing 57 per 
cent of the idleness. Of the other disputes, 
three arose over reduced hours, three over 
causes affecting working conditions, two 
over suspensions or dismissals, one over 
union questions and one was a sympathy 
stoppage. 

Preliminary figures for May 1954 show a 
total of 20 stoppages in existence during 
the month, involving 3,341 workers, with a 
time loss of 31,040 man-days, compared 
with 33 strikes and lockouts in April 1954, 
with 2,268 workers involved and a loss of 
24,661 days. In May 1953 there were 30 
stoppages, 4,752 workers involved and a 
loss of 36,097 days. 

For the first five months of 1954 pre- 
liminary figures show a total of 74 strikes 
and lockouts, involving 16,164 workers, with 

*See Tables G-l and G-2 at back of book. 



a time loss of 278,885 man-days. In the 
same period in 1953 there were 69 strikes 
and lockouts, 14,657 workers involved and 
a loss of 153,102 days. 

Based on the number of non-agricultural 
wage and salary workers in Canada, the 
time lost in May 1954 was 0-04 per cent 
of the estimated working time; April 1954, 
0-03 per cent; May 1953, 0-04 per cent; 
the first five months of 1954, 0-07 per cent; 
and the first five months of 1953, 0-04 per 
cent. 

Of the 20 disputes during May, one was 
settled in favour of the workers, one 
in favour of the employer, four were 
compromise settlements and three were 
indefinite in result, work being resumed 
pending final settlement. At the end of 
the month 11 stoppages were recorded as 
unterminated. 

(The record does not include minor strikes 
such as are defined in a footnote to Table 
G-l nor does it include strikes and lockouts 
about which information has been received 
indicating that employment conditions are no 
longer affected but which the unions con- 
cerned have not declared terminated. Strikes 
and lockouts of this nature still in progress 
are: compositors, etc., at Winnipeg, Man., 
which began on November 8, 1945, and at 
Ottawa and Hamilton, Ont., and Edmonton, 
Alta., on May 30, 1946; waitresses at 
Timmins, Ont., on May 23, 1952; garage 
workers at Saint John, N.B. on February 9, 
1953, and sawmill workers at Stellarton, N.S., 
on October 19, 1953.) 



92110— 9i 



1045 



Great Britain and Other Countries 



(The latest available information as to 
strikes and lockouts in various countries is 
given in the Laboub Gazette from month to 
month. Statistics given in the annual review 
and in this article are taken from the gov- 
ernment publications of the countries con- 
cerned or from the International Labour 
Office Year Book of Labour Statistics.) 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland 

According to the British Ministry of 
Labour Gazette, the number of work stop- 
pages in Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland beginning in March 1954 was 214 
and 16 were still in progress from the 
previous month, making a total of 230 
during the month. In all stoppages of work 
in progress 46,000 workers were involved 
and a time loss of 170,000 days caused. 

Of the 214 disputes leading to stoppages 
of work which began in March, 13, directly 
involving 4,400 workers, arose over demands 
for advances in wages, and 81, directly 
involving 8,600 workers, over other wage 
questions; four, directly involving 100 



workers, over questions as to working hours ; 
26, directly involving 6,000 workers, over 
questions respecting the employment of 
particular classes or persons; 86, directly 
involving 15,100 workers, over other ques- 
tions respecting working arrangements; 
three, directly involving 500 workers, over 
questions of trade union principle; and one, 
directly involving 700 workers, was in 
support of workers involved in another 
dispute. 

United States 

Preliminary figures for April 1954 show 
300 work stoppages resulting from labour- 
management disputes beginning in the 
month, in which 130,000 workers were in- 
volved. The time loss for all strikes and 
lockouts in progress during the month was 
1,200,000 man-days. Corresponding figures 
for March 1954 were 225 stoppages in- 
volving 100,000 workers and a loss of 
1,300,000 days. 



Publications Recently Received 

in Labour Department Library 



The publications listed below are not 
for sale by the Department of Labour. 
Persons wishing to purchase them should 
communicate with the publishers. Publica- 
tions listed may be borrowed, free of 
charge, by making application to the 
Librarian, Department of Labour, Ottawa. 
Students must apply through the library 
of their institution. Applications for loans 
should give the number (numeral) of the 
publication desired and the month in which 
it was listed in the Labour Gazette. 

List No. 70 (Concluded) 

Wages and Hours 

63. Pennsylvania. Bureau of Employ- 
ment Security. Employment and Wages 
of Pennsylvania Workers covered by the 
Unemployment Compensation Law, 1952. 
Harrisburg, Penn., 1953. Pp. 31. 

Women 

64. National Council of Women of 
Canada. Year Book, 1953. Ottawa, 1954? 
Pp. 156. 



65. Norwegian Joint Committee on 
International Social Policy. The Status 
of Women in Norway To-day; a Survey. 
Oslo, 1953. Pp. 67. 

66. U.S. Women's Bureau. Toward 
Better Working Conditions for Women; 
Methods and Policies of the National 
Women's Trade Union League of America. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1953. Pp. 71. 

List No. 71. 

Accidents 

1. Great Britain. Standing Inter- 
Departmental Committee on Accidents in 
the Home. Accidents in the Home; 
Report. London, H.M.S.O., 1953. Pp. 11. 

2. Institut National de Securite pour la 
Prevention des Accidents du Travail et 
des Maladies Professionnelles, Paris. La 
Laine; Lavage, Peignage, Filature. Paris, 
1953. Pp. 139. 



1046 



Collective Agreements 

3. Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen. 

Negotiating Manual. Cleveland, 1953. Pp. 
189. 

4. Cartwright, P. W. Negotiated Health 
and Welfare Programs in Labor-Manage- 
ment Agreements in the Pacific Northwest, 
1958-1954, by P. W. Cartwright, J. B. 
Gillingham and W. S. Hopkins. Seattle, 
Institute of Labor Economics, University of 
Washington, 1954. Pp. 18. 

Co-operation 

5. International Labour Office. Action 
of the I.L.O. as regards Co-operation, 
particularly as regards its Practical Activi- 
ties. First item on the agenda. Geneva, 
1953. Pp. 30. 

6. International Labour Office. Co- 
operative Legislation. Second item on the 
agenda. Geneva, 1953. Pp. 74. 

7. International Labour Office. Inter- 
Co-operative Relations. Fourth item on 
the agenda. Geneva, 1953. Pp. 56. 

8. International Labour Office. Organ- 
ization and Functions of Government Co- 
operative Services. Third item on the 
agenda. Geneva, 1953. Pp. 29. 

9. Saskatchewan. Department of Co- 
operative Development. Ninth Annual 
Report, 1953. Regina, Queen's Printer, 1954. 
1 Volume. (Various pagings.) 

Co-operative Societies 

10. Saskatchewan. Department of Co- 
operation and Co-operative Develop- 
ment. Credit Union Services. Annual 
Report of Credit Union Services . . . for 
Year . . . 1952. Regina, Queen's Printer, 
1953. Pp. 58. 

11. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Consumer Co-operatives in the United 
States; Recent Developments. Washing- 
ton, G.P.O., 1954. Pp. 31. 

Discrimination in Employment 

12. Hope, John. Industrial Integration 
of Negroes: the Upgrading Process. New 
York, Society for Applied Anthropology, 

1952. Pp. 5-14. 

13. Ruchames, Louis. Race, Jobs and 
Politics; the Story of FEPC. New York, 
Columbia University Press, 1953. Pp. 255. 

Economic Conditions 

14. Bridson, D. G. Progress in Asia; the 
Colombo Plan in Action. London, H.M.S.O., 

1953. Pp. 36. 

15. Committee for Economic Develop- 
ment. Defense against Recession: Policy 
for Greater Economic Stability. A state- 
ment on national policy by the Research 



and Policy Committee of the Committee 
for Economic Development, New York, 
1954. Pp. 53. 

16. Rhode Island. Development Coun- 
cil. Rhode Island's Industrial Balance 
Sheet, a Summary Statement, Extract from 
an Introduction to the Economy of Rhode 
Island. Providence, 1953. Pp. 24. 

17. United Nations. Economic and 
Social Council. Economic Commission 
for Asia and the Far East. Economic 
Survey of Asia and the Far East, 1953. 
Prepared by the Research and Planning 
Division, Economic Commission for Asia 
and the Far East. Bangkok, 1954. Pp. 161. 

Efficiency, Industrial 

18. American Management Association. 

Stepping up Office Efficiency: Organization, 
Cost Control, Standards. New York, 1953. 
Pp. 46. 

19. Standard Register Company. Paper- 
work Simplification for Better Management 
Control. Dayton, Ohio, 1954. Pp. 22. 

Employment Management 

20. American Management Association. 

The Human Side of the Office Manager's 
Job; with a Paper on The Spirit of an 
Organization. New York, 1953. Pp. 40. 

21. American Management Association. 
The Personnel Administrator at the Cross- 
roads. Meeting the New Challenges of 
Personnel Management. New York, cl953. 
Pp. 54. 

22. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Industrial Security. II. Plant 
Guard Handbook, by R. Maxil Ballinger. 
New York, 1953. 

23. Paterson, Donald Gildersleeve. 
Revised Minnesota Occupational Rating 
Scales, by Donald G. Paterson, D. d'A. 
Garken, and Milton E. Hahn. Minne- 
apolis, University of Minnesota Press, 
cl953. 

Grievance Procedures 

24. National Foremen's Institute. 

Human Relations Casebook; a Practical 
Guide on how to avoid Grievances. Pre- 
pared and edited by the staff of the 
Employee Relations Bulletin, New London, 
Conn. 1953. Pp. 112. 

25. Van Mol, Louis J. Effective Pro- 
cedures for the Handling of Employee 
Grievances. Chicago, Civil Service Assembly 
of the United States and Canada, 1953. 

Industrial Disputes 

26. Chamberlain, Neil W. The Impact 
of Strikes, Their Social and Economic 



1047 



Costs, by Neil W. Chamberlain and Jane 
Metier Schilling. New York, Harper, 1954. 
Pp. 257. 

27. Hall, Frederick Smith. Sympathetic 
Strikes and Sympathetic Lockouts. New- 
York. Columbia I Diversity, 1898. Pp. 118. 

Industrial Relations 

28 Australian Stevedoring Industry 
Board. Report. 1st, 1949/50-4th, 1952/53. 
Sydney. 1951-1953. 4 Volumes. 

29. U.S. National Labor Relations Board. 
Eighteenth Annual Report for the Fiscal 

ended June 30, 1953. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1954. Pp. 117. 

30. Wisconsin. Employment Relations 
Board. Fifteenth Annual Report for the 
Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1953. Madison, 
1954. Pp. 38. 

Labour Bureaus 

31. Fiji. Commissioner of Labour. 

Annual reports, 1951 and 1952. Suva, Gov- 
ernment Press, 1952-1953. 2 Pamphlets. 

32. Ireland (Eire) Labour Court. 
Sixth Annual Report for the Year 1952. 
Dublin, Stationery Office, 1953. Pp. 34. 

33. Malta. Department of Labour. 
Report for the Year 1952. Valetta, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, 1954. Pp. 69, 

Labour Laws and Legislation 

34. Barbash Jack. Taft-Hartley Act in 

Action, 1947 ■ . . 1954 and Essentials of a 
New Labor Policy. New York, League for 
Industrial Democracy, 1954. Pp. 46. 

35. Number not used. 

Labour Organization 

36. Bambrick, James Joseph. Fore- 
manship under Unionism, by James J. 
Bambrick, Jr. and Wade Shurtleff. New 
London, Conn., National Foremen's Insti- 
tute, 1952. Pp. 155. 

37. Cohn, Fannia Mary. Labor Unions 
and the Community. New York, Workers 
Education Bureau of America, cl946. 
Pp. 11. 

38. Halifax District Trades and Labor 
Council. Labour Journal; History of the 
Labor Movement, 1953. Halifax, 1953. 
Pp. 221. 

39. Ross, Murray. Stars and Strikes; 
Unionization of Hollywood. New York, 
Columbia University Press, 1941. Pp. 233. 

40. South Africa. Mine Workers' 
Union Commission of Enquiry. Report. 
Johannesburg, 1953. Pp. 87. 



Labour Organization — Administration 

41. International Brotherhood of Pulp, 
Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers. 
Canadian Department of Education and 
Research. Securing Good Turnouts; an 
Officers' Guide to Effective Meetings. 
Montreal, 1953? Pp. 21. 

42. Workers Education Bureau of 
America. How to run a Union Meeting; 
a Simple Manual on Parliamentary Law. 
Rev. ed. Washington, American Federa- 
tion of Labor, 1953. Pp. 64. 

43. Workers Education Bureau of 
America. Shop Steward's Manual. Pre- 
pared by Barbara Briggs. Washington, 
American Federation of Labor, 1953. 
Pp. 58. 

Labour Supply (U.S.) 

44. Reuther, Walter Philip. Full 
Employment; Key to Abundance, Security, 
Peace. UAW-CIO conference on full 
employment. Washington, 1953. Pp. 36. 

45. U.S. Office of Defense Mobiliza- 
tion. Committee on Manpower 
Resources for National Security. Man- 
power Resources for National Security; a 
Report to the President by the Directory 
of the Office of Defense Mobilization. 
Washington, G.P.O. 1954. Pp. 70. 

Labour Unions 

46. American Federation of Labor. 
Building and Construction Trades 
Department. Report of Proceedings of 
the 46th Annual Convention held at 
St. Louis, Mo., September 16th-18th, 1953. 
Washington, 1953. Pp. 233. 

47. American Federation of Labor, 
Executive Council. Report to the 72nd 
Convention, St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 21, 1953. 
Washington, 1953. Pp. 347. 

48. American Federation of Labor. 
Metal Trades Department. Proceedings 
of the 44th Annual Convention ... St. 
Louis, Mo., Sept. 14th and 15th, 1953. 
Washington, 1953. Pp. 118. 

49. American Federation of Labor. 
Union Label and Service Trades. Pro- 
ceedings of the 45th Convention, Septem- 
ber 18, 1953. Washington, 1953. Pp. 137. 

50. American Federation of Musicians. 
Official Proceedings of the 56th Annual 
Convention, June 22nd-25th, 1953. Newark, 
N.J., 1953. Pp. 393. 

51. British Columbia Trade Union 
Congress. Proceedings of First Annual 
Convention, 1953. Vancouver, 1953. 1 
Pamphlet. 

52. Brotherhood of Locomotive Fire- 
men and Enginemen. Proceedings of 



1048 



the 36th Convention and General Policy 
Committee . . . July 13-August 17, 1953. 
Cleveland, 1953. Pp. 663. 

53. Congress of Industrial Organiza- 
tions. Proceedings of the 15th Constitu- 
tional Convention . . . November 1G, 17, 18, 
19, 20, 1953, Cleveland, Ohio. Washington, 
1954. Pp. 655. 

54. International Brotherhood of Boiler- 
makers, Iron Ship Builders, Black- 
smiths, Forgers and Helpers. Proceed- 
ings of the Nineteenth Consolidated Con- 
vention, Minneapolis, June 29-July 7, 1953. 
Kansas City, 1954. Pp. 610. 

55. International Brotherhood of Pulp, 
Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers. Pro- 
ceedings of the 23rd Convention, Cincin- 
nati, October 5-10, 1953. Fort Edwards, 
N.Y., 1953. Pp. 350. 

56. Oil Workers International Union. 
Proceedings of 23rd Convention, Denver, 
Colorado, September 28th-October 2nd, 1953. 
Denver, 1953. Pp. 407, 81. 

57. South African Trades and Labour 
Council. Annual Report and Balance 
Sheet presented to the Fourth Annual Con- 
ference, Port Elizabeth, 13th to 17th 
April, 1953. Johannesburg, 1953. 1 Volume. 

58. United Rubber, Cork, Linoleum and 
Plastic Workers of America. Proceedings, 
Eighteenth Convention, September 14-18, 

1953, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Akron, 

1954. Pp. 250. 

Labouring Classes 

59. American Federation of Labor. 
International Labor Relations Com- 
mittee. American Labor looks at the 
World. No. 7. New York, 1953. Pp. 96. 

60. American Labor Education Service. 
Annual Report for the year 1953. New 
York, 1954. Pp. 15. 

61. International Labour Office. 
Workers' Housing Problems in Asian Coun- 
tries. Second item on the agenda. Geneva, 
1953. Pp. 177. 

62. Nelson, George R., ed. Freedom 
and Welfare; Social Patterns in the 
Northern Countries of Europe. Edited by 
George R. Nelson [and others]. Copen- 
hagen, Krohns Bogtdrvkkeri, 1953. Pp. 539. 

63. United Nations. Committee on 
International Definition and Measure- 
men* of Standards and Levels of Living. 
Report on International Definition and 
Measurement of Standards and Levels of 
Living. Report of a Committee of Experts 
convened by the Secretary-General of the 
United Nations jointly with the Interna- 
tion Labour Office and the United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organ- 
ization. New York, 1954. Pp. 95. 



Management 

64. British Institute of Management. 

Report of the Annual Conference, Harro- 
gate, 1953. London, 1953. Pp. 207. 

65. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Company Tax Administration. 
New York, cl954. Pp. 32. 

66. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Executive Development Courses 
in Universities, by George V. Moser and 
Allison V. MacCullough, New York, cl954. 
Pp. 55. 

67. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Executive Expense Accounts, by 
Malcolm C. Neuhoff. New York, cl954. 
Pp. 31. 

68. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Managing Company Airplanes, by 
Leonard R. Burgess and Malcolm C. 
Neuhoff. New York, 1954. Pp. 47. 

Music in Industry 

69. American Music Conference. Music 
in industry; How Employees participate in 
Musical Groups. Chicago, 1953? Pp. 23. 

70. Soibelman, Doris. Therapeutic and 
Industrial Uses of Music, a Review of the 
Literature. New York, Columbia Univ. 
Press, 1948. Pp. 274. 

Occupations 

71. Lehman, Maxwell. Jobs after Retire- 
ment, by Maxwell Lehman and Morton 
Yarmon. New York, Henry Holt, cl954. 
Pp. 241. 

72. U h b r o c k, Richard Stephen. 
Recruiting the College Graduate; a Guide 
for Company Interviewers. New York, 
American Management Association, 1953. 
Pp. 31. 

Pensions 

73. Australia. Superannuation Board. 

Superannuation Act: Manual of Instruc- 
tions. Canberra, 1951. Pp. 25. 

74. Montreal. Board of Trade. 
Employee Relations Section. Pension 
Conference, Thursday, May 18, 1950, 
Windsor Hotel, Montreal. Montreal, 1950. 
Pp. 40. 

Production 

75. American Management Association. 

Gearing up for Better Production; Organ- 
izational and Interdepartmental Aspects' of 
the Manufacturing Job. New York, 1953. 
Pp. 58. 

76. American Management Association. 
Production Guides and Controls for the 
Modern Executive. New York, 1953. 
Pp. 52. 



1049 



77. Carroll, Phil. How to control Pro- 
duction C word by Bruce Wallace. 

i. Nov York. McGraw-Hill, 1953. 
Pp. 272. 

Productivity of Labour 

78. Organization for European Eco- 
nomic Co-operation. European Foundries 
and Productivity ; Some Recent Experi- 
ments and Achievements. Technical Assist- 
ance Mission No. 122. Paris, 1953. Pp. 268. 

79. Organization for European Eco- 
nomic Co-operation. Galvanizing Tech- 
niques in the U.S.A. Technical Assistance 
Mission No. 78. Paris, 1953. Pp. 138. 

Seasonal Trades 

80. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economics and Research Branch. Report 
on the Seasonal Unemployment Survey of 
the National Employment Committee. 
Ottawa, 1953. Pp. 122. 

81. Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. 
Seasonal Farm Labor in Pennsylvania; a 
study prepared by Lafayette College for 
the Pennsylvania State Dept. of Labor and 
Industry. By Morrison Handsaker, with 
the assistance of Robert A. Battis, and 
others. Easton, 1953. Pp. 243. 

Wages and Hours 

82. Detroit Labor Trends. Hourly Pay 
Practices. Detroit, 1953. Pp. 12. 

83. International Labour Office. 

Problems of Wage Policy in Asian Coun- 
tries. First item on the agenda. Geneva, 
1953. Pp. 135. 

84. National Industrial Conference 
Board. General Wage Adjustments in 
Manufacturing, June, 1950-March, 195 If. 
Xew York, cl954. Pp. 27. 

85. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Severance Pay Plans, by Lois E. 
Forde and F. Beatrice Brower. New York, 
cl954. Pp. 47. 

86. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Union Wages and Hours: Local Transit 
Operating Employees, July 1, 1953. Wash- 
ington, G.P.O., 1954. Pp. 10. 

87. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Wage Structure; Footwear, March 1953. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1953. Pp. 41. 

Women 

88. Brittain, Vera Mary. " Lady into 
Woman; a History of Women from 
Victoria to Elizabeth II. London, A. 
Dakers, 1953. Pp. 256. 

89. California. Department of Indus- 
trial Relations. Division of Labor 
Statistics and Research. Women Workers 
in California Manufacturing Industries, 
1953. San Francisco, 1954. 



90. Parr, Mary. Poise for the Successful 
Business Girl. Chicago. Dartnell Corp., 
cl953. Pp. 61. 

Workmen's Compensation 

91. Michigan. State Civil Service 
Commission. Compensation Manual; Pay 
Regulations and Rates for Positions in the 
State Classified Service. 1953 ed. Lansing, 

1953. Pp. 258. 

92. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Workmen's Compensation in the United 
States: a General Appraisal; Court Pro- 
ceedings; Federal Legislation; Occupa- 
tional Diseases; Medical Services; Acci- 
dent Prevention; Problems of Administra- 
tion; Rehabilitation. Washington, G.P.O., 

1954. Pp.45. 

Youth — Employment 

93. Great Britain. Ministry of Labour 
and National Services. National Youth 
Employment Council. Report . . . on the 
work of the Youth Employment Service, 
1950-1953. London, H.M.S.O., 1953. Pp. 49. 

94. International Labour Office. 
Measures for the Protection of Young 
Workers in Asian Countries, including 
Vocational Guidance and Training. Third 
item on the agenda. Geneva, 1953. Pp. 
139. 

Miscellaneous 

95. Kramer, Stella. The English Craft 
Gilds and the Government ; an Examina- 
tion of the Accepted Theory regarding the 
Decay of the Craft Gilds. New York, 
Columbia Univ. Press, 1905. Pp. 152. 

96. Beveridge, William Henry. Power 
and Influence. London, Hodder and 
Stoughton, 1953. Pp. 448. Autobiography 
of Lord Beveridge. 

97. Central Mortgage and Housing 
Corporation. Building Standards, exclud- 
ing Apartment Buildings; Minimum Re- 
quirements for Planning, Construction, and 
Materials for Buildings, upon which Loans 
are made under the National Housing Act, 
1954. March, 1954 ed. Ottawa, 1954. 
Pp. 88. 

98. Eggleston, Wilfrid. Canada at Work. 
Montreal, cl953. Pp. 389. 

99. International Association of Per- 
sonnel in Employment Security. Ontario 
Chapter. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual 
Conference . . . September 18th, 19th, 20th, 
1953, Fern Cottage Inn, Atherly, Ontario. 
Toronto, 1953. Pp. 64. 

100. International Labour Office. 
Holidays with Pay. Seventh item on the 
agenda. Geneva, 1953-1954. 2 Volumes. 



1050 



Labour Statistics 







Page 



A— Labour Force 

D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 



Table A-l — Estimated Distribution of Canadian Manpower 1052 

Table A-2 — Persons Looking for Work in Canada ] 052 

Table A-3— Regional Distributions, Week Ended April 17, 1954 1053 

Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Table A-4— Distribution of All Immigrants by Region 1053 

Table A-5— Distribution of Workers Entering Canada by Occupations 1054 

B — Labour Income 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics: Monthly Estimates of Labour Income 

Table B-l — Estimates of Labour Income 1054 

C— Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics: Employment and Payrolls 

Table C-l — Employment Index Numbers by Provinces 1055 

Table C-2— Employment, Payrolls, and Weekly Wages and Salaries 1056 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings 

Table C-4 — Hours and Earnings in Manufacturing 1057 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour 

Table C-7 — Real Earnings in Manufacturing 1058 

D— Employment Service Statistics 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

Table D-l — Unfilled Vacancies and Unplaced Applicants as at First of Month 1059 

Table D-2 — Unfilled Vacancies by Industry and by Sex 1060 

Table D-3 — Unfilled Vacancies and Unplaced Applicants by Occupation and by Sex 1061 

Table D-4 — Activities of National Employment Service Offices 1062 

Table D-5 — Applications and Placements Since 1943 1067 

E — Unemployment Insurance 

Unemployment Insurance Commission and Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
Report on the Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Table E-l — Number Receiving Benefit with Amount Paid 1068 

Table E-2 — Persons Signing the Live Unemployment Register by Number of Days Continu- 
ously on the Register 1068 

Table E-3 — Claims for Benefit by Provinces and Disposal of Claims 1069 

Table E-4 — Claimants Not Entitled to Benefit with Reasons for Non-Entitlement 1069 

Table E-5 — Estimates of the Insured Population 1070 

Table E-6 — Unemployment Insurance Fund 1071 

Table E-7— Claims for Supplementary Benefit, April, 1954 1072 

F— Prices 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

Table F-l — Consumer Price Index Numbers, Canada 1073 

Table F-2 — Consumer Price Indexes for Regional Cities of Canada 1074 

Table F-3— Index Numbers of Staple Food Items 1075 

Table F-4 — Retail Prices of Staple Foods and Coal by Cities 1076 

Table F-5 — Index Numbers of Consumer Prices in Canada and Other Specified Countries 1080 

Table F-6 — Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices in Canada 1081 

G — Strikes and Lockouts 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour 

Table G-l — Strikes and Lockouts in Canada by Month , 1082 

Table G-2 — Strikes and Lockouts in Canada During May 1083 

H— Industrial Accidents 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour 

Table H-l — Fatal Industrial Accidents by Industries and Causes 1086 

Table H-2 — Fatal Industrial Accidents by Provinces and Industries 1086 

1051 



A — Labour Force 

TABLE A-l.— ESTIMATED DISTRIBUTION OF CANADIAN MANPOWER 

(Thousands of persons 14 years of age and over) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 





Week ended April 17, 1954 


Week ended March 20, 1954 




Total 


Males 


Females 


Total 


Males 


Females 




10,158 
5,257 
4,845 
2,890 
( 2 ) 1,955 
(2) 1,752 

59 

14 

20 

( 2 ) 81 
(2) 1,560 

203 

109 

106 
20 

47 

22 
12 

303 

4,901 
194 

3,391 

697 

600 

19 


5,052 
4,071 
3,715 
2,386 
1,329 
1,254 

45 

* 

14 
16 

♦ 

50 
1,114 

75 

86 

84 
17 

* 

37 

15 
10 

270 
981 
129 

* 

359 

478 

11 


5,106 

1,186 

1,130 

504 

626 

498 

14 

* 
* 
• 
* 

31 
446 

128 

23 

22 
*• 

* 

10 

33 

3,920 
65 

3,387 
338 
122 


10,148 

5,236 

4,805 

4,459 

346 

153 

10 

• 61 

12 

,30 

* 

■ * 
24 

193 

113 

110 
21 

* 

57 

* 

17 
12 

318 
4,912 

186 
3,399 

682 

626 
19 


5,049 

4,044 

3,671 

3,476 

195 

123 

• 

50 

* 

* 
12 
21 

* 
• 
21 

72 

89 

88 
19 

43 

* 

13 
10 

* 

284 

1,005 

123 

357 

510 

12 


5,099 




1,192 




1,134 




983 




151 




30 




* 




11 




• 




* 




* 




* 




* 




* 




* 




121 




24 




22 








* 


(c) illness 


14 








* 


(f ) other 


* 




• 


Persons without jobs and seeking work 0) 


34 
3,907 


(a) permanently unable or too old to work. . . 


63 
3,396 




325 




116 











0) Included here are only those who did not work during the entire survey week and were reported looking for work. 
For all those who were reported as seeking work during the survey week, see Table A-2. 

( 2 ) The unusually large number working less than 35 hours was due to Good Friday being in the survey week. This 
explains nearly all the absence reported under (h) and (i). 

* Less than 10,000. 



TABLE A-2.— PERSONS LOOKING FOR WORK IN CANADA 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 





Week ended April 17, 1954 


Week 


ended March 20, 1954 





Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work 


Seeking 

Part-Time 

Work 


Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work 


Seeking 

Part-Time 

Work 




320 

303 
66 
107 
102 

. 23 

17 

* 

13 


297 

282 


23 
21 


332 

318 
71 
134 

91 

17 

* 

• 
14 


310 

296 


22 


Without jobs 


22 


























7 — 12 months 








13—18 months . . . 










19 — and over 










Worked 


15 

• 

11 


* 


14 

» 


* 


1 — 14 hours 


* 




* 







* Less than 10,000. 

1052 



TABLE A-3.— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTIONS, WEEK ENDED APRIL 17, 1954 

(Estimates in thousands) 



— 


Canada 


Nfld. 


P.E.I. 

N.S. 
N.B. 


Que. 


Ont. 


Man. 
Sask. 
Alta. 


B.C. 


The Labour Force 


5,257 

826 

4,431 

4,071 

799 

3,272 

1,186 

27 

1,159 

5,257 

491 

698 

2,454 

1,410 

204 


93 

• 

92 
75 
74 

18 

* 

18 

93 
12 
15 
42 
22 


389 

43 

346 

313- 

41 

272 

76 

* 

74 

389 
37 
47 
173 
109 
23 


1,515 

214 

1,301 

1,163 
212 
951 

352 

350 

1,515 

178 
233 
709 
357 
38 


1,027 

224 

1,703 

1,456 

216 

1,240 

471 

463 

1,927 
161 
238 
897 
546 
85 


904 
322 

582 

734 
310 
424 

170 

12 

158 

904 
71 
121 
422 
253 
37 


429 




22 




407 




330 




19 




311 




99 








96 




429 




32 


20— 24 years... 


44 




211 




123 




19 








4,954 
3,801 
1,153 

819 
4,135 

3,728 
2,683 
1,045 


82 
65 
17 

81 

71 
55 
16 


346 
274 

72 

42 
304 

250 
189 
61 


1,401 

1,063 

338 

212 
1,189 

1,072 
762 
310 


1,850 

1,388 

462 

223 
1,627 

1,502 

1,076 

426 


870 
703 
167 

320 
550 

492 
346 
146 


405 




308 




97 




21 




384 




341 




255 




86 








303 


11 


43 


114 


77 


34 


24 






Persons not in the Labour Force 
Both Sexes 


4,901 

981 

3,920 


147 

48 
99 


465 
104 
361 


1,349 

247 

1,102 


1,560 

264 
1,296 


930 
208 
722 


450 




110 




340 







* Less than 10,000. 



TABLE A-4.— DISTRIBUTION OF ALL IMMIGRANTS BY REGION 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



Month 



Atlantic 



Quebec 



Ontario 



Prairies 



B.C. 
Yukon 
N.W.T. 



Canada 
Total 



Adult 
Males 



1949— Total 

1950— Total 

1951— Total 

1952— Total 

1953-Total 

1 953 — January-April 

1954 — January-April 



2,777 
2,198 
3,928 
4,531 
4,049 

1,446 

1,139 



18,005 
13,575 
46,033 
35,318 
34,294 

7,007 

7,782 



48,607 
39,041 
104,842 
86,059 
90,120 

20,403 

25,359 



17,904 
12,975 
25,165 
23,560 
27,208 

6,768 

6,992 



7,924 
6,123 
14,423 
15,030 
13,197 

3,431 

3,605 



95,217 
73,912 
194,391 
164,498 
168,868 

39,055 

44,877 



39,044 
30,700 
95,818 
66,083 
68,269 

15,690 

19,795 



1053 



TABLE A -5,— DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS ENTERING CANADA BY h OCCUPATIONS 

SoUBCS: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 









"O 








to 
















c 


13 






60.5 












-a 

c 




8 J 


c 
o3 






Is 


-"73 
60 C 






2 


Month 


bJ_ 




-- c 
O 3 

la 

2 o 
HO 


"3 






2tj 


"S-a ° 






3 




2 B 

n o 


1 
•S 

O 


Is 

o.S 

O&H 


| 

1 


3 
| 

60 

<5 


■a & 
£»3 


J § g 

*§-£« 
s o a 

cs a> o 


| 

g 

3 
O 

1 


e 

s 

o 


3 

o 


1951— Total 


4,001 


5,317 








25,890 








5,402 


114,786 


1952— Total 


7,054 


6,900 








16,971 








1,526 


85,029 


1953— Total 


10,021 


6,339 


1,855 


3,185 


13,766 


17,250 


879 


26,492 


10,380 


966 


91,133 


1953 — January-April 


2,507 


1,613 


444 


897 


2,968 


4,614 


179 


6,257 


1,237 


311 


21,027 


1954— January-April 


2,802 


1,862 


632 


870 


3,476 


4,523 


223 


7,157 


3,445 


272 


25,262 



Due to changes in occupational classifications, comparisons with earlier periods cannot be made for all groups. 
Where possible, comparisons are indicated in the above table. 

B — Labour Income 

TABLE B-l.— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

(S Millions) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



Agricul- 
ture, 
Forestry, 

Fishing, 
Trapping, 

Mining 



Manu- 
facturing 



Construc- 
tion 



Utilities, 
Transport- 
ation, 
Communi- 
cation, 
Storage, 
Trade 



Finance, 
Services, 
(including 
Govern- 
ment) 



Supple- 
mentary 
Labour 
Income 



Total 



1943— Average.. 
1944 — Average. . 
1945— Average. . 
1946— Average. . 
1947 — Average. . 
1948— Average. . 
*1949 — Average. . 
1950— Average. . 
1951— Average. . 
1952— Average... 
1953 — Average. . 

1951— November 
December . 

1952 — January 

February. . 

March 

• April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October... 
November 
December. 

1953— January 

February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October. ... 
November 
December. 

1954 — January 

February . . 

March 

April 



171 
156 
147 
177 
203 
214 
231 
272 
302 
330 

283 
289 

282 
287 
293 
293 
295 
295 
297 
308 
315 
317 
321 
325 

321 

326 
328 
328 
331 
333 
330 
334 
337 
333 
328 
333 

322 
325 
323 
322 



86 
95 
100 
114 
134 
154 
169 
180 
208 
230 
250 

223 
223 

215 
216 
217 
222 
227 
231 
234 
234 
236 
238 
242 
244 

246* 

234 

234 

251* 

246 

251 

253 

253 

256 

257 

256 

255 

245 
247 
245 
251 



78 
83 
90 
103 
114 
131 
147 
156 
178 
199 
215 

190 

188 

188 
193 
193 
194 
198 
202 
198 
198 
203 
205 
206 
205 

203 
205 
210 
210 
214 
216 
212 
212 
224 
226 
224 
225 

223 
225 
226 
229 



14 
13 
13 
14 
17 
19 
21 
24 
28 
32 
34 

30 
29 

31 
30 
31 
31 
31 
31 
32 
32 
33 
34 
33 
34 

34 
33 
33 
34 
34 
34 
35 
34 
35 
35 
35 
35 

34 
33 
33 
34 



399 
412 
413 
444 
518 
597 
647 
693 
810 
901 
972 

870 



844 
855 
857 
857 



903 
925 
941 
955 



934 
923 
924 



981 
983 
994 
1,014 
1,012 
996 



945 
950 
943 
954 



* Includes Newfoundland, since 1949. t Includes retroactive wage payment to railway employees. 

1054 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

TABLE C-l.— EMPLOYMENT INDEX NUMBERS BY PROVINCES 

(Average calendar year 1939 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 

Tables C-l and C-2 are based on reports from employees having 15 or more employees— At April 1, employers 
In the principal non-agricultural industries reported a total employment of 2,370,962. 



Year and Month 



#•51 



1947 — Average. 
1948 — Average. 
1949— Average. 
1950— Average. 
1951 — Average. 
1952 — Average. 
1953 — Average. 



Apr. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 



Percentage Distribution of Employees of 
Reporting Establishments at April 
1, 1954 



1, 1952. 

1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 



1954. 
1954. 
1954. 
1954. 



99 

100-0 
101-5 
108-8 
111-0 
113-4 

107-5 



113 
11U 
110 
110 
110 
112 
114 
115 
116 
116 
115' 
114' 



109-9 
107-0 
106-5 
105-5 



100-0 



111-7 
130-2 
140-9 

112-2 

132-4 
125-3 
117-8 
122-4 
133-6 
144-1 
154-7 
156-6 
156-0 
157-4 
149-8 
141-2 

125-4 
113-4 
112-9 
113-1 



93 

102-6 
100-0 
110-3 
112 
123-2 
116-4 

135-9 

116-7 

110 

103-7 

104-0 

108-3 

118 

119-6 

124-6 

124-7 

119-8 

125-2 

121-1 

105-8 
96-0 

102-4 
92-5 



0-2 



92-1 
99-6 

100-0 
95- 

100- 

104-0 

101 



99 ■ 



09 
101 

97 

96 

97 
100 
103-9 
104-2 
104-0 
104-7 
103-9 
100 

97-5 
95-4 
95-2 
92-1 



3-3 



104 

105 

100-0 

102-6 

109-0 

109-5 

101-4 

116-2 

107-8 

100 

98 

96-6 

94-8 

99-6 

100-4 

105-4 

107-1 

102-2 

101-9 

102-3 

99-7 
97-6 
123-2 
113-7 



2-3 



97- 
101- 
100- 
100- 
109- 
113- 
112- 

107- 

113-8 

110-6 

109 

108-3 

109-1 

111-8 

113-7 

114-0 

115-6 

116-2 

116-3 

114-6 

108-7 
105-7 
105-1 
103-5 



28-2 



94-7 
98-9 

100-0 

102 

110 

112-0 

114-7 



114-5 
113-1 
112-9 
113-2 
113-4 
113-7 
115-7 
115-4 
116-5 
117-1 
116-3 
114-8 

112-3 
110-8 
110-1 
108-9 



43-3 



93-6 
97-2 
100-0 
100-8 
103-9 
106-0 
107-2 

101-3 

106-7 

104-0 

102-5 

102-9 

104 

106-7 

109-3 

110-5 

111-1 

110-5 

108-7 

108-8 

104-7 
100-9 
99-6 
99-7 



5-1 



97-2 
99-5 

100-0 

100 

106-0 

111 

116-0 

101-6 

113-5 
106-2 
105-7 
105-7 
109-2 
115-1 
119-7 
123-3 
123-3 
123-9 
124-1 
122-7 

115-9 
109-5 
108-6 
107-4 



2-3 



88-1 

93- 
100-0 
104 

112 
120 
128-5 

111-8 

125-7 

121 

122-7 

121-6 

123-6 

127-7 

131-3 

135-2 

135-6 

135-0 

132-4 

130-1 

124-7 
118-3 
119-3 
118-1 



5-0 



97-1 
101-3 
100-0 
100-8 
106-1 
106-7 
108-4 

105-2 

106-4 
101-0 
102-1 
104-6 
106-5 
108-1 
111-6 
114-2 
114-7 
114-6 
110-2 
107-1 

103-2 
97-5 
98-1 

101-4 



Note: — The percentage distribution given above shows the proportions of employees in the indicated provinces, to 
the total number of employees reported in Canada by the firms making returns at the latest date. 



1055 



TABLE C-2.— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 



Year and Month 



Industrial Composite 1 



Index Numbers 



Employ- 
ment 



Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 



Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 



Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 



Manufacturing 



Index Numbers 



Employ- 
ment 



Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 



Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 



Average 

Weekly 

Wagesand 

Salaries 



1947 — Average. 
1948— Average. 
1949— Average. 
1950 — Average. 
1951 — Average. 
1952— Average. 
1953— Average. 



Apr. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 



1, 1952. 

1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 

1954. 
1954. 
1954. 
1954. 



95-7 
99-7 
100-0 
101-5 
108-8 
111-6 
113-4 

107-5 

113-0 
110-3 
110-0 
110-0 
110-9 
112-4 
114-9 
115-6 
116-6 
116-9 
115-9 
114-1 

109-9 
107-0 
106-5 
105-5 



80-7 
93-2 
100-0 
106-0 
125-6 
139-7 
151-5 

135-5 

141-6 

145-8 

147-0 

146- 

148' 

151 

154 ■ 

155' 

157 

158' 

157- 



■7 
•2 
■5 
•5 
•3 
■0 
■7 
•4 
154-9 

145-3 
146-2 
147-6 
145-6 



84-2 
93-2 
100-0 
104-4 
115-5 
126-0 
133-4 

126-4 

125-3 
132-0 
133-6 
133-4 
133-9 
134-4 
134-0 
133-9 
134-1 
135-3 
135-3 
135-3 

131-7 
136-1 
138-0 
137-5 



36.19 
40.06 
42.96 
44.84 
49.61 
54.13 
57.30 

54.32 

53.81 
56.72 
57.40 
57.33 
57.52 
57.72 
57.57 
57.52 
57.61 
58.11 
58.14 
58.13 

56.56 
58.47 
59.30 
59.06 



97-2 



100' 
100- 
100' 
108' 
109< 
113' 



107-0 

111-4 
111-9 
112-7 
112-9 
113-1 
113-4 
114-7 
114-4 
115-6 
115-2 
113-1 
110-9 

108-0 
108-3 
108-1 
107-7 



80-4 
92-6 
100-0 
106-2 
126-1 
140-3 
152-4 

137-7 

139-1 
149-7 
151-9 
152-6 
152-9 
154-0 
155-0 
153-9 
155-4 
157-1 
155-0 
152-8 

143-7 
150-0 
151-2 
150-7 



92-5 
100-0 
105-1 
116-6 
127-6 
134-2 

128-6 

124-9 
133-8 
134-8 
135-2 
135-2 
135-2 
134-5 
134-0 
133-8 
135-8 
136-4 
137-1 

132-5 
137-8 
139-2 
139-2 



36.34 
40.67 
43.97 
46.21 
51.25 
56.11 
59.01 

56.55 

54.92 
58.82 
59.25 
59.43 
59.43 
59.43 
59.16 
58.93 
58.83 
59.69 
59.98 
60.29 

58.24 
60.60 
61.20 
61.22 



1 Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication, (6) Public utility operation, (7) Trade, (8) Finance 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels and restaurants, dry cleaning plants, business and recreational 
service). 



1056 






TABLE C-4.— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING 

(Hourly-Rated Wage Earners) Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 





All Manufactures 


Durable Goods 


Non-Durable Goods 


Year and Month 


Average 
Hours 


Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 


Average 
Weekly 
Wages 


Average 
Hours 


Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 


Average 
Weekly 
Wages 


Average 
Hours 


Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 


Average 
Weekly 
Wages 


1945 — Average 

1946 — Average 

1947 — Average 

1948 — Average 

1949 — Average 

1950 — Average 

1951 — Average 

1952 — Average 

1953 — Average 

Apr. 1, 1952 

♦Jan. 1, 1953 

Feb. 1, 1953 

Mar. 1, 1953 

Apr. 1, 1953 

May 1, 1953 

June 1, 1953 

July 1, 1953 

Aug. 1, 1953 

Sept. 1, 1953 

Oct. 1, 1953 

Nov. 1, 1953..... 
Dec. 1, 1953 

•Jan. 1, 1954 

Feb. 1, 1954 

Mar. 1, 1954 

Apr. 1, 1954 


No. 

44-3 

42-7 
42-5 
42-2 
42-3 
42-3 
41-8 
41-3 
41-3 

42-1 

38-3 
41-9 
42-1 
42-1 
41-8 
41-7 
41-3 
41-0 
41-0 
41-5 
41-4 
41-2 

38-5 

40-7 
41-0 
40-9 


c 

69-4 

70-0 

80-3 

91-3 

98-6 

103-6 

116-8 

129-2 

135-8 

129-0 

134-0 
134-2 
134-4 
134-9 
135-5 
135-9 
136-2 
136-0 
135-7 
136-6 
137-4 
138-4 

140-4 
140-4 
140-7 
141-1 


s 

30.74 

29.87 
34.13 
38.53 
41.71 
43.82 
48.82 
53.62 
56.09 

54.31 

51.32 
56.23 
56.58 
56.79 
56.64 
56.67 
56.25 
55.76 
55.64 
56.69 
56.88 
57.02 

54.05 
57.14 
57.69 
57.71 


No. 

44-7 
42-8 
42-7 
42-3 
42-5 
42-5 
42-0 
41-6 
41-6 

42-3 

38-5 
41-9 
42-4 
42-3 
42-2 
42-1 
41-9 
41-4 
41-3 
41-9 
41-7 
41-7 

39-1 
40-8 
41-3 
41-0 


c 

76-7 
■76-4 
87-2 
98-4 
106-5 
112-0 
125-8 
139-8 
147-1 

139-6 

144-5 
145-7 
146-3 
146-7 
146-8 
146-8 
147-0 
147-1 
147-3 
148-5 
148-8 
149-5 

150-1 
151-4 
151-7 
151-7 


$ 

34.28 
32.70 
37.23 
41.62 
45.26 
47.60 
52.84 
58.16 
61.19 

59.05 

55.63 
61.05 
62.03 
62.05 
61.95 
61.80 
61.59 
60.90 
60.83 
62.22 
62.05 
62.34 

58.69 
61.77 
62.65 
62.20 


No. 

43-7 
42-6 
42-3 
42-0 
42-0 
42-2 
41-7 
41-3 
40-9 

41-8 

38-2 
41-8 
41-7 
41-8 
41-5 
41-3 
40-8 
40-6 
40-8 
41-1 
41-0 
40-7 

37-8 
40-6 
40-7 
40-7 


c 

60-7 

63-8 

73-4 

84-0 

90-6 

95-2 

107-2 

117-4 

122-9 

116-9 

121-8 
120-8 
120-7 
121-3 
122-4 
123-1 
123-5 
123-4 
123-0 
123-7 
124-8 
126-1 

129-1 
127-9 
128-2 
129-1 


S 

26.53 
27.18 
31.05 
35.28 
38.05 
40.17 
44.70 
58.49 
50.27 

48.86 

46.53 
50.49 
50.33 
50.70 
50.80 
50.84 
50.39 
50.10 
50.18 
50.84 
51.17 
51.32 

48.80 
51.93 
52.18 
52.54 



The averages at these dates were affected by loss of working time at the year-end holidays in the case of Jan. 1. 



1057 



TABLE C- 



EARNINGS, HOI RS AND REAL EARNINGS FOR WAGE EARNERS IN 
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN CANADA 



SouBCB: Man Hours and Hourly Earnings: Prices and Price Indexes, D.B.S. 



Date 



Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 
Monthly 



Average 1945. 
Average 1946, 

Average 1947. 
Average 1948. 
Average 1949. 
Average 1950. 
Average 1951 . 
Average 1952 . 
Average 1953 . 



Week Preceding: 

April 1 

May 1 

June 1 

July 1 

August 1 

September 1 

October 1 

November 1 

December 1 

January 1 

February 1 

March 1 

April 1 



1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 
1953. 



1954.... 
1954.... 
1954.... 
1954 (i). 



Average 

Hours 

Worked 

Per Week 



44-3 

42-7 
42-5 
42-2 
42-3 
42-3 
41-8 
41-5 
41-3 



42-1 
41-8 
41-7 
41-3 
410 
410 
41-5 
41-4 
41-2 

41-0 1 
40-7 
411 

40-9 



Average 

Hourly 

Earnings 



69-4 
700 
80-3 
91-3 
98-6 
103-6 
116-8 
129-2 
135-8 



134-9 
135-5 
135-9 
138-2 
136-0 
135-7 
136-6 
137-4 
138-4 

140-4 
140-4 
140-6 
141-1 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



30.74 
29.87 
34.13 
38.53 
41.71 
43.82 
48.82 
53.62 



56.79 
56.64 
56.67 
56.25 
55.76 
55.64 
56.69 
56.88 
57.02 

57.56 
57.14 
57.79 
57.71 



Index Numbers (A v. 1949 = 100) 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



73-7 
71-6 
81-8 
92-4 
100-0 
105-1 
117-0 
128-6 
134-5 



136- 
135- 
135 
134 
133- 
133- 
135 
136 
136 



138-0 
137-0 
138-6 
138-4 



Consumer 
Price 
Index 



75-0 
77-5 
84-8 
97-0 
100-0 
102-9 
113-7 
116-5 
115-5 



114-6 
114-4 
114-9 
115-4 
115-7 
116-2 
116-7 
116-2 
115-8 

115-7 
115-7 
115-5 
115-6 



A verage 

RealWeekly 

Earnings 



98-3 
92-4 
96-5 
95-3 
100-0 
102-1 
102-9 
110-4 
116-5 



118-8 
118-7 
118-3 
116-9 
115-6 
114-8 
116-5 
117-4 
118-0 

119-3 
118-4 
120-0 
119-7 



Note: Average Real Weekly Earnings were computed by dividing the Consumer Price Index into the average 
weekly earnings index. (Average 1949 = 100) by the Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour. 
* Figures adjusted for holidays. The actual figures are: January 1, 1954, 38-5 hours $54.05. 
0) Latest figures subject to revision. 



1058 



D — National Employment Service Statistics 



Tables D-l to D-5 are based on regular 
statistical reports from local offices of the 
National Employment Service. These 
statistics are compiled from two different 
reporting forms, UIC 751: statistical report 
on employment operations by industry, and 
UIC 757: inventory of registrations and 
Vacancies by occupation. The data on 
applicants and vacancies in these two 
reporting forms are not identical. 

Form UIC 751: This form provides a 
cumulative total for each month of all 
vacancies notified by employers, applications 
made by workers, and referrals and place- 
ments made by the National Employment 
Service. Also reported are the number of 
vacancies unfilled and applications on file 
at the beginning and end of each reporting 
period. Because the purpose of these data 
is to give an indication of the volume of 
work performed in various local National 
Employment Service offices, all vacancies 
and applications are counted, even if the 
vacancy is not to be filled until some future 
date (deferred vacancy) or the application 
is from a person who already has a job 
and wants to find a more suitable one. 

Form UIC 757: This form provides a 
count of the number of jobs available and 
applications on file at the end of business 
on a specified day. Excluded from the data 
on unfilled vacancies are orders from 
employers not to be filled until some future 
date. The data on job applications from 
workers exclude those people known to be 



already employed, those known to be regis- 
tered at more than one local office (the 
registration is counted by the "home" office), 
and registrations from workers who will not 
be available until some specified future date. 

From January 24, 1952, to December 24, 
1952, inclusive, unemployment insurance 
claimants on temporary mass lay-offs were 
not registered for employment and thus were 
not included in the statistics reported on 
form UIC 751 and form UIC 757. A 
temporary mass lay-off was defined as a 
lay-off either for a determinate or indeter- 
minate period which affected 50 or more 
workers and where the workers affected, so 
far as was known, were returning to work 
with the same employer. Commencing 15 
days after the date of such a lay-off, 
claimants still on the live insurance register 
were registered for employment on their next 
visit to the office and henceforth were 
counted in both statistical reporting forms. 
This procedure is no longer in effect, as all 
workers on temporary mass lay-offs now are 
registered for employment and so counted in 
the statistical reporting forms. This change 
in procedure should be kept in mind when 
comparing the figures on applications for 
employment during 1952 with data for 
earlier and subsequent periods. 

Persons losing several days' work each 
week and consequently claiming short-time 
unemployment insurance benefits are not 
included in either statistical reporting form 
unless they specifically ask to be registered 
for employment. 



TABLE D-l.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 





Month 


Unfilled Vacancies* 


Live Applications for 
Employment 




Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Date Nearest: 

June 1 


, 1948 


40,618 
23,539 
25,038 
48,353 
26,915 

24,564 
21,229 
19,382 
24,203 
24,025 
15,282 
15,446 
8,298 
8,406 
9,014 
11,434 
14,942 
14,284 


24,226 
24,035 
16,375 
17,701 
18,253 

21,143 
20,088 
17,772 
20,321 
17,806 
13,058 
11,868 
9,121 
9,575 
10,176 
12,293 
15,335 
15,790 


64,844 
47,574 
41,413 
66,054 
45,168 

45,707 
41,317 
37,154 
44,524 
41,831 
28,340 
27,314 
17,419 
17,981 
19,190 
23,727 
30.277 
30.074 


88,074 
113,489 
184,335 
101,384 
163,530 

152,488 
124,396 
111,524 
113,191 
117,827 
144,520 
241,094 
354,965 
439,633 
457,029 
466,120 
378,873 
237.848 


37,132 
41,359 
70,062 
49,677 
61,295 

49,614 

55,918 

52,357 

48, 634 

53,453 

60,997 

74,513 

84,306 

103,112 

105,622 

101,933 

86,818 

76.782 


125,206 


June 1 


, 1949 


154,848 


June 1 


, 1950 


254,397 


June 1 


, 1951 


151,061 


June 1 


, 1952 


224,825 


June 1 


, 1953 


202,102 


July 1 


, 1953 


180,314 


August 1 


, 1953 


163,881 


September 1 


, 1953 


161,825 


October 1 


, 1953 


171,280 


November 1 


, 1953 


205,517 


December 1 


, 1953 


315,607 


January 1 


, 1954 


439,271 


February 1 


, 1954 


542,745 


March 1 


, 1954 


562,651 


April 1 


, 1954 


568,053 


May 1 


, 1954 (i) 


465,691 


June 1 


, 1954 (i) 


314,630 









* — Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded 
0)— Latest figures subject to revision. 



1059 



TABLE I)-?.— UNFILLED VACANCIES BY INDUSTRY AND BY SEX AS AT APRIL 30, 

1954 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 



Industry 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Change from 



March 31, 
1954 



April 30, 
1953 



Agriculture, Fishing, Trapping 

Forestry 

Mining, Quarrying and Oil Weils 

Metal Mining 

Fuels 

Non-Metal Mining 

Quarrying, Clay and Sand Pits 

Prospecting 

Manufacturing 

Foods and Beverages 

Tobacco and Tobacco Products 

Rubber Products 

Leather Products 

Textile Products (except clothing) 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Wood Products 

Paper Products 

Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries. . . 

Iron and Steel Products 

Transportation Equipment 

Non-Ferrous Metal Products 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies 

Non-Metallic Mineral Products 

Products of Petroleum and Coal 

Chemical Products 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 

Construction 

General Contractors 

Special Trade Contractors 

Transportation, Storage and Communication 

Transportation 

Storage 

Communication 

Public Utility Operation 

Trade 

Wholesale 

Retail 

Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 

Service 

Community or Public Service 

Government Service 

Recreation Service 

Business Service 

Personal Service 

GRAND TOTAL 



1,551 
641 

647 

251 

291 

11 

17 

77 

3,157 

408 

11 

36 

59 

78 

142 

377 

153 

170 

437 

572 

104 

188 

81 

82 

165 



2,332 

1,923 
409 

959 

748 
25 
186 



2,136 

688 
1,448 

778 



317 
1,423 
134 
369 
790 



377 



2,384 

281 
4 
13 

120 

134 

1,031 

67 

39 

111 

116 
71 
45 

112 
26 
16 

118 
80 

94 

56 
38 



103 

9 
157 



2,562 

535 
2,027 

841 

8,458 

1,096 

594 

131 

439 

6,198 



1,928 
647 

690 

261 

305 

13 

17 

94 

5,541 

689 

15 

49 

179 

212 

1,173 

444 

192 

281 

553 

643 

149 

300 

107 



174 

2,426 

1,979 

447 



851 

34 

343 

102 

4,698 

1,223 
3,475 

1,619 

11,491 

1,413 

2,017 

265 



+ 501 
+ 313 



160 

171 
5 
2 
4 


511 

276 
2 

10 
24 
6 
17 
38 
47 



+ 47 

+ 31 

+ 17 

21 

+ 1,315 

+ 1,156 

+ 159 

+ 36 

+ 31 

+ 2 

+ 3 

+ 3 

+ 771 

+ 116 

+ 655 

- 13 

+ 2,645 

+ 338 

+ 103 

+ 63 

+ 78 

+ 2,063 



299 



320 
157 

46 
4 

25 

4,305 

341 
8 

36 
180 
180 
939 
225 
104 
176 
425 
972 

90 
185 

50 

26 
235 
201 

1,726 

1,334 
392 

893 

918 



202 

- 2,212 

- 562 

- 1,650 

611 

1,943 

- 226 
+ 114 

136 
161 

- 1,534 



15,302 



15,068 



30,370 



+ 5,922 



14,002 



Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



1060 



TABLE D-3. 



UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT, 
BY OCCUPATION AND BY SEX AS AT APRIL 29, 1954 p) 



(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 



Occupational Group 


Unfilled Vacancies 


Live Applications 
for Employment 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 




2,051 

1,251 

1,572 

1,179 

5 

1,628 

5,009 

51 

106 

845 

76 

41 

15 

493 

170 

74 

151 

773 

572 

97 

241 

1,180 

70 

54 

2,247 

145 

246 

89 

1,007 
760 


699 
3,619 
1,534 
7,363 

34 

1,697 

22 

1,316 


2,750 
4,870 
3,106 
8,542 
5 
1,662 

6,706 

73 

1,422 

845 

88 
100 

15 
504 
175 

74 
151 
773 
597 

97 

430 

1,232 

76 

54 

2,636 

273 

251 

102 

1,007 

1,003 


5,844 
12,501 

5,305 
30,411 

2,412 
2,798 

189,581 
1,818 
5,306 

36,291 

1,090 

1,518 

434 

16,821 

2,647 

610 

2,904 

50,633 

33,585 
1,173 
3,173 

21,938 
4,437 
5,203 

130,021 

4,937 

21,015 

9,629 

60,686 

33,754 


1,148 

18,855 

10,188 

15,439 

8 

464 

22,541 

742 

14,391 

189 

404 

1,160 

66 

1,256 

1,309 

78 


6,992 




31,365 


Sales workers 


15,493 




45,850 


Seamen 

Agriculture and fishing 


2,420 
3,262 


Skilled and semiskilled workers 


212,122 


Food and kindred products (inc. tobacco) 


2,560 
19,697 


Lumber and wood products 


36,480 




12 
59 


1,494 




2,678 




500 




11 
5 


18,077 


Electrical 


3,956 


Transportation equipment 


688 




2,904 






3 

96 
6 

1,496 

979 

355 

11 

18,175 

4,767 

315 

655 


50,636 


Transportation (except seamen) 


25 


33,681 


Communications and public utility 


1,179 




189 

52 

6 


4,669 


Other skilled and semiskilled 


22,917 




4,792 


Apprentices 


5,214 


Unskilled workers * 


389 

128 

5 

13 


148,196 




9,704 


Lumber and lumber products 


21,330 




10,284 


Construction 


60,686 


Other unskilled workers 


243 


12,438 


46,192 






GRAND TOTAL 


14,942 


15,335 


30,277 


378,873 


86,818 


465,691 





0) Preliminary — subject to revision. 

Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



1061 



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1066 



TABLE D-5. 



APPLICATIONS RECEIVED AND PLACEMENTS EFFECTED BY 
EMPLOYMENT OFFICES 



(Souhck: Form U.I.C 751) 
1944—1954 



Year 


Applications 


Placements 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Mule ; Female 


Total 


1944 


1.583,010 
1,855,036 
1,464,533 
1,189,646 
1,197,295 
1,295,690 
1,500,763 
1,541,208 
1.781,689 
1.980,918 
720.084 


902,273 
661,948 
494,164 
439,577 
459,332 
494,956 
575.813 
623,467 
664,485 
754,358 
253,546 


2,485,283 
2,516,984 
1,958.697 
1,629,223 
1,656,627 
1,790,646 
2.076,576 
2,164.675 
2,446,174 
2,735.276 
973.630 


1.101,854 
1,095,641 
624,052 
549,376 
497,916 
461,363 
559.882 
655,933 
677,777 
661,167 
134.062 


638,063 

397,910 
235, 360 
220,473 
211,424 
219,816 
230,920 
262.305 
302,730 
332,239 
86.159 


1,739,917 


1945 


1,403,581 


1946 


859 ,412 


1947 


769,848 


1948 


712,310 


1949 


684, 17!' 


1950 


790,802 


1951 


918,238 


1952. 


980,507 


1953 


993, 106 


1954 (4 months) 


220,221 







02110—10 



1067 



E — Unemployment Insurance 



TABLE E- 



PERSONS RECEIVING BENEFIT, NUMBER OF DAYS BENEFIT PAID, 
AM) AMOUNT PAID 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Estimated 

Number 

Receiving 

Benefit 

in Last 
Week of 

the Month* 


Month of April, 1954 


Province 


Number 
Com- 
mencing 
Benefit 


Days Benefit Paid 
(Disability Days in 
Brackets) 


Amount of 

Benefit 

Paid 


• .Hand ' 


9,352 

1,614 

15,282 

18.076 

130,451 

123,400 

17,446 

9,727 

19,939 

29,979 


2,101 

211 

5.375 

4,379 

39,304 

34,284 

4,157 

1,885 

6.769 

10,224 


257,344 (692; 
45,876 (308; 

364,115 (4,878; 

378,997 (2,299; 
2,839,661 (31, 621 ; 
2,468,078 (25,144; 

356,844 (5,465; 

194,068 (1,972; 

403,631 (4,722; 

690,549 (11,301; 


S 

898,464 
136,449 




1,179,382 




1,228,532 




8,896,830 




7,760,240 




1,098,490 




614,305 


Alberta 


1,340,985 




2,228,249 






Total, Canada, April, 1954 


375,266 


108,692 


7,997,163 ' (88,402; 


25,381,926 






Total, Canada, March, 1954 


348,574 


152,611 


10,127,126 (100,443; 


32,160,928 






Total, Canada, April, 1953 


196,315 


83,659 


5,225,796 (—) 


16,389,294 







' Week containing last day of the month. 

TABLE E-2.— ORDINARY CLAIMANTS ON THE LIVE UNEMPLOYMENT REGISTER 

AT APRIL 30, 1954, BY DURATION ON THE REGISTER, SEX AND PROVINCE, AND 

SHOWING NUMBER OF DISABILITY CASES INCLUDED* IN TOTAL 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Days Continuously on the Register 


April 30, 


Province and Sex 


Total 


6 and 


7-12 


13-24 


25-48 


49-72 


73 and 
over 


1953 
Total 




13,064 (50 ) 

12,729 (45; 
335 (5) 

1,433 (13; 
1,205 (8 J 

228 (5) 

14,430 (148; 

12,913 (119; 

1,517 (29; 

18,651 (114; 

16,892 (93 J 

1,759 (21 ; 

120,526(1,215; 

100,937 (769; 

19,589 (446; 

99,275 (995; 
77,840 (786; 
21,435 (209; 

15,450 (221 ; 
11,648 (158; 
3,802 (63; 

7,173 (60; 
5,974 (50 ) 

1,199 do; 

17,269 (125; 
15,037 (102; 
2,232 (23; 

31,103 (320 ; 
25,220 (257; 
5,883 (63; 


1,155 

1,112 

43 

109 
76 
33 

2,134 

1,925 

209 

2,818 

2,586 

232 

14,567 
11,564 
3,003 

15,266 
11,731 
3,535 

2,605 

1,723 

882 

766 
599 
167 

3,239 

2,847 

392 

5,312 

4,491 

821 


707 

690 

17 

61 
49 
12 

877 

789 

88 

1,818 

1,713 

105 

9,725 
8,211 
1,514 

6,913 
5,372 
1,541 

977 
734 
243 

486 
409 

77 

1,429 

1,261 

168 

2,347 

2,008 

339 


953 
899 
54 

132 
105 

27 

1,604 

1,445 

159 

2,203 

2,069 

134 

15,142 

12,684 
2,458 

11,693 
9,027 
2,666 

1,597 

1,217 

380 

678 
533 
145 

2,105 

1,854 
251 

3,863 

3,158 

705 


2,259 

2,198 
61 

219 
183 
36 

3,131 

2,861 

270 

3,812 

3,530 

282 

26,507 

23,597 

2,910 

19,659 
15,649 
4,010 

2,333 

1,774 
559 

1,156 
984 
172 

3,087 

2,734 

353 

4,731 

3,823 

908 


2,572 

2,516 

56 

232 

208 

24 

2,075 

1,791 

284 

2,701 

2,440 

261 

20,241 
17,693 
2,548 

13,894 
10,863 
3,031 

1,975 

1,483 

492 

1,091 
910 
181 

2,129 

1,758 

371 

3,909 

3,009 

900 


5,418 

5,314 

104 

680 

584 

96 

4,609 

4,102 

507 

5,299 

4,554 

745 

34,344 

27,188 
7,156 

31,850 

25,198 

6,652 

5,963 
4,717 
1,246 

2,996 

2,539 

457 

5,280 

4,583 

697 

10,941 
8,731 
2,210 


8,777 


Male 


8,562 
215 


Prince Edward Island 

Male 


1,066 

885 




181 




10,680 


Male 


9,428 




1,252 




13,789 


Male 


12,440 




1,349 




87,757 


Male 


75,107 




12,650 




48,198 


Male 


36,824 




11,374 


Manitoba! 

Male 


9,127 
6,342 


Female 


2,785 
3,487 




2,790 




697 


Alberta t 


8,594 


Mal« 


7,353 


Female 

British Columbia! 

Male 


1,241 

23,767 
19,293 
4,474 






Canada! 


338,374(3,261; 
280,395(2,387; 
57,979 (874; 


47,971 

38,654 

9,317 


25,340 

21,236 

4,104 


39,970 

32,991 

6,979 


66,894 

57,333 

9,561 


50,819 

42,671 

8,148 


107,380 
87,510 
19,870 


215,242 


Male 


179,024 


1 BMAM 


36,218 







data are shown in brackets and include short-time and temporary lay-off claimants, 
t Includes a residual of 1,691 supplementary benefit claims pending adjudication for provinces marked!. 



1068 



TABLE E-S.— INITIAL AND RENEWAL CLAIMS FOB BENEFIT BY PROVINCES, 

APRIL, 1954 

SointCB: Report 01) Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.H.S. 





Claims filed ;it, Local < Mliee- 


Disposal of Claims (including claims 
pending from previous months) 


Province 


Total 


Initial 


Renewal 


Total 

Disposed 
of 


En1 itled 

to 
Benefit 


Not 
Entitled 

to Benefit 


Pending 




5,719 

529 

6,819 

8,630 

54,266 

£0,080 

5,941 

2,909 

8,779 

14,739 


4,958 

441 

4.574 

6,251 

38,830 

32,042 

4,160 

2,259 

6,291 

9,088 


761 

88 

2,245 

2.379 

15,436 

18.038 

1,781 

650 

2,488 

5,651 


6,204 
647 
7,803 
9, 156 
62,665 
55.360 
6,590 
3,303 
10.011 
15,549 


2,522 

70 

5,173 

5,858 

40,653 

41,463 

4,257 

1,722 

6,904 

10,811 


3,682 
::77 
2,630 
3,598 
22,012 
13,897 
2,333 
1,581 
3,107 
4,738 


2,565 




86 




1,368 




1,948 




15,337 




12,711 




1,078 




689 




2,671 




3,467 






Total Canada, April, 1954 


158,411* 

248,421 

117,171 


108,894 
181,147 
81,933 


49,517 
67,274 
35,238 


177.5881 

250,206 
138,879 


119,633 
162,242 
90,427 


57,955 
87,964 

48,452 


41,923 


Total Canada, March, 1954 


61,108 


Total Canada, April, 1953 


27,690 



* In addition, revised claims received numbered 22,044. 

t In addition, 22,478 revised claims were disposed of. Of these, 1,840 were special requests not granted, and 1,006 
were appeals by claimants There were 3,077 revised claims pending at the end of the month. 



TABLE E-4.— CLAIMANTS NOT ENTITLED TO REGULAR OR SUPPLEMENTARY* 
BENEFIT, WITH CHIEF REASONS FOR NON-ENTITLEMENT 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Chief Reasons for Non-Entitlement 



Month of 
April, 1954 



Month of 
March, 1954 



Month of 
April, 1953 



Benefit year not established 

Regular 

Supplementary Benefit 

Claimants Disqualified! 

Not unemployed 

Not capable of and not available for work 

Loss of work due to a labour dispute 

Refused offer of work and neglected opportunity to work 

Discharged for misconduct 

Voluntarily left employment without just cause 

Failure to fulfill additional conditions imposed upon certain married women 

Other reasons! 

Total 



48,422 
6,726 

3,216 

2,239 
175 
869 
791 

4,945 
945 

3,937 



75,706 
13,535 

3,8*72 
2,870 
408 
1,051 
1,031 
6,501 
1,359 
4,730 



36,305 
5,550 

5,670 

1,833 

47 

1,252 

785 
5,673 

712 
3,466 



72,265 



111,063 



61,293 



* Data apply to period ending April 15. 

t Data for April 1954 include 5,831 on revised claims and 1,753 on supplementary benefit claims. 
X These include: Claims not made in prescribed manner; failure to carry out written directions; claimants being 
inmates of prisons, etc. 



1069 



TABLE E-5.- 



ESTIMATfiS OF THE INSURED POPULATION UNDER THE UNEMPLOY- 
MENT INSURANCE ACT 



SOUBCS: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



At Beginning of Month: 



Total 



Employed 



Claimants' 



1864 March..... 

February . . 
January . . . 

1953— December 
November 
October. . . 
September 
August. . . . 

July 

June 

May 

April 

March 



3,342,000 
3,339,000 
3,328,000 

3,276,000 
3,230,000 
3,220,000 
3,197,000 
3,171,000 
3,161,000 
3,116,000 
3,119,000 
3,150,680 
3,164,000 



2,829,400 
2,844,200 
2,937,000 

3,037,500 
3,076,400 
3,100,600 
3,085,700 
3,060,100 
3,041,200 
2,972,900 
2,903,800 
2,888,100 
2,800,800 



512,600t 
494,800t 
391,000t 

238,500 
153,600 
119,400 
111,300 
110,900 
119,800 
143,100 
215,200 
262,580 
363,200 



* Ordinar}- claimants on the live unemployment register on last working day of preceding month, 
t Includes supplementary benefit claimants. 



1070 



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92110—11 



1071 



TABLE E-7.— CLAIMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY BENEFIT, APRIL, 1954 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Initial Claims Only 


Persons 
Com- 
mencing 
Benefit 


Davs Benefit 
Paid (Disability 
Days in Brackets) 


Amount 

of Benefit 

Paid 


Province 


Claims 

Con- 
sidered 


Entitled 
to Benefit 


Not 
Entitled 
to Benefit 




3,378 
319 
1,882 
2,958 
16,740 
9,474 
1,622 
1,205 
2,126 
2,873 


2,754 

288 

1,631 

2,545 

13,514 

7,277 
1,308 
984 
1,641 
2,234 


624 
31 

251 
413 
3,226 
2,197 
314 
221 
485 
639 


2,581 
455 
2,198 
3,304 
15,382 
8,714 
1,946 
1,289 
1,870 
2,921 


98,072 (184) 
23,076 (75) 
118,121 (595) 
157,248 (352) 
732,637 (4,195) 
466,118 (1,869) 
105,192 (1,113) 
59,970 (288) 
83,543 (717) 
178,192 (1,483) 


$ 
228, 172 




47,593 




258,862 




343,459 




1,593,306 




1,019,264 




230,795 




137,883 




192,102 




403,615 






Total, April, 1954 


42,577* 


34,176 


8,401 


40,660f 


2,022,169(10,871) 


4,455,051 






Total, April, 1953 


30,818* 


23,817 


7,001 


29, 621 f 


1,314,079 ( ) 


2,801,555 







* There were, in addition, 1,134 renewal claims in April, 1954, and 717 in April, 1953. 
t Includes 1,959 renewal claims in April, 1954, and 1,317 in April, 1953. 



1072 



F — Prices 

TABLE F-l.— TOTAL AND MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 
FROM JANUARY 1949 TO MAY 1954 

(1949 = 100) 

Calculated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



Total 



Food 



Shelter 



Clothing 



Household 
Operation 



Other 
Commo- 
dities and 
Services 



1949 — January. . . 
February . . 
March. .. 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. . . . 
September. 
October. . . 
November 
December. 

Year 

1950 — January. . . 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. . . . 
September. 
October . . . 
November 
December. 

Year 

1951 — January. . . 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. . . . 
September 
October. . . 
November 
December. 

Year 

1952 — January. . . 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October. . . 
November 
December. 

1953 — January. . . 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October. . . 
November 
December. 

1954 — January. . . 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 



115 
115 
115 
115 
LIS 
116 



99-2 
99-3 
99-2 
99-6 
99-7 
99-7 
100-3 
100-2 
100-5 
100-5 
100-5 
101-0 

100-0 

101-1 
101-1 
104-7 
104-9 
105-1 
105-9 
107-4 
107-8 
108-7 
109-0 
109-5 
109-6 

106-2 

110-0 
110-4 
111-5 
111-8 
112-4 
115-2 
115-5 
114-8 
117-2 
117-2 
118-2 
118-2 

114-4 

118-3 
118-3 
119-1 
119-4 
119-6 
120-4 
120-6 
120-6 
121-2 
121-5 
121-4 
122-2 

122-3 
122-5 
122-5 
122-7 
122-9 
123-6 
123-9 
124-1 
124-2 
124-5 
125-0 
125-2 

125-4 
125-4 
125-6 
125-6 
125-8 
126-4 



100 

99 
99 
98 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
100 

101 

101 

99 

102 
105 
106 
108 
109 
109 
109 

110 

111 

114 
114 
115 

109 

111 
113 
112 
112 
112 
111 
111 
111 
110 

109 

10!) 
109 

100 
100 
10!) 
100 
110 
110 

no 
no 

101 

no 
no 
no 

no 

110 
10!) 
10!) 
10!) 
109 



98 



99 

99 

9!) 
100 
101 
101 

100 

102 
102 
102 
102 
102 
102 
102 
102 
103 
105 
105 
105 

103 

107 
108 
108 
108 

110 

111 

112 
113 
113 
114 
114 
115 

111 

115 
115 
116 
116 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
116 
110 
lit] 

116 
116 

115 
115 
115 

115 
115 
115 
115 
110 
110 
110 

110 
116 
116 
117 
117 
117 



92110— Hi 



1073 



TABLE ¥-1.— CONSUMES PRICE INDEXES FOR REGIONAL CITIES OF CANADA AT 

THE BEGINNING OF MAY, 1954 

(1949 = 100) 

SOTTBCK: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 





Total 


Food 


Shelter 


Clothing 


Household 
Operation 


Other 
Com- 
modities 

and 
Service 





May 1st, 
1953 


April 1st, 
1954 


May 1st, 
1954 


St John's. Nfld. 0) 


101-1 
112-2 
114-4 
114-9 
113-7 
115-7 
113-6 
112-1 
113-2 
115-7 


102-0 
113-8 
115-9 
116-3 
115-5 
117-7 
114-9 
113-6 
114-3 
116-9 


102-2 
113-6 
115-8 
116-3 
115-5 
117-7 
114-8 
113-5 
114-1 
116-9 


99-3 
104-7 
108-4 
112-7 
109-3 
109-1 
109-7 
108-0 
109-3 
109-8 


107-3 
122-6 
118-2 
132-1 
126-2 
139-8 
122-9 
113-7 
119-4 
124-6 


102-1 
116-6 
118-6 
110-7 
113-5 
111-9 
115-2 
117-0 
114-2 
113-4 


104-0 
119-2 
116-8 
115-8 
116-7 
116-9 
113-5 
118-8 
115-5 
126-4 


102-6 


Halifax 


116-2 




123-0 




116-8 


Ottawa 


118-6 




118-6 




117-4 




113-0 




118-2 




118-9 







N.B. — Indexes above measure percentage changes in prices over time in each city, and should not be used to compare 
actual levels of prices as between cities. 

(!) St, John's Index on the base— June 1951 = 100. 



1074 






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1075 



TABLE F-4. 



RETAIL PRICES OF STAPLE 

Source: Dominion 





Beef 


Pork 


a) c a 

g.S fc 

aj"3 a 
H 




Locality 


1 

in 

W2 


| 

TJ— ' 

C U 

o a 

n 


S 

> 

o 

S£ 

£a^ 

.5-2 a 


1 

0) 

c 
o 

0> o. 


6. 

a a 


C 
O - 

° a 
a o 

£■$£ 

£ u a 

fa 


IB 

t. o 
2*« 

3 O 

-£*~ 

£Sa 

fa 


o 
a 

£ 

a 

J* 


Newfoundland— 


cts. 

99-4 

64-8 

77-8 
70-6 

68-9 
75-8 

88-8 
68-1 
86-2 
86-9 
81-4 
81-1 
91-8 

65-9 
64-3 
69-6 
73-8 
71-0 
71-2 
66-2 
66-7 
71-5 
65-2 
61-4 
74-1 
68-2 

74-1 

70-7 
621 

68-8 
67-6 

82-0 
77-0 
83-7 
87-1 


cts. 

59-6 

66-8 
62-8 

63-9 
68-0 

84-6 
69-6 
81-6 
80-4 
76-3 
75-0 
77-5 

64-3 
64-8 
67-9 
68-3 
68-2 
66-9 
64-4 
65-5 
66-8 
65-2 
62-0 
70-4 
64-2 

67-3 

65-9 
59-9 

63-5 
63-8 

72-5 
69-0 
74-1 

78-1 


cts. 
66-3 

50-7 

a 

44-2 
a 
48-1 

47-3 
a 
49-2 

57-2 

46-4 
a 

46-5 
a 

45-4 

52-6 
a 
54-7 

42-1 

50-2 
a 

42-0 
a 

47-5 

48-1 
44-3 
47-7 
45-0 
42-4 

45-1 
a 

45-2 
a 

48-0 
a 

51-1 
a 

45-1 

50-7 

a 
49-0 
a 

45-1 

54-2 
a 
42-2 

a 
50-8 

55-0 

55-8 
57-6 


cts. 
46-G 

38-5 

44-9 
49-4 

42-2 
50-2 

45-8 
450 
50-4 
42-4 
52-9 
43-7 
42-3 

47-0 
46-4 
50-7 
49-1 
45-6 
48-0 
43-2 
45-3 
46-8 
51-0 
48-6 
47-6 
49-6 

48-1 

50-1 
52-7 

52-1 

48-5 

48-8 
56-0 
53-9 
57-3 


cts. 
63-7 

37-0 

42-6 
46-6 

38-7 
43-9 

43-3 
38-4 
39-0 
44-9 
35-6 
42-3 
38-8 

36-9 
36-1 
42-4 
39-1 
40-5 
41-0 
38-2 
35-4 
34-5 
46-2 
39-0 
38-6 
38-3 

43-0 

40-8 
44-1 

39-2 
37-8 

42-7 

43-8 
51-2 


cts. 
81-0 

75-0 

75-3 
76-4 

77-5 
77-0 

72-3 
73-5 
78-1 
66-6 
73-0 
68-6 
69-4 

75-4 
70-9 
75-3 
79-1 

77-5 
77-3 
76-2 
77-6 
76-3 
75-3 
70-7 
77-2 
78-1 

76-1 

72-2 
70-4 

72-3 
68-8 

78-8 
76-0 
84-7 
82-3 


cts. 

77-7 

64-5 

56-1 
60-7 

55-7 
57-5 

65-8 
551 
58-5 
54-1 
57-4 
54-0 
56-9 

54-8 
56-2 

51-0 
d 
61-0 

55-0 

51-5 

48-5 

56-1 

59-6 
d 
60-4 

49-8 
d 
53-9 

d 
58-0 

d 

56-4 
d 

57-2 

d 
60-8 

52-4 

65-8 

64-0 

d 
66-9 

60-7 


cts. 
48-6 

45-0 

56-1 
50-5 

51-7 

54-8 

48-4 
47-5 
50-3 
45-3 
49-7 
49-3 
50-3 

51-6 
50-6 
48-8 
52-1 
54-8 
52-9 
51-4 
50-9 
48-8 
51-5 
48-3 
51-5 
52-1 

49-3 

52-3 
50-2 

49-6 
50-5 

52-5 
49-8 
53-1 
51-1 


cts. 
59-5 


P.E.I.— 


51-0 


Nova Scotia— 

3— Halifax 


58-0 




50-1 


New Brunswick — 


53-0 




50-4 


Quebec— 


48-2 


8— Hull 


56-1 




59-6 




54-3 




44-8 


12— Sorel 


57-5 


13 — Three Rivers 


59-0 


Ontario— 

14— Brantford 


53-2 




55-6 


16— Fort William 


59-7 


17 — Hamilton 


51-5 


18 — Kirkland Lake 


59-3 




54-6 


20— North Bay 


50-0 




48-4 


22 — Ottawa 


56-7 


23— Sault Ste. Marie . . 


56-0 


24— Sudbury 


50-3 


25 — Toronto 


48-3 


26 — Windsor 


56-4 


Manitoba- 


51-6 


Saskatchewan— 

28— Regina 

29— Saskatoon 

Alberta— 

30— Calgary 

31— Edmonton 

British Columbia— 

32— Prince Rupert 


53-5 
51-4 

52-8 
45-0 

62-2 


33-Trail 


63-0 
56-8 


35— Victoria 


53-7 



1076 



FOODS AND COAL BY CITIES, MAY, 1954 

Bureau of Statistics 



Locality 



1* 



ft 



■9 o 
►J 

JSt3 

pq 



c o 
O 



03 



as. 



: -a 

51 



M-3 






a- 

o 11 



3 & 



Newfoundland 



cts. 



i — ot. joiin s 

P.E.I.- 




Nova Scotia— 

3— Halifax 


69-2 




69-6 


New Brunswick- 


75-0 
63-6 




Quebec— 

7 — Chicoutimi 


8— Hull 


79-0 
81-3 

82-2 

89-3 
73-3 


9 — Montreal 


10 — Quebec 


1 1 — Sherbrooke 


12— Sorel 


13— Three Rivers 


Ontario— 

14— Brantford 


15 — Cornwall 




16— Fort William 


84-3 


17— Hamilton 


18— Kirkland Lake 


79-7 
84-0 


19 — London 


20— North Bay 


21— Oshawa 




22— Ottawa 


73-1 


23— Sault Ste. Marie 


24— Sudbury 


72-7 
78-3 
77-1 

80-7 

74-8 


25— Toronto 


26— Windsor 


Manitoba— 

27 — Winnipeg 


Saskatchewan— 

28— Regina 


29— Saskatoon 


Alberta— 

30— Calgary 


82-9 
77-6 

90-0 
87-0 

81-9 
88-8 


31— Edmonton 


British Columbia— 

32— Prince Rupert 


33— Trail 


34 — Vancouver 


35— Victoria 



8-9 



9-0 



8-5 

7-8 
8-0 

7-8 
7-8 
7-7 
8-0 

8-1 
7-8 
8-0 
8-2 
8-2 
8-0 
8-3 
7-9 
8-2 
8-4 
8-3 
7-9 
8-3 

7-5 

8-0 

7-8 

7-6 

7-8 

8-5 
8-2 
7-9 
8-0 



cts. 
12-7 

14-4 

12-8 
14-0 



cts. 

20-4 

19-5 

18-5 
19-4 



15-6 


18-4 


13-3 


18-9 


16-0 


19-3 


12-7 


17-5 


12-7 


17-4 


12-5 


17-9 


13-1 


17-9 


12-7 


18-0 


12-7 


17-4 


12-7 


17-6 


12-7 


18-2 


14-0 


19-0 


12-7 


17-7 


12-0 


18-9 


12-7 


17-4 


13-0 


19-1 


12-7 


17-4 


12-7 


17-5 


13-3 


19-3 


13-3 


18-3 


12-7 


17-4 


12-7 


17-8 


15-0 


17-7 


14-4 


18-5 


13-6 


17-7 


14-4 


18-1 


14-4 


17-9 


14-0 


18-6 


17-0 


18-5 


16-0 


17-8 


16-0 


17-9 



cts. 
10-8 

10-1 

91 
10-1 

9-4 
9-3 



9-1 



9-5 

9-3 

9-4 
10-0 

9-7 
10-2 

9-7 
10-5 

9-3 

9-4 
10-5 
10-4 

9-0 



11-0 

11-5 
13-0 

11-3 

11-2 

10-6 
11-2 
9-3 



cts. 
58-0 

52-0 

49-5 
50-8 

51-0 
49-0 

55-0 

46-2 
50-0 
52-1 

49-7 
47-2 



45-2 

46-8 

53-0 

46-2 

51-8 

46-2 

47-8 

46-0 

48-4 

49-7 

48-6 

44-3 

48-5 

t 
70-5 

fc 

67-5 
t 

64-5 

b 

64-5 
t 

64-5 

t 

63-0 
t 

69-2 
t 

58-0 
t 

59-6 



cts. 
f 
73-9 



50-4 



53-8 
S 

57-8 

T 

3 52-0 
'57-3 



62-2 
g 
53-0 

54-5 

56-3 
g 

55-9 
g 

51-0 

52-1 

g 

51-2 
g 

53-4 
g 

52-2 
g 

53-0 

54-2 
g 

48-8 
g 

55-7 
g 

49-1 

55-2 
55-7 

53-8 

g 
50-6 

51-4 
48-8 
47-3 

y 

= 45-8 

i 

48-5 

y 

*46-l 

56-8 
I 
59-0 

'53 -1 

r 

'55-1 



cts. 
h 
32-0 



17-0 

20-5 
22-0 

20-0 
21-0 

20-0 
22-0 
20-0 
20-0 
20-0 
19-0 
19-0 

21-0 
20-0 
23-0 
22-0 
25-0 
21-0 
22-0 
21-0 
21-6 
23-0 
23-0 
22-0 
22-0 

21-0 

19-0 
20-5 

21-0 
20-0 

31-0 
23-0 
21-4 
24-0 



77-3 

67-8 

67-8 
70-1 

67-5 
68-3 

61-4 
62-1 
61-3 
63-7 
61-0 
60-5 
60-5 

61-9 
63-0 
63-2 
63-4 
65-0 
64-8 
66-2 
62-6 
63-1 
66-3 
64-8 
63-6 
64-7 

61-1 

61-3 
62-9 

63-5 
65-5 



65-8 
66-3 
66-9 



1077 



TABLE F-L— RETAIL PRICES OF STAPLE 

Source: Dominion 



Locality 



<ST3 ~ 

8 8- 

<u o i- 

o 



*2 



5 a 






w bi 



c a 



-Li 



CO 



T3.S 

8~£~ 

lis. 
o 



- o 

S«5 



Canned Vegetables 



§■§! 



.5 

.8 N 

o o 

■Co 
ON 



Newfoundland- 

1— St. John's. 



P.E.I.- 

2 — Charlottetown . 



Nova Scotia— 

3— Halifax. 



4 — Sydney 



New Brunswick— 

5 — Moncton 



6 — Saint John. 



Quebec— 

7— Chicoutimi. 



8— HuU 

9— Montreal 

10 — Quebec 

11 — Sherbrooke. . , 

12— Sorel 

13— Three Rivers. 

Ontario— 

14— Brantford 



15— Cornwall 

16— Fort William 

17— Hamilton 

18— Kirkland Lake.. 

19— London 

20— North Bay 

21— Oshawa 

22— Ottawa 

23— Sault Ste. Marie. 

24— Sudbury 

25— Toronto 

26— Windsor 



Manitoba— 

27 — Winnipeg. 



Saskatchewan 
28— Regina.... 



29 — Saskatoon . 

Alberta- 

30— Calgary... 



31 — Edmonton. 



British Columbia— 

32— Prince Rupert. 



33— Trail 

34 — Vancouver. 
35 — Victoria... 



cts. 
35- 

36- 

35- 
35- 

35- 
35- 

35- 
32- 
32- 
34- 
33- 
33- 
33- 

32- 
33- 
35- 
33- 
32- 
32- 
34- 
32- 
33- 
34- 
33- 
32- 
32- 

34- 

35- 
34- 

33- 
34- 

36- 
36- 
34- 
34- 



cts. 
32-5 



40-2 
38-6 

37-8 
38-1 



39-3 
37-7 
39-1 
39-3 
37-8 
38-8 
39-8 
40-3 
39-3 
39-6 
37-2 
39-4 
39-8 

40-8 

41-0 
39-2 

39-7 
41-9 

40-4 
39-9 
39-7 
39-9 



29-4 

30-2 
29-4 

300 

30-6 

26-3 
27-5 
28-4 
28-8 
25-5 
27-9 
25-2 

28-5 
28-8 
28-9 
28-3 
30-2 
29-7 
30-5 
29-1 
28-8 
30-3 
27-6 
28-8 
29-1 

26-9 

26-2 
25-2 

24-8 
25-1 

27-8 
27-0 
28-9 
29-4 



cts. 
34-7 

32-0 

31-4 
30-3 

31-0 
30-9 

34-2 
29-2 
30-3 
30-9 
29-6 
29-4 
29-5 

29-3 
29-7 
30-4 
30-9 
31-2 
29-4 
30-5 
28-8 
30-0 
31-2 
29-2 
29-8 
30-1 

29-7 

32-0 
30-7 

31-8 
32-9 

32-9 
33-3 
30-1 
30-3 



cts. 

18-8 

19-7 

17-9 
20-0 

16-7 
16-7 

18-3 
16-6 
16-8 
17-2 
16-8 
16-8 
17-4 

17-9 
17-0 
19-1 
17-2 
18-8 
18-0 
18-5 
16-6 
17-0 
17-6 
17-0 
16-1 
17-6 

16-6 

18-5 
18-6 

18-0 
18-2 

22-2 
20-5 
17-4 
16-8 



cts. 
s 
49-0 



cts. 

27-8 

5 

23-2 
23 

21 
20 

20 
17 
17 
20 
17 
18 
18 

21 
IS 
22 
21 
21 
21 
20 
21 
IK 
20 
20 
20 
19 



cts. 

25-6 

23-3 

24-0 
23-3 

23-6 
24-4 

22-7 
21-0 
21-2 
20-9 
20-5 
19-2 
20-5 

21-2 
19-8 
23-0 
21-8 
21-8 
21-2 
22-5 
20-5 
22-4 
22-5 



21-0 
m 
16-9 



17-5 

23-8 
22-8 

21-1 

22-8 

m 

18-7 
m 

21-0 
m 

14-9 
m 

17-7 



Above food prices are simple averages of prices reported. They are not perfectly comparable in all cases with price 
aver ages for earlier years. Changes in grading, trade practices, etc., occur from time to time. (a) Including cuts 

with bone-in. (d) Including butts. (e) Local. (f) Imported (g) Mixed carton and loose # 

1078 



FOODS AND COAL BY CITIES, MAY, 1954 

Bureau of Statistics 
















1 . 

h 

o 


o 
>> 
8:2 


si <" 

<*> - 

u 

Ph 


A 

Is 

c « 
O 


a? . 
.2 
'3 

a 

3 . 
H 

a a 

R 

Ph 


si 

ii 

<n a 
11 

K 


i 

a 3 

o. 
S era 


if 

o 


Coal 


Locality 


fl 

< 


i 
J j 

pq 


Newfoundland— 

1— St. John's 


cts. 
45-6 

40-5 

42-0 
46-5 

42-9 
44-4 

38-4 
39-6 
40-5 
43-2 
41-1 
41-4 
42-0 

37-8 
42-0 
41-1 
39-6 
41-1 
39-6 
40-8 
39-3 
39-0 
42-0 
40-2 
36-3 
38-1 

41-7 

44-1 

46-8 

48-6 
49-2 

45-3 
38-7 
36-0 
36-0 


cts. 
310 

23-0 

21-6 
25-2 

22-2 
21-9 

18-5 
18-6 
16-0 
18-1 
17-1 
16-8 
17-9 

18-5 
15-9 
19-8 
19-1 
19-2 
18-8 
20-2 
18-6 
18-7 
19-9 
18-6 
17-5 
18-8 

19-8 

22-3 
23-3 

23-5 
22-9 

24-9 
24-2 
19-9 
20-2 


cts. 
34-7 

20-7 

25-3 
24-8 

19-5 
18-0 

27-1 
24-8 
21-4 
19-9 
21-1 
25-0 
20-5 

27-8 
24-5 
36-8 
28-8 
32-6 
27-9 
29-4 
27-3 
25-6 
33-3 
28-8 
28-9 
27-8 

25-5 

36-9 
42-9 

38-5 
44-1 

38-1 
38-3 
40-8 
45-5 


cts. 
9-3 

8-5 

8-9 
6-8 

7-2 
9-0 

10-4 
9-4 
9-0 
9-2 
9-1 
9-1 
9-3 

7-8 
9-3 
6-9 
7-3 

8-8 
6-8 
7-4 
7-4 
8-3 
9-5 
9-3 
6-7 
7-7 

5-4 

8-0 
10-3 

8-0 
9-2 

8-6 
7-7 
7-5 
7-6 


cts. 
34-8 

29-0 

29-0 
30-1 

29-4 
30-4 

31-0 

28-2 
29-4 
29-5 
29-4 

28-8 
28-3 

30-6 
29-4 
27-5 
29-4 
31-8 
29-2 

27-0 
29-2 
30-3 

28-4 
28-5 
31-7 

29-1 

30-2 
31-6 

29-4 
31-4 

29-1 
29-8 
26-0 
28-8 


cts. 
k 
26-1 

n 
27-1 

23-6 
n 
26-2 

n 

25-5 
n 

27-2 

n 

27-8 
n 

24-8 
n 

24-9 
n 

25-9 
n 

24-8 
n 

23-9 
n 

25-1 

23-3 
n 

24-7 
n 

25-8 
n 

23-0 

25-3 

22-5 
n 

23-0 
n 

22-7 
n 

25-2 
n 

24-6 
h 

24-4 
n 

24-4 
n 

24-6 

n 
27-1 

26-4 
26-2 

n 

24-6 
n 

25-6 

n 

26-0 
n 

26-4 
n 

23-5 
n 

24-0 


cts. 
w 
62-8 

50-9 

50-6 
50-5 

49-5 
52-9 

58-3 
54-3 
50-7 
53-6 
54-3 
54-4 
55-1 

53-1 
54-2 
51-9 
51-6 
56-0 
52-0 
54-0 
56-0 
52-0 
55-8 
51-2 
50-8 
52-4 

50-9 

52-2 
49-2 

51-0 
50-6 

52-2 
49-7 
50-2 

47-4 


cts. 
1-402 

V 

1-413 
1-474 

V 

1-423 
1-355 

V 

1-441 

V 

1-354 
1-355 
1-417 
1-425 
1-398 
1-394 

V 

1-364 

m 

1-341 

1-375 

1-362 

1-382 

1-376 
1 

1-374 
i * 

1-368 

1-347 
If 

1-378 

1-332 
1-264 

1-321 

W 
1-376 

m 
1-379 

1-392 
1-389 

1-312 
1-368 

1-351 
1-398 
1-339 
1-355 


28.00 
28.50 
25.48 
27.50 
26.00 
26.25 
26.40 

25.40 
29.30 
26.62 
24.56 
31.75 
25.00 
27.25 
25.60 
28.50 
27.25 
29.70 
23.83 
26.00 


s 

22.75 


P.E.I.- 


17.50 


No?a Scotia— 

3— Halifax 


19.50 




13.60 


New Brunswick- 


18.77 




19.69 


Quebec^ 




8— Hull 








10 — Quebec 








12— Sorel 




13— Three Rivers 




Ontario— 

14— Brantford 








16— Fort William 




17— Hamilton 




18— Kirkland Lake 








20— North Bay 




21 — Oshawa 




22— Ottawa 




23— Sault Ste. Marie 

24— Sudbury 




25— Toronto 




26— Windsor 




Manitoba— 

27 — Winnipeg 


21.15 


Saskatchewan— 

28— Regina 


18 50 


29 — Saskatoon 


17 98 


Alberta— 

30— Calgary 








-8 58 


British Columbia— 

32— Prince Rupert 


22 90 


33— Trail 


19 75 




21 02 


35— Victoria 


21.44 



(h) Evaporated milk, 17-0^ per 
Australian. (s) 28 oz. tin. 



oz. tin. (k) Californian. (m) 

(t) Pure. (v) Including tins. 



15 oz. 

(w) 



tin. (n) Mixed- 

Orange Pekoe. 



-Californian and 



1079 



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1081 



G — Strikes and Lockouts 
TABLE G-l.— STRIKES AM) LOCKOUTS IN CANADA, JANUARY-MAY, 1953-1954T 





Number of Strikes 
and Lockouts 


Number of Workers 
Involved 


Time Loss 


Date 


Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 


In 
Existence 


Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 


In 
Existence 


In 
Man- 
Working 
Days 


Per Cent 

of 

Estimated 

Working 

Time 


1954* 
January 


24J 

7 
12 
24 

7 


24 
17 
18 
33 
20 


10.619J 

749 
1,107 
1,657 
2,032 


10,619 
4,631 
1,722 
2,268 
3,341 


156,969 
52,270 
13,945 
24,661 
31,040 


0-19 


February 


0-06 


March 


0-02 


Aoril 


0-03 


May 


0-04 






Cumulative totals. . . . 


74 


16,164 


278,885 


0-07 






1953 

January 


wi- 
ll 

12 
15 
17 


14 
19 
20 

22 
30 


2,136$ 

2,448 
4,479 
2,854 
2,740 


2,136 
3,757 
5,405 
3,626 
4,752 


31,050 
23,777 
32,998 
29,180 
36,097 


0-04 


February 


03 


March 


0-04 


April 


003 


May 


0-04 






Cumulative totals 


69 


14,057 


153,102 


004 







* Preliminary figures. 

X Strikes unterminated at the end of the previous year are included in these totals. 

t The record of the Department includes lockouts as well as strikes but a lockout, or an industrial 
condition which is undoubtedly a lockout, is not often encountered. In the statistical table, therefore, 
strikes and lockouts are recorded together. A strike or lockout included as such in the records of the 
Department is a cessation of work involving six or more employees and lasting at least one working 
day. Strikes of less than one day's duration and strikes involving less than six employees are not 
included in the published record unless ten days or more time loss is caused but a separate record of 
such strikes is maintained in the Department and these figures are given in the annual review. The 
records include all strikes and lockouts which come to the knowledge of the Department and the 
methods taken to obtain information preclude the probability of omissions of strikes of importance 
Information as to a strike involving a small number of employees or for a short period of time is fre- 
quently not received until some time after its commencement. 



1082 



TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AM) LOCKOUTS IX CANADA, MAY 1954 (>) 



Industry, Occupat ion 
and Locality 



Number Involved 



Establish' 
menta 



Workers 



Time Loss 
in Man- 
Working 
Days 



Particulars (*) 



Strikes and Lockouts in Progress Prior to May 1954 



Mining — 

Sodium sulphate miners and 
mill workers, 
Ormiston, Sask. 



Manufacturing — 

Textiles, Clothing, etc., — 
Women's clothing factory 
workers, 

Montreal, Que. 



Miscellaneous Wood Products- 
Sawmill workers, 
Salmon Arm, B.C. 



Non-Metallic Minerals, 
Chemicals, etc. — 
Safety glass factory 
workers, 

Windsor, Ont. 



Construction — 

Buildings and Structures — 
Welders and helpers, 
Regina, Sask. 



Pipefitters, welders, etc. 
Regina, Sask. 



Trade — 

Stationery store clerks, 
Vancouver, B.C. 



Service — 
Business and Personal — 
Hotel employees, 
Medicine Hat, Alta. 



Beverage room employees, 
Lethbridge, Alta. 



12 



15 



1,000 



200 



170 



220 



114 



71 



40 



01 



3,300 



1,000 



710 



900 



2,000 



51 



1,270 



Commenced April 1; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages and other changes, following 
reference to conciliation hoard; 
unterminated. 



Commenced February 23; protesting 
dismissal of three workers; un- 
terminated. 



Commenced April 29; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages and pay for two statutory 
holidays, following reference to 
conciliation board, and for rein- 
statement of a dismissed foreman; 
terminated May 15; negotiations; 
compromise. 



Commenced March 31; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages and reduced hours from 42| 
to 40 per week with same take- 
home pay, following reference to 
conciliation board; terminated May 
21; conciliation; compromise. 



Commenced April 9; for a new 
agreement providing for subsis- 
tence pay of 50 cents per hour and 
increased wages for helpers; termi- 
nated May 13; conciliation; com- 
promise. 

Commenced April 12; sympathy 
with strike of welders and helpers, 
April 9-54; terminated May 14; 
conciliation; compromise. 



Commenced April 13; for new agree- 
ments providing for increased 
wages, closed shop and reduction 
in apprentice period from four to 
two years, following reference to 
conciliation board; unterminated. 



Commenced February 23; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages and reduced hours from 44 
to 40 per week with same take- 
home pay, following reference to 
arbitration board; unterminated. 



Commenced April 22; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages, reduced hours from 44 to 
40 per week with same take-home 
pay, extension of vacation plan 
and for welfare plan, following 
reference to arbitration board; 
unterminated. 



1083 



TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN CANAD > MAY 1954 ( ) 



Industry, Occupation 
and Locality 



Number Involved 



Establish- 
ments 



Workers 



Time Loss 
in Man- 
Working 
Days 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts in Progress Prior to May 1954— Con. 



Beverage room employees, 
Calgary, Alta. 



Beverage room employees, 
Windsor, Ont. 



Beverage room employees, 
Edmonton, Alta. 



Garage workers, 
St. John's, Nfld. 



20 



10 



11 



183 



97 



350 



4,500 



200 



2,400 



7,500 



Commenced April 22; for implemen- 
tation of award of arbitration 
board for reduced hours from 44 to 
40 per week with same take-home 
pay, Rand formula for union dues 
and extension of vacation plan in 
new agreement under negotiations; 
unterminated 



Commenced April 23; for a union 
agreement providing for increased 
wages and reduced hours from 54 
to 48 per week, following reference 
to conciliation board; untermi- 
nated. 

Commenced April 27; for new agree- 
ments providing for reduced hours 
from 44 to 40 per week with same 
take-home pay and extension of 
vacation plan, following reference 
to arbitration board; unterminated. 



Commenced April 27; for new agree- 
ments providing for increased 
wages, reduced hours from 50 to 
45 per week and other changes; 
terminated May 29; conciliation 
and return of workers pending 
negotiations; indefinite. 



Strikes and Lockouts Commencing During May 1954 



Mining — 

Coal miners, 
Thorburn, N.S. 



Manufacturing — 
Animal Foods — 
Fish processing plant 
workers, 

Halifax, N.S. 



Textiles, Clothing, etc. — 
Cotton yarn factory 
workers, 
Welland, Ont. 

Pulp, Paper and Paper 
Products — 
Paper mill office workers, 
Merritton, Ont. 



Metal Products — 
Automobile parts factory 
workers, 

Windsor, Ont. 



340 



244 



( 3 ) 
17 



( 4 ) 
31 



160 



340 



1,950 



65 



465 



1,200 



Commenced May 19; protesting 
suspension of two workers for 
leaving mine before completion of 
assigned duties; terminated May 
20; return of workers; in favour 
of employer. 



Commenced May 7; protesting dis- 
missal of worker for refusal to work 
overtime; terminated May 17; 
return of workers pending reference 
to arbitration; indefinite. 



Commenced May 26; protest against 
operating additional spindles; un- 
terminated. 



Commenced May 10; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages retroactive to May 1-53, 
following reference to conciliation 
board; unterminated. 



Commenced May 21; for a union 
agreement providing for reduced 
hours from 49 to 45 per week, 
following reference to conciliation 
board; terminated May 31; con- 
ciliation; in favour of workers. 



1084 



TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN CANADA, MAY 1954 (') 



Industry, Occupation 
and Locality 



Number Involved 



Establish- 
ments 



Workers 



Time Loss 
in Man- 
Working 
Days 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts Commencing During May 1954— Con. 



Washing machine and 


1 


1,164 


1,700 


Commenced May 25; protesting 


boiler factory workers, 








introduction of new wage classifi- 


Toronto, Ont. 








cation in new agreement under 
negotiations; terminated May 26; 
return of workers pending reference 
to conciliation; indefinite. 


Transportation and Public 










Utilities — 










Electric Railways and Local 










Bus Lines — 




( B ) 






Bus drivers, mechanics 


1 


76 


170 


Commenced May 27; for inclusion of 


and railway trainmen, 








all members of union local, in- 


Oshawa, Ont. 








cluding 18 trainmen, in new agree- 
ment under negotiations; untermi- 
nated. 



C 1 ) Preliminary data based where possible on reports from parties concerned, in some cases 
incomplete; subject to revision for the annual review. 

( 2 ) In this table the date of commencement is that on which time loss first occurred and the date 
of termination is the last day on which time was lost to an appreciable extent. 

( 3 ) 73 indirectly affected; ( 4 ) 450 indirectly affected; ( 5 ) 43 indirectly affected. 






1085 



H — Industrial Accidents 



TABLE II-l.— FATAL INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN CANADA DURING THE FIRST 
QUARTER OF 1954, BY GROUPS OF INDUSTRIES AND CAUSES 



Cause 


3 

13 
o 

& 


SO 

a 

'5 

SO 
O 


-a 
c 

.a s. 

Eh 


o3.S 
SO >> 

J* 

SO 1 


3 

,83 

c 

03 


c 
3 
1 


-0 
c 

83 C 

sj 

§ 

•t3#r d. 

.2 "3 "2 


i 1 

+^T3 o3 

33 g O 

"£ os'c 

O a, 3 

H02O 


a 

T3 
83 
U 


5 

c 

83 

e 


0> 


T3 
0) 

y=i 
1 

83 

5 

c 


1 




Striking Against or Stepping on Objects 












1 
5 










1 

2 




?! 


Struck bv 


3 


17 


i 
i 

r 

3 

i 


18 

"3' 
15 
3 

1 
6 


11 

2 
1 
8 
5 
5 
5 


1 


6 


1 




65 




3 






2 

15 
2 
8 
4 


1 
4 
1 
2 

23 
1 

22 


1 

...... 

1 
..... 


4 
2 
4 
13 
9 
1 
8 






1 
1 




1? 




3 
1 
3 


1 
1 

7 




49 


Caught In, On or Between Machinery, Vehicles, etc.. . 


18 




1 


2 
2 




46 




51 










?, 






4 
2 


i 


6 

4 
12 


5 

5 
5 

1 
5 






2 
2 




49 


Conflagrations, Temperature Extremes and 




2 

1 


1 


16 






1 
2 

2 




1 


W 




2 












5 




1 




3 




5 


"i" 


1 


1 




18 






1 




























Total, First Quarter— 1954 


9 


34 


6 


47 


42 


37 


3 


38 


13 


3 


10 




?4?l 






Total, First Quarter— 1953 


17 


50 


4 


45 


72 


37 


7 


36 


12 




25 




305 



TABLE H-2. 



FATAL INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS BY PROVINCE AND GROUPS 
INDUSTRIES DURING THE FIRST QUARTER OF 1954 



OF 



Industry 


T3 




CO 






c 
O 






3 
< 


O 
ffl 


h 
£ 
fe 


"a 
"0 
H 














6 

6 

2 

13 

25 

4 

1 

11 

7 

"7' 








3 

10 




9 












12 


2 


2 


2 


34 








4 

7 




6 




1 

2 

2 




.... 

1 
.... 

1 


4 

3 

21 

1 
7 
2 
1 

1 


1 

2 


3 

1 
1 


8 
3 
3 


10 
5 

4 




47 




4? 






1 
1 
2 


37 




3 




1 




3 


1 


7 


5 

3 

1 
2 




38 


Trade .- 


13 










1 






3 
















10 




















Total 


6 




15 


4 


52 


82 


9 


8 


23 


43 




?A2 







1086 



CURRENT 

manpower and labour relations 

REVIEW 

Economics and Research Uranch, Department of I.abour ? Canada 

Current Manpower Situation 

UNEMPLOYMENT declined during July but remained significantly 
higher than last year. Expansion of labour requirements proceeded 
more slowly than usual during the month and this partially offset the non- 
seasonal employment gains of previous months. The slow-down was mani- 
fest in widespread vacation closures which in some plants extended 
beyond the normal holiday period. Reduced production and employment 
were limited largely to manufacturing, notably the vehicle and vehicle 
supply industries and some of the iron and steel plants. Employment 
increased more than usual in forestry, lumbering and construction, al- 
though employment expansion in non-manufacturing as a whole was normal. 

Almost all parts of the country reported employment gains during 
July, largely as a result of upswings in seasonal industries. Of these, 
the industry contributing most to the rising level of activity was agri- 
culture, which absorbed about 110,000 workers during July. In addition, 
important gains occurred in the service, trade and construction industries, 
which were expanding at about the usual rate. It was clear, however, that 
the growth of job openings was beginning to taper off. The bulk of hiring 
for vacation replacements had been completed and, with the important 
exception of the fruit and vegetable processing industry, most additional 
summer staffs had been acquired. 

The total number of persons with jobs was estimated at 5,384,000 in 
the week of July 24. This represents an increase of 107,000 during the 
month, compared with an increase of 128,000 in July, 1953. During the 
three-month period ending July 24, however, this figure has shown an 
increase of about 400,000 compared with some 350,000 in the correspond- 
ing period last year. Consequently, the number of persons with jobs in 
July was only about one per cent lower than last year. 

The number of workers affected by vacation closures was a notable 
feature of the month. Some plants that in former years operated through 
the summer months, shut down for holidays. An unusually large proportion 
of these expect to remain closed beyond the normal holiday period. It is 
estimated that about 450,000 workers were on vacation at the end of 
July this year, compared with less than 300,000 last year. 



A Monthly Labour Gazette Feature 



1087 



CURRENT LAROITR TRENDS 



120 



INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT 



v'1953 - 





APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

..„ lil.- ,1 N.E.S. «Hi<r, 

.< i i — < , . . , »■■■ , , , i , , ,,,t,. ■ ■ vi; . ,i..^.;;v;t:v.-:v.i : . : . : . : . : .ii : . : ; : . : ; : a Q 



CENTS PER HOUR 



HOURS PER WEEK 



AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS 



1954 




1953 



> <■■■<■ ■>■■ 




INDEX 






INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

I'U.V.W KM) 



19537^ 



..*. „.*.. ^r.ta-t 



ll 

11 

I Averagesf 



1954- 



LT3 U-5 



J FMAMJJASONDJ 



S J FMAMJJASONDJ 



The increase in employment during July exceeded the seasonal 
growth of the labour force, so that the level of unemployment declined. 
This is reflected in the Labour Force Survey estimates, which show a 
decrease of 13,000 during the month in the number of persons without 
jobs and seeking work, and in the National Employment Service statistics, 
which show a drop of 32,200 in the number of persons registered for jobs. 
Both these unemployment indicators continued to be significantly higher 
than a year earlier. 

In the most recent manufacturing statistics, a slight gain was record- 
ed in actual employment during May. When seasonally adjusted, 1 however, 
the employment index showed a decline of a little less than one per cent. 
This was a continuation of a downward trend that began in June 1953. 
The decline from the most recent employment peak of May 1, 1953 to 
June 1 of this year was between five and six per cent. Recent reports of 
lay-offs in the manufacturing industries indicate that no over-all improve- 
ment in employment conditions occurred during June or July. Stable or 
increased employment levels continued in the food and beverages, paper 
products, products of petroleum and coal and the chemi cal products 
industries but declining trends persisted in most of the remaining manu- 
facturing industries. 

The greatest weakness continued to be in the manufacturing of dur- 
able goods. The following comparisons of seasonally adjusted employ- 
ment indexes indicate the changes in employment conditions in these 
industries, apart from usual seasonal movements: the motor vehicles 
industry, down eight per cent during May and 11 per cent from February 1 of 
this year, the most recent peak; the shipbuilding industry, down six per 
cent in May and 14 per cent from January 1; the agricultural implements 
industry, maintaining the gain of between 10 and 15 per cent that occurred 
during the early months of the year but still 25 per cent below the peak of 
early 1953; the iron and steel industry levelled off during May from an 
eighteen-month downward trend but was still 11 per cent below the peak 
reached in late 1952. 

In the soft goods industries, an examination of the seasonally 
adjusted employment indexes indicates the following changes: the textile 
products industry, fairly stable from February to the end of May but 
currently still 20 per cent lower than in the first half of 1953; clothing, 
down slightly during May and 15 per cent lower than in mid°1953. 

In addition to the declining trend in manufacturing shown by the 
seasonally adjusted employment indexes, the number of average hours 
worked has also declined* From June 1, 1953 to June of this year, hours 
worked per week decreased from 41.7 to 39.9, or four per cent. During 
May alone there was a decline of two per cent. 

These statistics indicate that while the deterioration in employment 
conditions in manufacturing industries is not great, by June 1 no change 
in the downward trend was evident. Most recent reports fail to indicate 
any improvement in this sector during June and July. 

Employment in many Canadian industries fluctuates considerably from season to season. 
Indexes showing average fluctuations for 1947-1951 have been calculated; these indexes 
are divided into the actual employment indexes in order to eliminate most of the seasonal 
fluctuations. The result is a monthly seasonally adjusted index that indicates the non- 
seasonal changes in employment. 

1089 



Labour -Management Relations 

A I the middle of this month, the labour relations scene was high- 
lighted by continuing negotiations and conciliation proceedings 
involving large sections of Canadian industry. Bargaining in the basic 
steel industry, in automobile manufacturing and on the railways, although 
in progress for some time, had yet to be completed. 

Current Bargaining Developments 

Railways. The railway companies and the unions representing non- 
operating employees agreed to submit their differences to arbitration after 
unsuccessful negotiations this r iionth. These negotiations were instituted 
at the request of the Prime Minister, following a vote of the union 
memberships which approved strike action if such were deemed neces- 
sary. Previously, the report of a board of conciliation, which had tried to 
bring about a settlement, had been rejected by both the companies and 
the unions (L.G., June, p. 817). 

Basic Steel. A board of conciliation considering differences between 
the United Steelworkers of America (CIO-CCL) and the Steel Company of 
Canada, Limited, at Hamilton, Ont., concluded its hearings towards the 
end of July. No report from the board was available at the time of writing. 
The union had requested an 8/2-cent-an-hour wage increase and other 
benefits. Similar demands, made by the union on the Algoma Steel Corpo- 
ration Limited, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., and at the Dominion Iron and Steel 
Limited, Sydney, N.S., have also been referred for conciliation. 

Automobile Manufacturing. Negotiations were in progress in early 
August between the Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited, at Windsor, 
Ont., and the Inked Automobile Workers (CIO-CCL). This bargaining 
followed the report of a conciliation board, the majority of which recom- 
mended against many of the union's demands, including its request for a 
wage increase of 30 cents an hour. The board also recommended that the 
present seniority svstem be retained. The company has proposed a more 
restricted form of seniority. Another conciliation board conducted hearings 
in July, in the contract dispute between the company and the UAW, repre- 
senting some 2,300 employees at the Oakville, Ont., plant where the 
union s demands are similar to those made at Windsor. 

At the time of writing no substantial progress had been reported in 
negotiations over similar demands in progress between the UAW and the 
Chrysler Corporation of Canada, Limited. 

Logging and Lumbering. An agreement was reached between oper- 
ators and the International Woodworkers of America (CIO-CCL) covering 
some 2,000 workers in the northern interior of British Columbia. Agree- 
ments were reached covering the other two major lumbering areas earlier 
this year. These are the West Coast group of 32,000 employees (L.G., 
July, p. 928) and the southern interior group of 5,000 employees (L.G., 
Feb., p. 205). Terms of settlement for the northern interior provide a 
two-year contract with a total wage increase of 4*/2 cents, reduction of 
hours from 44 to 40 in September 1955 and improved fringe benefits. 

1090 



Fishing. Lust month an agreement v\as reached covering some 3,000 
British Columbia coastal fishermen represented by the I nited 1 isbermcn 
and Allied Workers' Union (indep.). The same union has now negotiated 
an agreement on behalf of the tendermen in the industry, following <i 
strike of one week's duration in the early part of August. 1 endernien 
transport the catch from the fishing boats to the ca nneries. Cannery 
workers, represented by the union, had failed to agree on terms for <i new 
agreement and at the time of writing the taking of a strike vote was being 
considered. The dispute had been carried through conciliation. 

Non-Ferrous Metal Mining and Smelting, A board of conciliation has 
under consideration matters in dispute between the International Union of 
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers (indep.) and the International Nickel 
Company of Canada, Limited, at Sudbury and Port Colborne, Ont. 

Meat Packing. Conciliation assistance has been requested in the 
contract negotiations between the United Packinghouse Workers of 
America (CIO-CCL) and the "Big Three" meat-packing companies, 
Canada Packers Limited, Swift Canadian Company limited and Burns 
and Co., Limited. The union is seeking a wage increase and other benefits. 

Steel Products. Contract negotiations continued between the Massev- 
Harris-F erguson Company, Limited, and the United Automobile Workers 
(CIO-CCL) representing 6,000 plant employees at Toronto, Brantford and 
Woodstock, Ont. Union demands are reported to include a wage increase 
of ten cents, increased off-shift premiums and welfare benefits. A ma- 
jority report of a board of conciliation, made public last month, turned 
down these union demands. 

Radio Broadcasting. A contract dispute between the Canadian Broad- 
casting Corporation and the National Association of Broadcast Engineers 
and Technicians (CIO-CCL) has been referred to a board of conciliation. 
Wages and hours of work are reported to be in dispute. 

Standard Work Week in Canadian Manufacturing 

Preliminary figures show that more than half the plant workers in 
Canadian manufacturing establishments surveyed by the Economics and 
Research Branch, Department of Labour, in April 1954, were on a standard 
work week of 40 hours or less. The strength of the trend towards the 
40-hour week in Canadian manufacturing in the last five years is illus- 
trated by the fact that only 25 per cent of the workers covered by the 
survey in 1949 were on a 40-hour week. By 1951, the proportion had risen 
to more than one-third and by April 1953 to 43 per cent. The current 
survey covered 6,600 establishments, employing more than 800,000 plant 
workers and almost 200,000 office workers. 

Although 53 per cent of the plant workers in the April 1954 survey 
were on a work week of 40 hours or less, only 38 per cent of the es- 
tablishments covered reported these hours. This indicates that the40-hour 
week is more prevalent in larger than in smaller establishments. More 
than one-fifth of the establishments, in fact, reported a standard work 
week of 48 hours or more. 

1091 



The trend towards the five day week in recent years has also been 
pronounced. In 1949, 61 per cent of the workers included in the survey 
were on a five day week; by April 1954, the proportion had risen to 83 
per cent. 

The following distribution of employees according to the standard 
weekly hours in their employing establishments in 1949, 1953 and 1954 
gives an indication of the changes that have occurred in the past few 
years. 

Standard Weekly Hours Percentage of Plant Employees Covered by Survey 

Oct. 1949 April 1953 April 1954 

(Preliminary) 

40 and under 25.1 43.3 52.8 

Over 40 and under 44 6.6 15.3 13.9 

44 16.7 10.1 7.7 

45 20.9 15.4 12.5 

Over 45 and under 48 3.8 2.0 1.7 

48 20.0 9.6 7.2 

Over 48 6.9 4.3 4.2 

On 5-day week 1 61.0 78.5 82.6 

includes a small number of employees in plants reporting alternating schedules of 5 
and 5Vi days per week. 



The downward movement in the working hours of office employees in 
manufacturing has been less substantial. In April 1954, 56 per cent of the 
office workers covered were employed in establishments that reported a 
standard work week of 37% hours or less; in 1949, the proportion was 46 
per cent. Almost 90 per cent of the office workers, however, are now on a 
five day week, compared with 61 per cent in 1949. The following table 
gives the distribution of office workers by their standard weekly hours. 



Standard Weekly Hours Percentage of Office Employees Covered by Survey 

Oct. 1949 April 1953 April 1954 

(Preliminary) 

Under 37*/a 16.8 19.4 21.0 

WA 29.0 30.1 34.9 

Over 3 7V 2 and under 40 17.0 19.1 14.9 

40 19.1 21.2 21.0 

Over 40 18.1 10.2 8.2 

On 5-day week 1 67.5 84.1 88.5 

Includes a small number of employees in establishments reporting alternating sched- 
ules of 5 and S l /i days per week. 



For plant workers the movement towards the 40-hour week was more 
pronounced this year than in any previous survey year. The extent to 
which reductions in hours are affecting weekly pay cannot be determined 
from the survey. However, a recent examination of a sample of collective 
agreements showed that, for the most part, reduction in the standard work 
week was accompanied by an increase in wage rates at least sufficient to 
maintain weekly take-home pay (L.G., July 1954, p. 1010). Of 203 agree- 
ments examined, 43, covering 22,800 workers, provided for a reduction in 
hours. In most cases the reduction was from 42-44 hours per week to 40 
hours per week. 

1092 



Manpower Situation in Local Areas 



THE August survey of labour 
market areas reflected e 
gradual upturn in outdoor activity 
across the country. Altogether, 
labour demand and supply altered 
sufficiently in 23 areas during 
July to warrant reclassification. 
Of these, 21 reclassifications 
resulted from a reduction in un- 
employment. 



CANADA 
Proportion of paid workors within ooch of 
tko four labour markot groups. 




SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



As a result of this reclassifi- 
cation, areas in the substantial 
labour surplus category decreased 
from five at July 1 to one at August 
1; areas in the moderate surplus 
category decreased from 62 to 51; 

areas with labour demand and supply in approximate balance increased 
from 41 to 55; and areas with a labour shortage increased from one to 
two. The supply of available labour however, was greater than last year 
in virtually all labour market areas. 

Reports from most areas indicated that activity was increasing more 
slowly than during the two previous months. Apart from holiday replace- 
ments, recent labour requirements stemmed largely from seasonal upturns 
in non-manufacturing industries, with the result that improvement was 
more marked in agricultural and minor areas than in the more populated 
centres. There was, in fact, little change in industrialized areas. Labour 
surpluses still existed in six of the eleven metropolitan areas and in 21 
of the country's 27 major industrial areas. At the same time last year, 
27 metropolitan and major industrial areas were in balance and two were 
in the labour shortage category. 



Labour Market 
Areas 


Labour Surplus * 


Approx imate 
Balance * 


Labour 

Shortage * 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Aug. 1 
1954 


Aug. 1 
1953 


Aua. 1 

1954 


Aug. 1 
1953 


Aug. 1 Aug. 1 
1954 1953 


Aua. 1 
1954 


Aug. 1 
1953 


Metronolitan 
Major Industrial 
Major Agricultural 
Minor 


1 


1 


5 
21 

3 
22 


1 

n 

9 


5 8 

6 19 
10 10 
34 46 


1 
1 


1 
1 
4 


Total 


1 


1 


51 


17 


| 

55 f 83 

1 


2 


8 



*See inside back cover, Labour Gazette. 



1093 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS, 
August 1, 1954 





LABOUR SURPLUS 


APPROXIMATE LABOUR 
BALANCE SHORTAGE 




Group 1 Group 2 


Group 3 Group 4 




Windsor 


Hamilton 
Montreal 


->CALGARY 
->EDMONTON 




METROPOLITAN AREAS 




Quebec - Levis 


Ottowa - Hull 




(lobour (ore* 75,000 or more) 




St. John's 
Vancouver — New 
Westminster 


-» TORONTO 
Winnipeg 








Brentford 


Kingston 








— »C0RNER BROOK 


-» KITCHENER 








Cornwall 


London 








Fornham-Granov 


Sudbury 








Fort William - 


Timmins- 








Port Arthur 


Kirklond Lake 








Guelph 


Victoria 








Halifax 










Joliette 






MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 




Lac St. Jean 






(lobour fores 25,000-75,000: 




Moncton 






60 per cent or more in 




New Glasgow 






non-ogriculturol octivity) 




Niagara Peninsulo 
->0SHAWA 

Peterborough 
Rouyn-Val d'Or 












Saint John 










Showinigan Falls 










Sherbrooke 










Sydney 










Trois Rivieres 










Chatham 


Barrie 


— >REGINA 






Riviere du Loup 


Brandon 








Thetford-Megantic- 


->CHARLOTTETOWN 




MAJOR AGRICULTURAL AREAS 
(labour force 25,000-75,000: 

40 per cent or more in agriculture) 




St. Georges 


Lethbridge 
Moose Jaw 
North Battleford 
Prince Albert 
Red Deer 
Saskatoon 
Yorkton 








Botl.urst 


->BELLEVILLE- 


->SWIFT CURRENT 






Beauharnoi s 


TRENTON 








Compbellton 


Bracebridge 








Central Vancouver 


Brampton 


| 






Island 


Bridgewoter 








Drummondville 


Chilliwack 








->FREDERICTON 


Cranbrook 








Gait 


Dauphin 








Gaspe 


Dawson Creek 








Lachute- 


Drumheller 








Ste. Therese 


Edmundston 








Lindsay 


Goderich 








Montmagny 


->GRAND FALLS 








Newcastle 


Kamloops 








Owen Sound 


Kentville 








Rimouski 


Llstowel 








Sault Ste. Marie 


Medicine Hat 




MINOR AREAS 




Sorel 


-» NORTH BAY 




(labour force 10,000-25,000) 




Ste. Agathe - 

St. Jerome 

St. Hyacinthe 


->OKANAGAN VALLEY 
Pembroke 
Portage la Prairie 






-»PRINCE RUPERT 


Summerside 






Valleyfield 


-> QUEBEC NORTH SHORE 








Victoriaville 


Simcoe 
-»ST. JEAN 

Strotford 

St. Thomas 
-> TRAIL -NELSON 

Truro 

WEYBURN < 

Woodstock - 
Ingersoll 
-> WOODSTOCK, N.B. 
-> YARMOUTH 


j 


^ The areos ihown in capital letters ar 


■ those that hove been reclassify 


d during the month; an arrow indi 


cafes the group from which they 


noved. 



ATLANTH 



ATLANTIC 
Proportion of paid workers within each of 
the four labour market groups, 1954. 

Pf C.nt 




BALANCE SHORTAGE 
CROUP 3 GROUP 4 



EMPLOYMENT continued to rise 
in the Atlantic region during July 
but the increase was smaller than 
in either of the previous two 
months. During the four weeks 
ending July 24, the number of 
persons with jobs rose by 15,000 
to a total of 510,000. The number 
of persons at work, however, fell 
by 13,000 because of a sharp in- 
crease in the number of persons 
on vacation. 



A prolonged spell of rainy 
weather slowed the upswing in 
outdoor activities during the month 
and resulted in intermittent un- 
employment in a large number of industries. Damage to the hay crop was 
severe in many areas but root crops generally were progressing favour- 
ably. Summer resorts, hotels and restaurants and trade establishments 
were less active than usual for the season because of the adverse weather. 
Construction labour requirements continued to increase, though not to the 
extent anticipated earlier in the year. 

Employment continued to be lower in July this year than last in 
each of the four provinces of the region. Activity in the construction 
industry was markedly lower than a year ago; the sharpest decrease 
occurred in Newfoundland and was largely the result of the reduced 
volume of defence construction. Total manufacturing employment was 
substantially below that of the comparable period in 1953, though mixed 
trends were apparent within the region. On the one hand, saw and planing 
mills and iron and steel plants were operating below last year's levels, 
while on the other, the food and beverage industry, transportation equip- 
ment manufacturing and pulp and paper mills recorded year-to-year in- 
creases in employment. 

Two labour market areas were reclassified from the substantial to 
the moderate surplus category and four from the moderate to the balanced 
category during the month. With these changes, eight of the 21 areas in 
the region were in balance and 13 were in moderate surplus at the be- 
ginning of August. A year earlier, 16 areas were in balance, four in the 
moderate surplus category, and one in the labour shortage category. 

Local Area Developments 

St. John's (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. Labour surplus was re- 
duced as a result of increasing activity in the construction and fishing 
industries but not sufficiently to result in a reclassification. 

Corner Brook (major industrial). From Group 1 to Group 2. Unemployment 
was reduced considerably following increased hirings in the construction 

industry. 



1096 



Charlottetown (major agricultural). From Group 2 to Group 3. Harvesting 
of the strawberry crop provided temporary employment for about 100 
workers during the month. 

Fredericton (minor). Group 1 to Group 2. Labour requirements increased 
for pulp cutters and construction workers. 

Grand Falls, Woodstock and Yarmouth (minor). From Group 2 to Group 3. 
The pick-up stemmed from the usual seasonal increases in labour demand. 



QUEBEC 



EMPLOYMENT followed the usual 
seasonal pattern during July as 
the construction, fruit and vegetable 
processing and tourist industries 
continued to expand. Further non- 
seasonal lay-offs, however, occurred 
in the aircraft industry and, since 
high school students were entering 
the labour market, the available 
supply of labour showed a slight 
increase. At July 24, persons at 
work (1,331,000) and on vacation 
(145,000) together totalled some 
32,000 more than a month earlier. 
The total figure, however, was 
32,000 lower than that reported a 
year ago. 



QUEBEC 
Proportion of paid worker* within oach of 
tho four labour markat groups, 1954. 

P.r Cont 


July 1 

^4 


Aug. 1 




m 










SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
GROUP 4 OROUP2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



Although industrial activity this year has responded to the usual 
seasonal influences, it has not expanded as much as usual in all indus- 
tries. The greatest strength in the region as a whole was in construction, 
which was bolstered by large housing projects in Montreal and Quebec 
City. Weaknesses have shown up in logging, where summer cutting has 
been slight, and in the tourist trade, which has been affected by cool 
weather. Fishing in the Gaspe peninsula this year has been affected by 
the scarcity of good bait. 

Two areas were reclassified from the moderate surplus to the bal- 
anced labour market category during the month; the 22 other areas re- 
mained in the moderate surplus category. Unemployment increased in 
seven of these during the month but declined in the other 15, several 
nearing a balanced labour market by the end of the month. Most of the 
areas were in balance at the end of July 1953. 

Local Area Developments 

Montreal (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. Unemployment showed a 
slight non-seasonal rise. Lay-offs occurred in the aircraft and heavy 
equipment industries at the same time as high school students entered 
the labour market. Labour requirements in construction were increasing 
but registrations for employment in this trade were inflated by workers 
released from less active industries. 



1097 



Ouebec-Levis (metropolitan), Remained in Group 2. Labour market 
approached a balanced demand and supply situation during July. Con- 
struction was active with year-to-year increases continuing in value of 
building permits issued. Employment in shoe factories rose during July 
as production began on fall orders. Weakest spot was in cotton textiles 
and shipbuilding. 

Lac St. Jean (major industrial). Remained in Group 2 as construction 
failed to show its usual buoyancy during July. Carpenters and labourers 
were leaving the district for Bersimis and metropolitan centres. Greatest 
activity in the area was at Chibougamau, where prospecting, mining, 
housing and public utility construction were expanding. 

Rouyn-Val d'Or (major industrial). Remained in Group 2. Unemployment 
dropped sharply in July although not enough to reclassify the area. Mining 
was the stabilizing employment factor. Unemployment among construction 
workers was reduced by workers moving out of the area but local con- 
struction projects employed fewer men than usual. 

Quebec North Shore (minor). From Group 2 to Group 3. Four-pronged 
Bersimis project providing dam, tunnel, generating plant and townsite was 
the scene of considerable hiring. Permanent housing project at Sept lies 
is under construction. Employment declined at the main summer hotel at 
La Malbaie because of prolonged cool weather. 

St. Jean (minor). From Group 2 to Group 3. 

ONTARIO 



ONTARIO 
Proportion of paid workers within •och of 
tho four labour market groups, 1954. 

Per Cent 



90 




SURPLUS 
CROUP 1 



SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
CROUP 2 CROUP 3 GROUP 4 



DURING July the Ontario labour 
market was fairly stable, although 
vacation closures of many plants 
at the end of the month swelled the 
number of people away from their 
jobs. At July 24, persons at work 
totaled 1,752,000, down 155,000 
from the previous month and 76,000 
from the previous year. However, 
196,000 persons were on vacation, 
compared with 13,000 a month 
earlier and 91,000 a year earlier, 
so that the total number with jobs 
at July 24 was 1,972,000, compared 
with 1,950,000 a month earlier and 
and 1,946,000 in July 1953. 



Total employment changed very little during July since continuing 
seasonal increases in construction, agriculture, and food processing were 
offset by declines in some manufacturing industries. Haying was com- 
pleted in most areas and grain harvesting began, the supply of farm 
workers being adequate. Rapid expansion in the construction industry 
during the past few months has nearly exhausted the supply of good 
skilled tradesmen in some areas but to date requirements have been met. 
The tourist resort industry has been slow because of cool weather, 



1098 



Activity in manufacturing decreased during the month. Reduced employ- 
ment in the automobile industry was reflected in the auto parts and 
rubber industries and further reductions also occurred in textiles and 
farm machinery. Moreover, many industrial plants in the region closed 
for vacations at the end of July. 

Only six areas changed category during the month; four moved from 
the moderate surplus to the balanced category, one from the substantial 
to the moderate surplus category, and one from the balanced to the 
moderate surplus category. At the end of the month of the 34 areas in 
the region, 20 were in the balanced labour market category, 13 in the 
moderate and one in the substantial surplus category, compared with one 
in shortage, 31 in balance, one in the substantial and one in the moderate 
surplus category a year ago. 

Local Area Developments 

Hamilton (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2 despite continuing increase 
in construction activity. Short time and lay-offs continued in the elec- 
trical apparatus, steel, farm machinery, automobile and textile manu- 
facturing industries. 

Ottawa-Hull (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Labour demand was 
still being met but the current construction boom exhausted the supply 
of skilled construction tradesmen. 

Toronto (metropolitan). From Group 2 to Group 3. Demand in the manu- 
facturing industries remained slack as short time continued in some 
industries and others closed for vacation; a slight increase in construc- 
tion activity brought the area into balance. 

Windsor (metropolitan). Remained in Group 1 as further lay-offs in the 
automobile industry increased the available supply of workers. 

Kitchener (major industrial). From Group 2 to Group 3. There was a spurt 
in construction in the area during June and early July as well as some 
pick-up in electrical apparatus and food processing industries. Holiday 
closures at the end of July and early August were again swelling the 
labour supply. 

Oshawa (major industrial). From Group 1 to Group 2. Construction activity 
increased. Further lay-offs occurred in the automobile industry. 

Sarnia (major industrial). From Group 3 to Group 2. I^arge foundry manu- 
facturing auto parts closed for installation of new machinery and will 
not begin operations again until some time in September. 

Belleville-Trenton and North Bay (minor). From Group 2 to Group 3. 

PRAIRIE 

EMPLOYMENT in the Prairie region showed a further seasonal increase 
during July, almost entirely in the agricultural sector. Counting vacation- 
ists, the number of persons at work either full or part time increased by 
almost 40,000 to 978,000 in the week of July 24. This was about the 
same number as the estimate for the same date last year. 

Employment trends continued to show considerable variation between 
industries, most of the year-to-year gains being in food, service and 

1099 



PRAIRIE 
Proportion or paid workers within oach of 
tho four labour market group*, 1954 

P.r C.nt 






90 J 

80 






70 

60 — 

July 1 








50 " \ Aug. 1 




40 \ -j- 




H 




BBf 




' u I^BL-— • 


_J~1 


SURPLUS SURPLUS RALANCE SHORTAGE 
CROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 



trade. Grain traffic from the first of 
the year has been only about three- 
fifths of last year's total and this 
has resulted in a year-to-year de- 
crease of more than 5,000 in the 
number employed by the railways. 
In addition, the drop in farm income 
has been reflected in a noticeable 
decrease in the volume of retail 
trade, although no corresponding 
employment decline has occurred in 
retail or wholesale trade. 

During the month two areas 
previously in the moderate labour 
surplus category and one previ- 
ously in the shortage category 
moved into balance, while two areas moved into the shortage category. 
At the beginning of August the 20 areas of the region were classified as 
follows: one in the moderate surplus category, 17 in balance and two in 
the labour shortage category. At August 1, 1953, 14 areas were in balance 
and six in the labour shortage category. 

Local Area Developments 

Calgary (metropolitan). From Group 2 to Group 3. A month of settled 
weather resulted in an upturn in construction and other outdoor activities. 
Employment was three per cent higher than last year. Most labour re- 
quirements (exceptions — domestic service workers and stenographers) 
were met through a continued inflow of workers. 

Edmonton (metropolitan). From Group 2 to Group 3. Increased building 
activity, particularly road and pipeline construction, accounted for most 
of the decrease in the available labour supply. The influx of workers into 
this area has been heavy, although the demand for labour was generally 
below last year's levels. The area was in the shortage category at the 
beginning of August last year. 

Winnipeg (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Little change in over-all 
demand-supply. Iron and steel firms resumed full-time operations after a 
prolonged slack period. 

Regina (major agricultural). Group 3 to Group 4. Additional demands of a 
heavy construction program created shortages of painters, plumbers and 
plasterers. Female workers in virtually all sales and service occupations 
were in short supply. 

Swift Current (minor). From Group 3 to Group 4. Skilled and unskilled 
workers were required for the construction of the Fosterton-Regina pipe- 
line. Street, highway and commercial construction increased substantially 
during July. Bricklayers and carpenters were in short supply. 

Weyburn (minor). From Group 4 to Group 3. The shortage of construction 
workers eased during the month, although bricklayers were still in demand. 

PACIFIC 

A MODERATE general improvement in the employment situation occurred 
in the Pacific region during July, as activity increased in agriculture, 
1100 



PACIFIC 

Proportion of paid worker* within each of 
the four labour market group*, 1954. 
Per Cent 



Aug. 1 




SURPLUS SURPLUS BALANCE SHORTAGE 
CROUP 1 CROUP 2 CROUP 3 CROUP 4 



logging; and sawmilling, manu- 
facturing, transportation and public 
utilities. As a result, there was an 
increased demand for labour in 
most occupations. During the month 
ending July 24 the number of 
persons at work remained unchanged 
at 410,000. However, when persons 
on vacation are included, there was 
an increase from 413,000 to 428,000, 
the latter figure being nearly two 
per cent below the one for Julv 
1953. 

The tempo of operations in 
logging and sawmilling continued 
to increase in July as these indus- 
tries gradually approached peak production. Exceptionally favourable 
weather this year enabled the logging industry to operate without the 
usual closure because of fire hazard. The current strong demand for logs 
is expected to continue because of the requirements of the sawmills, 
most of which are working at capacity to fill increased domestic and 
foreign orders. The strike in the lumber industry in the northwestern 
United States has been an important factor in stimulating lumber sales in 
British Columbia; the United Kingdom lumber market is also strong. In 
manufacturing, a decided improvement occurred throughout the region, 
particularly in those firms supplying goo<ls and services to the logging 
and lumber industries. In construction, activity increased somewhat but 
gains registered were partially offset by the release of workers from 
projects nearing completion, notably the hydro project at Kitimat. 

The increased labour demand in all areas in the region resulted in 
the reclassification of three areas from the moderate surplus to the bal- 
anced labour market category, and one area — Prince George, where the 
improvement was particularly marked — from the substantial labour 
surplus to the balanced category. At the beginning of August, eight of 
the ten areas in the Pacific region had a balanced labour market and two 
were still in the moderate surplus category. At the corresponding date in 
1953, all the labour markets were in the same classifications as this 
year but the level of employment was slightly higher in 1953 in all areas 
except Central Vancouver Island. 

Local Area Developments 

Vancouver-New Westminster (.metropolitan). Remained in Group 2, with 
only a minor increase in labour demand. This increase was evident in 
most industries, notably logging, sawmilling, construction and several 
manufacturing industries. 

Okanogan Valley, Trail-Nelson and Prince Rupert (minor). From Group 2 
to Group 3. Activity increased in logging and sawmilling, and temporary 
hirings occurred in base metal mining. 

Prince George (minor). Group 1 to Group 3. The increase in labour demand 
during July was the greatest of any area in the region. Logging and saw- 
milling, stimulated by better markets and improved weather conditions, 
attained peak production. This aided business generally and by the end 

of July all industries were in full operation. 

F 1101 



Current Labour Statistics 



(Latest available statistics as of August 10, 1954.) 



Principal Items 



Date 



Amount 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous 
Month 



Previous 
Year 



Manpower 

Total civilian labour force (a) 

Persons at work 35 hours or more 

Persons at work less than 35 hours ... 

Usually work 35 hours or more 

On short time 

Usually work less than 35 hours 

Persons with jobs not at work 

Usually work 35 hours or more 

Usually work less than 35 hours 

Persons without jobs & seeking work 
Persons not in the labour force 



Registered for work, NES (b) 
Atlantic 



Ouebec 
Ontario 
Prairie 
Pacific 
Total, 



all regions 



Ordinary claims for Unemployment 

Insurance benefit 

Amount of benefit payments 



Index of employment (1949 =100) 
Immigration 



Industrial Relations 

Strikes and lockouts — days lost 

No. of workers involved 

No. of strikes 



Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (av. 1949 = 100) 

Keal weekly earnings (mfg. a v. 1949 = 100) 
Total labour income $000,000 



Industrial Production 

Total (average 1935-39=100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables .' 

Non-Durables 



July 24 
July 24 
July 24 
July 24 
July 24 
July 24 
July 24 
July 24 
July 24 
July 24 
July 24 



July 22 
July 22 
July 22 
July 22 
July 22 
July 22 



July 1 
June 

June 1 

June 1 



July 
July 
July 



June 1 
June 1 
June 1 
June 1 
July 1 
June 1 
May 



May 
May 
May 
May 



5,556,000 

4,584,000 

307,000 

118,000 

34,000 

189,000 

493,000 

476,000 

17,000 

172,000 

4,698,000 



28,867 
83,750 
93,351 
30,151 
27,3 95 
263,514 



199,531 

$15,702,229 

108.9 
17,810 



54,111 

6,607 

29 



$58.43 

$ 1.42 

39.9 

$56.78 

116.2 

117.2 

975 



246.0 
255. C 
3 00.4 
225.9 



+ 1.7 

- 5.0 

- n.o 

- 13.2 

- 22.7 

- 9.6 
+ 365.1 
+ 362.1 

- 7.0 

- 1.7 



13.2 

6.9 

2.0 

14.2 

10.3 

7.2 



- 19.5 

- 24.2 

+ 2.5 

- 22.8 



1.2 
0.4 
1.7 
1.4 
0.1 
1.9 
2.2 



+ 1.5 

+ 0.6 

- 2.4 

+ 3.3 



0.7 
4.6 
11.6 

29.7 
47.8 

2.7 
43.7 
43.4 
54.5 
91.1 

3.9 



+ 29.5 
+ 47.4 
+ 102.3 
+ 56.7 
+ 28.0 
+ 58.9 



+ 66.5 

+ 86.8 

- 3.1 

+ 9.5 (c) 



+ 47.4(c) 
+ 23.0(c) 
+ 6.9(c) 



1.2 
4.7 
4.3 
0.2 
0.7 
0.9 
0.9 



- 3.5 

- 6.2 

- 10.8 

- 1.9 



(a), (b): See inside back cover, Labour Gazette. 

(c) These percentages compare the cumulative total to date from first of current year with 
total for same period previous year. 



1102 



Notes of 
Current 
Interest 



First Tenders Called on 
Seaway Power Project 

First tenders on the St. Lawrence power 
project have been called, it was announced 
last month by Robert Saunders, Chairman 
of the Ontario Hydro Electric Power 
Commission. 

Bids were called for a large office 
building in the Cornwall area and for a 
stretch of highway west of the city for 
re-routing traffic from Ontario Provincial 
Highway No. 2. Both these bids closed 
at the end of July and construction 
schedules call for completion of the road 
this year. 

For Coffer Dams 

Tenders for two coffer dams to be 
located near Barnhart Island have been 
called and work was expected to begin on 
them earlier this month. Work on coffer 
damming will be required preparatory to 
the start of powerhouse construction. 

Mr. Saunders said tenders on the seaway 
portion of the project must wait comple- 
tion of talks between Canada and the 
United States. 

Many persons have been seeking work 
in the St. .Lawrence seaway area even 
though it has been announced there is 
little prospect of any large-scale employ- 
ment there in the immediate future (L.G., 
July, p. 945). 

Doubts that the St. Lawrence Seaway 
propect will create large-scale employment 
have been expressed by Percy R. Bengough, 
President of the Trades and Labour Con- 
gress of Canada. Speaking at a meeting 
of the Ottawa and District Trades and 
Labour Council last month, he warned that 
mechanical devices may mean that few men 
will be required for work on the project. 

"If we are not careful," he said, "dredges 
and other apparatus will be taking the 
place of hundreds of men." He cited the 
case of the Strait of Canso Causeway, 
where "only 150 men were employed". 



U. Cm ItanUs Wins Appeal 
Against Deportation 

I l.irold C. Banks, Canadian Director of 
the Seafarers' [nternational Union (AFL- 
TLC), has won an appeal again- 
deportation order issued by the Depart- 
ment of Citizenship and Immigration, and 
he is consequently permitted to remain in 
Canada. 

Questioned in Commons 

Mr. Bank's right to live in Canada had 
been questioned in the House of Commons 
on the ground that he has a court record 
in the United States, acquired before he 
came to this country in January 1949 under 
a permanent residence permit. The labour 
official was invited here at that time to 
organize workers in the Great Lakes 
shipping industry. In this he succeeded 
and in the process drove out the Canadian 
Seamen's Union, alleged to have been 
Communist-dominated. 

In February last year Mr. Banks 
attended a meeting of the Inland Transport 
Committee of the International Labour 
Organization in Geneva as the official 
Canadian worker delegate. He had been 
nominated by the Trades and Labour 
Congress of Canada and appointed by the 
Department of Labour. 

It was shortly after this that his right 
of residence was reviewed by an immigra- 
tion board of inquiry. As a result of its 
findings, the deportation order was issued. 

On Mr. Bank's appeal, this order has 
been reversed by the Minister of Citizen- 
ship and Immigration, and the possibility 
of Canadian citizenship is now open to him. 



Boilermahers 9 New Chief 
Is Canadian-Born 

William A. Calvin, who on July 1 took 
over the office of President of the Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron 
Shipbuilders, Blacksmiths, Forgers and 
Helpers (AFL-TLC), was born in Canada 
and served in the Canadian Army during 
the First World War. 

The man he was elected to succeed, 
Charles J. MacGowan, who retired effec- 
tive July 1 (L.G., July, p. 949), also has 
Canadian connections; he came to Canada 
from his native Scotland when 10 years 
old and grew up in Edmonton. 

Mr. Calvin, wounded overseas during the 
First World War, decided on his return to 
Canada to settle in Florida to regain his 
health and there joined the union of which 
he is now President. 



93709—2 



1103 



Walter E. Duffett Named 
To Head Researeh Branch 




Walter E. Duffett, Assistant Chief, 
Research Department of the Bank of 
Canada, has been selected for the position 
of Director, Economics and Research 
Branch, Department of Labour. He 
succeeds George V. Haythorne, now 
Assistant Deputy Minister of Labour. 

Born in Gait, Ont., Mr. Duffett attended 
Toronto University, graduating in 1933 with 
the degree of Bachelor of Commerce. He 
continued his studies at the London School 
of Economics, where he obtained a Master 
of Science degree in Economics in 1935. 

In Ottawa Since 1952 

Mr. Duffett was employed in the 
Investment Department of the Sun Life 
Insurance Company in Montreal for seven 
years prior to joining the Research Depart- 
ment of the Wartime Prices and Trade 
Board in Ottawa, in 1942. He received his 
first appointment to the Bank of Canada 
in 1944 in the Research Department, where 
he advanced to his present rank. For the 
past several years he has been a Sessional 
Lecturer at Carleton College, Ottawa. 



As Director of the Economics and 
Research Branch, Mr. Duffett will be 
responsible for the development and direc- 
tion of economic and social surveys, 
analysis and research on labour-management 
relations, manpower, employment and 
related matters. He assumed his new post 
this month. 



Average Weehly Wages 
Reach All-Time High 

Employment in Canada's major industrial 
divisions registered an increase in May 
while average weekly wages and salaries 
rose to an all-time high, according to 
figures released last month by the Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics. 

The advance index of employment, on 
the 1949 base, was 106-2, which is 0-6 per 
cent higher than at April 1 but 4-2 per 
cent below last year's peak of 110-9 at 
May 1. The weekly payrolls index of 146-7 
was 0-7 per cent above the April figure 
but one per cent below a year ago. Weekly 
wages and salaries averaged $59.12 as com- 
pared with $59.06 in April and $57.52 in 
May of 1953. 

At the same time, the Bureau's figures 
show that average hourly earnings in manu- 
facturing rose to a new peak of 141-9 cents 
at May 1 as compared with 141-0 on 
April 1. The average working week 
declined by 0-3 hours to 40-6 and resulted 
in a decline in the average weekly wage 
for the manufacturing industries from 
$57.67 to $57.61. 

Labour income for the month of April 
totalled $954,000,000, being an increase 
over the figure for the previous month — 
$943,000,000— and for April of 1953— 
$946,000,000. The cumulative total for, the 
January-April period was $3,792,006,000, 
1-5 per cent above last year's $3,727,000,000. 

Higher Investment 

The Department of Trade and Commerce 
has reported, in its mid-year review of 
private and public investment, that its 
survey of 1954 capital expenditure inten- 
tions has re-affirmed the increased capital 
expenditure program which had been 
anticipated at the beginning of the year. 
The 1954 total is now estimated at $5,826 
million compared with the $5,838 million 
estimated earlier. The total program is 
higher than last year by three per cent 
and is made up of a six per cent increase 
in construction expenditure and a decline 
of three per cent in machinery and equip- 
ment purchases. The Department's survey 
points out that while the over-all totals 



1104 



are about the same as in earlier estimates, 
there have been increases and decreases in 
the individual investment sectors. 

Organized labour continued to register 
concern over the employment situation 
with Mr. A. R. Mosher, President of the 
Canadian Congress of Labour, stating on 
July 8 that "unemployment figures show 
that more-than-seasonal unemployment 
exists in all regions". Mr. Mosher noted 
that seasonal gains in employment were 
"far smaller" than last year and added that 
although "the federal Government held out 
rosy hopes that the unemployment problem 
would vanish with the arrival of spring, 
every region and every single place in the 
list is worse than last year". 

He repeated recommendations for "an 
expanded public works program, increased 
aid to underdeveloped countries, and 
improvements" in unemployment insurance. 



Hat Union Arranges Loan 
To Keep Firm Operating 

Arrangements were completed last month 
for a loan from a union to a millinery 
manufacturer to enable the company to 
keep operating and preserve the jobs of 
its 1,050 employees, members of the union. 

According to an article by A. H. Raskin 
in the New York Times, the United 
Hatters, Cap and Millinery Workers 
International Union (AFL) will lend 
$250,000 to the Kartiganer Hat Corpora- 
tion, one of the oldest millinery manufac- 
turers in the United States. 

A sharp drop in hat sales last spring, 
coupled with heavy investments in new 
productive facilities, had left the company 
in acute financial difficulties, writes Mr. 
Raskin. Without the union's help the 
company would have been obliged to shut 
down two of its three plants and discharge 
700 of its workers. 

The two plants are more than a century 
old and many of the present workers are 
the great-grandfathers of hatmakers who 
worked in these same factories. 

Investment by Workers 

Under the plan worked out between the 
union and the president of the company, 
the union will advance $50,000 from its 
international treasury. The remaining 
$200,000 will be supplied by the workers 
themselves as an investment in the security 
of their jobs. Each worker will lend $200 
of his personal funds. Those who do not 
have that much cash will obtain loans from 
local banks under an arrangement made 
by the union locals in the three plant 
towns. These loans will be repaid out of 
future wages. 



93709— 2\ 



The union set up two requirements as 
conditions for its loan. The first was that 
there be no cuts in wages or established 
working conditions. 

The second was that a union accountant 
be posted in the company offices to keep 
watch on the safety of the union invest- 
ment and prevent a destructive competi- 
tion for unionized manufacturers in New 
York and other unionized millinery centres. 



Immigration Continues 
To Exceed 1953 Figures 

The number of immigrants entering 
Canada during the first five months of 
1954 exceeded by 13 per cent the number 
for the same period in 1953, according to 
figures recently released by the Department 
of Citizenship and Immigration. Up to 
May 31, 67,955 arrivals were reported while 
59,960 were recorded for the corresponding 
period last year. 

Immigration from areas other than the 
United Kingdom, the United States and 
northern Europe showed the largest in- 
crease, 18,563 immigrants arriving as com- 
pared with 12,895 in 1953. This represents 
a gain of 44 per cent. According to ethnic 
groups, the largest number of new Cana- 
dians came from England (11,647), Italy 
(10,839), Germany (10,797), and Holland 
(8,646). During the first five months of 
1953, 11,507 immigrants came from England, 
11,061 from Germany, 8,707 from Holland 
and 6,193 from Italy. 

U.K. Immigration Up 

Immigration from the United Kingdom 
showed an increase of 10 per cent in 1954 
when compared with the same period in 
the year previous; that from the United 
States, a decline of eight per cent and that 
from northern Europe, an increase of three 
per cent. Over-all immigration increased 
by 13 per cent in 1954 when the two five- 
month immigration increased by 13 per 
cent in 1954 when the two five-month 
periods are compared. 

In May this year, immigration was up 
10 per cent over May 1953, the figures 
being 23,078 and 20,905 respectively. As 
in the five-month period, arrivals from 
areas other than the United Kingdom, the 
United States and northern Europe showed 
the largest increase, totalling 5,344 com- 
pared with 4,605 in May 1953. This rep- 
resents an increase of 16 per cent. 

The largest ethnic groups coming to 
Canada during May this year were German 
(4,942), English (4,226), Italian (2,877) and 
Dutch (2,433). 

1105 



I \S. Employment Picture 
Continues to Improve 

Employment in the United States rose 
by 989,000 in the period from May to 
June while a negligible increase in unem- 
ployment — 42,000 — was registered for the 
same period. 

During the first week of June, 62,098,000 
persons were employed, compared with 
61,119.000 a month earlier. At the same 
time, the unemployed total was estimated 
at 3.347.000, compared with the May total 
of 3.305.000. 

Initial claims for unemployment insur- 
ance benefits dropped during the week 
ended June 25 to 265,000, the lowest level 
for any week since October 1953 and 5 
per cent less than May. 

The American Federation of Labor and 
the Congress of Industrial Organizations 
have both criticized the Government's 
unemployment figures, the AFL charging 
that they understate the facts and the 
CIO complaining that they do not indicate 
that the decline in the number of those 
drawing unemployment insurance "is attrib- 
utable in major part to the exhaustion of 
workers' benefit rights". 

CIO President Walter Reuther last month 
renewed a request for a conference on 
unemployment and a former government 
official has called for a reduction in taxes 
in order to increase consumer purchasing 
power. Government spokesmen, however, 
believe the increase in unemployment has 
been halted. 

But the National Planning Association 
has warned that unemployment in the 
United States will probably double next 
year and has advocated a production in- 
crease at the annual rate of $25,000,000,000 
during the next 12 months to reach a level 
necessary to provide full employment 
(see below). 

The rise in unemployment was signifi- 
cantly small because seasonal factors 
usually increase the total 10 to 11 per cent 
in June as students and graduates enter 
the labour market. A 10-per-cent increase 
in unemployment would have meant a rise 
of 334,700 in the number of jobless. 

According to a joint release by the 
U.S. Departments of Labor and Commerce, 
June witnessed a further decrease in the 
number of unemployed adult males. During 
the same month, the number of workers 
unemployed for a relatively long period 
(those without jobs for 15 weeks or more) 
declined by about 250,000 to an estimated 
850,000. 

The number of workers on non-farm 
payrolls, which excludes the self-employed, 
domestics, and unpaid workers in family 



enterprises, rose by 142,000 to 48,100,000 in 
June while factory employment remained 
unchanged at 15,800,000. 

According to Labor Secretary James P. 
Mitchell, the increase in factory unemploy- 
ment was halted in June. The first signs 
of a levelling-off occurred in May, when 
unemployment in the manufacturing indus- 
tries rose by less than 200,000. Secretary 
of Commerce Sinclair Weeks declared 
recently that, on the basis of reports 
received from his 200-member Business 
Advisory Council, the inventory recession 
had run its course and the economy was 
ready to turn up once again. 

Government statistics on the unemploy- 
ment situation were criticized by CIO 
President Walter Reuther, who charged 
that figures showing a decline in the 
number of workers drawing unemployment 
benefits fail "to note that decline is attrib- 
utable in major part to the exhaustion of 
workers' benefit rights". Mr. Reuther 
noted that during the first five months of 
1954, the number of workers exhausting 
their benefit rights under all state laws 
totalled 658,000. 

In a letter addressed recently to President 
Eisenhower, the CIO President stated that 
"there is nothing to indicate a general 
pick-up in economic activity" and added 
that the President's economic advisers had 
been guilty of "shoddy economic analysis". 

In the same letter, Mr. Reuther urged 
again that the President summon a mass 
conference to deal with the employment 
situation. The CIO President originally 
requested such a conference two months 
ago and had asked that it include repre- 
sentatives of industry, labour, agriculture, 
consumers and the Government as a means 
of "keeping America at work". 

The AFL's charge that the Government 
understates the facts about unemployment 
in its official figures was made by Boris 
Skiskin, AFL Director of Research, at a 
hearing of the Sub-committee on Economic 
Statistics of the Joint Committee on the 
Economic Report. He said the definitioi_ 
of employment and unemployment used 
by the Bureau of the Census in its monthly 
report on the labour force should be revised 
so that "all persons without work during 
the survey week for economic reasons are 
classified as unemployed". 

The Bureau's report, Mr. Skiskin said, 
"treats individuals in the 'with a job but 
not at work' category as employed even 
when many are actually unemployed". 

In a report released July 5, the CIO 
called for new wage increases as a means 
of stimulating the economy and noted that 
the income of wage and salary earners in 



1106 



the United States was declining by more 
than $1,000,000,000 a month. The labour 
body's report cited the Commerce Depart- 
ment's figures to indicate that this type of 
income had declined from $202,000,000,000 
last August to $193,000,000,000 in April. 

The report warned that "unless wage and 
salary workers share equitably in the grow- 
ing product of the economy, the present 
distortion between producing and consum- 
ing ability will widen, and the recession will 
deepen". The report said wage increases 
and income tax reductions offered "the 
quickest and most direct way of lifting 
consumer spending". 

This plea was supported, in part, by an 
erstwhile government official, Marriner S. 
Eccles, former chairman of the United 
States Federal Reserve System, who last 
month called for reduction of taxes to 
increase consumer purchasing power. 

Addressing the 40th annual International 
Consumers Credit Conference in San 
Francisco, the former Federal Reserve 
System chairman also said the federal 
budget could be balanced through full 
employment and production and a growth 
in private credit. 

Among the encouraging signs noted in the 
economy were the following: — 

The F. W. Dodge Corporation, which 
gathers statistics on the building industry, 
reported that construction contracts west 
of the Rockies may have set records for 
the month of July. 

Department stores sales for the four 
weeks ending July 3 showed an increase of 
five per cent over the same period a year 
ago. 

The Commerce Department reported that 
business inventories as of May 31 were 
below the levels of a year ago for the first 
time since the Korean War. 

The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported 
that new construction expenditures rose 
seasonably in June to $3-3 billion, bringing 
the 1954 first-half total to a record $16-6 
billion, slightly more than during the corre- 
sponding period in 1953. Private spending 
for residential building, offices, stores, and 
other kinds of commercial buildings; 
churches, schools, and electric light and 
power facilities has been at a peak this 
year, the Bureau said. 

Prof. Sumner H. Slichter, prominent 
Harvard University economist, has stated 
that the most significant trend in the 
present economic situation has been the 
steadiness of spending on plant and equip- 
ment by business enterprises. 

Writing in the New York Times maga- 
zine, he contended that growing expendi- 
tures by state and local governments, the 



"well-sustained" outlays on plant and 
equipment and housing and the growing 
pin chases of services will continue to 
support the economy. The Harvard 
economist feels that if, as is expected, the 
forces that have been making for business 
contraction become weaker and the influ- 
ences that have been sustaining the demand 
for goods and services hold their own, then 
the "danger of a severe recession will be 
pretty much behind us". 



U.S. Study Group Urges 
Big Production increase 

An increase in the production of goods 
and services in the United States at an 
annual rate of about $25,000,000,000 over 
the next 12 months has been advocated 
by the National Planning Association as 
a means of preventing economic activity 
from falling below the growing potential 
of production. The Association, founded in 
1934, is a private non-profit, non-partisan 
body whose membership includes leaders in 
agriculture, business, labour and the 
professions. 

The Association, whose report on economic 
activity was released July 4, expressed the 
conviction that it was in the national 
interest of the United States to achieve 
such a production increase. The report 
stated that "involuntary total or partial 
idleness on the part of a substantial 
number of workers and underutilization of 
productive capacity would be undesirable 
in any circumstances; they are inexcusable 
in a perilous world situation in which the 
most effective use of manpower and capa- 
cities concerns not only the comfort but 
also the security and possibly the survival 
of the nation". 

The report attributed the recent economic 
recession to the failure of private demand 
to rise in accord with the increase in produc- 
tive capacity at a time when government 
and investment demand was levelling off. In 
order to compensate for the decline in private 
demand, the Association urged that adjust- 
ments in taxation, prices, consumer and 
business attitudes be made. In this respect, 
the report referred to a variety of possi- 
bilities including more adequate military 
and civilian security, modernized plant and 
equipment, improved schools, hospitals, and 
roads, a rising standard of living, and 
foreign aid. 

The Association estimated that a year 
from now a gap of about $25 billion would 
exist between the realized output of goods 
and services and the full employment level. 



1107 



Employment in Britain 
At Peacetime High 

The number of persons employed in 
Great Britain during May was the highest 
ever recorded in peacetime, while incom- 
plete statistics for June indicate even 
higher employment levels for that month. 

The Ministry of Labour and National 
service reported that between May 10 and 
June 14 the number of unemployed 
decreased by 49,900. 

At the end of May the number of 
employed was 22,427,000, the Ministry 
reported. During the month the total rose 
by 85.000, of whom 34,000 were men. 
Increases in employment were registered in 
a wide range of industries. 

l/.iV. Committee Approves 
Full Employment Proposal 

The Economic Committee of the U.N. 
Economic and Social Council last month 
approved a resolution on full employment 
which it recommends for action by the 
full council. 

The resolution in its operative part would 
have the Council: — 

1. Invite the International Labour Organ- 
ization to continue its important work in 
the field of employment problems with due 
regard to the need for providing the 
Council with comments and suggestions on 
the problems of particular concern to the 
Council as indicated by the records of its 
debates; 

2. Commend to the attention of member 
states the two documents surveying mem- 
ber countries' experience in dealing with 
inflationary tendencies at high levels of 
economic activity; 

3. Recommend that member states follow 
closely changes in economic trends and be 
prepared at any time to take without delay 
such action as they may deem necessary 
to maintain high and expanding levels of 
production and employment in their terri- 
tories in the face of reductions in demand 
on particular sectors o/ their economies, 
including such reductions as may result 
from a levelling-off or reduction in govern- 
ment expenditures on defence; 

4. Recommend that in considering such 
action member states, especially the more 
developed countries, give due regard to 
the importance of avoiding any adverse 
effects upon the levels of employment, 
stability and economic development of 
other member states, including the under- 
developed countries; 

5. Recommend that in considering such 
action member states bear in mind also 
the importance of employing measures 



which will contribute to the maintenance 
of international economic stability, to the 
economic progress of member states gener- 
ally, and to the economic development of 
the underdeveloped countries, the accelera- 
tion of which is of major importance for 
the attainment of high levels of produc- 
tion, employment and world trade; 

6. Recommend that national and inter- 
national efforts should be intensified to 
reduce instability in the prices of primary 
commodities and to facilitate the flow of 
capital to underdeveloped countries. 

Reject Soviet Draft 

The resolution, which was submitted 
jointly by the delegations of Argentina, 
Belgium, Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, France, 
Norway, Pakistan, United Kingdom, United 
States, Venezuela and Yugoslavia, was 
approved by a vote of 16 to none with two 
abstentions. The vote followed a rejection 
by the committee of a USSR draft resolu- 
tion on the same subject by a vote of 14 
to two, with two abstentions. 



No-Raiding Pact Meets 
First Tests Successfully 

The no-raiding agreement between the 
American Federation of Labour and the 
Congress of Industrial Organizations, which 
was signed June 9 (L.G., June, p. 772), 
has met its first two tests and, according 
to Business Week, has proved to work 
successfully. At present, 68 of the 111 AFL 
unions and 29 of the CIO's 33 have signed 
the agreement. 

In the first case, the United Railroad 
Workers (CIO) had petitioned the National 
(Railway) Mediation Board to represent 
Santa Fe maintenance of way employees. 
This petition was withdrawn by the union 
when the Brotherhood of Maintenance of 
Way Employees (AFL) claimed to have 
the bargaining rights for the workers 
concerned. 

A second similar problem was solved 
when the AFL Cigar Makers' International 
Union complained that the CIO paper- 
makers' union was attempting to organize 
employees in a Georgia factory. The CIO 
union subsequently informed the AFL 
organization that its petition for a repre- 
sentation election had been withdrawn. 

As the no-raiding agreement now stands, 
the agent for receiving complaints in the 
AFL is Secretary-Treasurer William F. 
Schnitzler. CIO Secretary-Treasurer James 
B. Carey performs a similar function for 
his organization. 



1108 



May Housing Completions 
Up but Starts Down 

More new housing units were completed 
in May this year than in the same month 
last year and more in the first five months 
of 1954 than in the same period last year, 
the Dominion Bureau of Statistics has 
reported. Starts, however, were fewer in 
both periods. 

May completions numbered 8,424, com- 
pared with 8,099 a year earlier. January- 
May completions totalled 35,524 compared 
with 32,816 last year. 

May starts totalled 13,398 compared with 
13,606 in May 1953. Starts in the first five 
months of 1954 numbered 33,812 compared 
with 35,438 in the same period of 1953. 

The number of new housing units under 
construction at the end of May was 57,816; 
the number at the same time last year was 
327 higher. 



I .$. Housing Starts 
Down Slightly in May 

Non-farm housing starts in the United 
States declined by about four per cent 
between April and May to a total of 
106,000, according to preliminary estimates 
of the U.S. Labor Department's Bureau of 
Labor Statistics. The total volume of new 
private homebuilding, however, was at 
about the same high level as in May of 
last year. 

The volume of privately owned house- 
building, which had advanced to a 3^-year 
peak of 109,100 units this April, declined 
to 105,500 units in May — about the same 
level as in May 1953. Seasonally adjusted 
private housing starts were at an annual 
rate well above one million each month 
this year, although the May rate of 
1,038,000 was the lowest thus far. 

The total of 452,000 new dwelling units 
(private and public) put under construc- 
tion during the first five months of 1954 
was 5 per cent below the 476,000-unit total 
for the comparable 1953 period because of 
the reduction in public housing. Privately 
owned housebuilding thus far in 1954 
(446,900 units) was about the same as the 
year-ago estimate. 

U,S, Congress Rejects 
Public Housing Proposal 

By a vote of 234 to 156, the United 
States House of Representatives, on July 
20. defeated a proposal to write President 
Eisenhower's request for 140,000 public 
housing units over a four-year period into 
the compromise housing bill drafted in a 



Senate-House conference. Following this 
vote, the House approved by a vote of 358 

to 30 the terms of the compromise bill 
which provides for 35,000 units in a one- 
year extension of the public housing 
program. 

It is reported that the Senate will not 
attempt to reinstate the President's pro- 
gram, which was originally defeated in the 
House by a vote of 211 to 176 on April 2. 
The motion to have Mr. Eisenhower's 
program approved was made on the grounds 
that without it, persons with low incomes 
would move to the slums. 



Study Finds 2.4 Million 
Covered by Medical Plans 

A study of the operations of the 14 
major non-profit medical care insurance 
plans across Canada has been completed 
by the Department of National Health and 
Welfare. 

This study, "Voluntary Medical Care 
Insurance: a study of non-profit plans in 
Canada", was conducted by the Research 
Division of the Department with the 
assistance of the managers of 14 prepaid 
medical care plans, Trans-Canada Medical 
Plans and the Canadian Council of Blue 
Cross Plans. 

It was learned from the study that 2-4 
million Canadians, or 16 per cent of our 
total population, were found to be covered 
for some form of prepaid physicians' 
services under these 14 plans at the end of 
1953, compared to fewer than 200,000 in 
1946. Of these, more than one million 
persons were entitled to a fairly compre- 
hensive range of benefits, including the cost 
of medical, surgical, and obstetrical care in 
the home, doctor's office, and hospital. 

The study showed that non-profit medical 
insurance plans paid out $27 million in 1953 
on behalf of their membership. About 44 
cents out of every dollar spent on benefits 
goes directly to physicians for attendances 
or consultations; another 30 cents is paid 
to surgeons, 11 cents goes for X-ray and 
laboratory services, and the remainder is 
paid for confinements and other miscel- 
laneous services. Annually, an average of 
from three to four medical services are 
received by members enrolled under these 
plans. 

The United States consumer price index 
rose one-tenth of one per cent between 
mid-May and mid-June to a level of 115-1 
(1947-49 = 100). The Canadian index also 
rose in June (see page 1167). 



1109 



4*351 Quebec Apprentices 
Receive Training in Year 

During the fiscal year 1953-54, 4,351 
apprentices and journeymen received train- 
ing in Quebec's six apprenticeship centres, 
according to the report of the Apprentice- 
ship Assistance Division of the province's 
Department of Labour. 

Since the apprenticeship program of the 
province was put into effect in 1945, 24,807 
apprentices and journeymen have attended 
day or night classes in the following trades: 
building, shoe manufacturing, automobile, 
printing, barbers-hairdressers and clock 
making. 

The report states that the Apprenticeship 
Commission for the Building Trades in 
Montreal is erecting a new apprenticeship 
centre, at the cost of one million dollars, 
which will be the "largest and most modern 
apprenticeship centre in the world". 

The Apprenticeship Commissions of the 
province are made up of an equal number 
of employer and employee representatives. 
Through their joint committees, associations 
of employers and trade unions contribute 
equally to the building and operation of 
the apprenticeship centres. The Provincial 
Government pays a third of the building 
and operation expenses of these centres or 
places its specialized schools at the disposal 
of the Apprenticeship Commissions. 

CCCL Affiliate Urges 
More Political Action 

At its annual meeting in Saint-Hyacinthe 
last month, the Federation nationale de la 
metallurgie (CTCC)-'N a t i o n a 1 Metal 
Trades Federation (CCCL) — unanimously 
adopted a resolution favouring more inten- 
sive and more definite political action and 
asking that a $20,000 fund be provided for 
political education. 

This resolution, which will be submitted 
to the CCCL conference in Montreal next 
month, recommends amongst other things: — 

(a) that the CCCL bring together all 
interested groups in the locality to draw 
up a political program and to establish a 
political action organization "which has 
become necessary to insure efficient action 
in the political field"; 

(b) that the CCCL budget for the year 
1954-55 provide a fund of $20,000 for 
political action; 

(c) that, if possible, each affiliated body 
set up this year its own political action 
fund. 

The General Secretary of the CCCL, 
Jean Marchand, gave the meeting of the 
metal workers to understand that he would 



support the resolution at the CCCL 
conference. 

It was explained that the question is not 
that of creating a labour party, even less 
a trade-union party. The Committee that 
drew up the resolution, in fact, stated: 
"Our Committee does not believe that it 
would be either advisable or possible to 
create a political party within our trade- 
union movement." 

The Federation President, Adrien Plourde, 
said "there can be no question of using 
trade-unionism as a party instrument, 
because it would soon become the mouth- 
piece of the Government should the party 
be elected to power." 

Delegate Jean Robert Ouellet added: 
"We are merely taking the lead in creating 
a political movement which will reform the 
foundations of our democracy and revive 
true parliamentary government." 

Another delegate, Maurice Sauve, 
explained that it is a question of bringing 
together all interested groups in a locality 
in order to draft a political program and 
to establish, wherever possible, a political 
action organization "to insure the success of 
our efforts". 



'Union's Eligibility Rules 
"Might Yiolate FEPA" 

In refusing a union application for 
certification on the technical grounds that 
the application was not accompanied by 
individual receipts for the payment of at 
least one dollar on account of the pre- 
scribed initiation fee or monthly dues, the 
Ontario Labour Relations Board also 
pointed out that the membership require- 
ments established by the union may well 
violate the Fair Employment Practices 
Act, 1951. 

The union, the Christian Labour Associa- 
tion of Canada (Hamilton Local) "imposes 
restrictions on eligibility for membership in 
that prospective members are called upon 
to accept Christian doctrine as a condition 
of membership", the Board commented. 

Act's Provisions 

The Fair Employment Practices Act, 
1951, provides that: "No trade union shall 
exclude from membership or expel or 
suspend any person or member or discrim- 
inate against any person or member 
because of race, creed, colour, nationality, 
ancestry or place of origin". 

The union was requested to give these 
requirements consideration before sub- 
mitting any future applications to the 
Board. 



1110 



Provincial Federation 
Formed by TLC in N.S. 

A TLC Provincial Federation of Labour 
for Nova Scotia was formed at a confer- 
ence in Halifax June 21 and 22. Attending 
were 97 delegates representing 37 local 
unions and five Trades and Labour Councils 
in Nova Scotia affiliated with the Trades 
and Labour Congress of Canada. 

A constitution, which had been circulated 
among the unions earlier in the year, was 
adopted by the delegates, who represented 
about 7,000 organized workers in the 
province. 

At the election of officers, conducted by 
James A. Whitebone, Maritime Vice- 
President of the TLC, D. J. Gannon was 
elected President by acclamation. Mr. 
Gannon was chairman of the former 
Provincial Executive Committee. 

Other Officers 

Other officers elected were C. M. Bent, 
Vice-president for the Eastern District; 
Sinclair Allan, Vice-president for the 
Central District; C. A. Webber, Vice- 
president for the Western District; and 
L. Banks, Secretary-Treasurer. 

The TLC now has six provincial federa- 
tions. In Manitoba, Saskatchewan and 
British Columbia, TLC unions still operate 
under provincial executive committees. 
There is no central TLC organization for 
the province of Prince Edward Island. 



Robert Scotl of Calgary, and Ann McLaren 
of Lethbridge. Charles Gilbert of Edmon- 
ton was elected Secretary-Treasurer. 



Winnipeg's Mayor during 
1919 Strihe is Dead 

Another link with the Winnipeg strike 
of 1919 was removed in Victoria, June 27, 
with the death at the age of 84 years of 
Charles Frederick Gray, Mayor of Winnipeg 
during the strike. 

Mr. Gray, who had previously served on 
the Winnipeg city council for four years, 
was elected mayor for 1919 and 1920. 

Alberta TLC Federation 
Holds Annual Convention 

The Alberta Federation of Labour (TLC) 
held its 34th annual convention in Calgary 
June 7 to 10 with 170 delegates repre- 
senting 24,000 workers in 146 unions 
throughout the province. 

The delegates debated 102 resolutions 
dealing with hours of work, minimum wage 
rates, pensions, unemployment insurance 
regulations and other subjects of interest 
to organized labour. 

President R. P. Rintoul was re-elected 
to office. Vice-presidents elected were 
James Smith and H. Turner of Edmonton, 



Ont. Hires U.K. Teachers 
To Relieve Shortage 

The shortage of teachers in Ontario's 
primary schools has been relieved with the 
hiring of 108 teachers from the British 
Isles, who will take up their new posts 
this September. 

In making the announcement last month, 
Hon. W. J. Dunlop, Minister of Education, 
said that if the import experiment proves 
successful, it will be expanded in future 
years. 

"The teachers from Britain make all the 
difference in the world between a serious 
shortage and a sufficient supply," com- 
mented Dr. J. G. Althouse, Director, 
Ontario Department of Education. 



Older Worhers Increase 
In U.K. Labour Force 

Nearly one-half — 49-8 per cent — of the 
men in Great Britain's labour force in 
May 1953 were aged 40 and over, according 
to a Ministry of Labour estimate based on 
national insurance records. In 1950, when 
a similar inquiry was made, the percentage 
was 47-5. 

The proportion of women in the labour 
force increased in the same period from 
36-5 per cent to 39-5. Almost 20 per cent 
(60,000) of this increase was among women 
aged 60 and over. 

Reflects Population Trend 

In both cases, the increase in the propor- 
tion aged over 40 was partly a reflection 
of similar trends in the population as a 
whole. Other factors were the larger 
number of young men serving in the armed 
forces as a result of extension of National 
Service from 18 months to two years, and 
heavy recruitment among women from the 
middle and higher age groups. 

The proportion of married women in the 
labour force increased. About 45 per cent 
of all female employees, it is estimated, 
were married (excluding widows). While 
this was partly the result of an increasing 
tendency to continue working after 
marriage, an examination of the detailed 
age analyses indicates, it is stated, that 
there must have been considerable addi- 
tional recruitment of married women over 
30 years of age. 



93709—3 



1111 



iff. fl". Helston Succeeds 
J. I . D. ices at Ottawa 




Maurice W. Helston, of Winnipeg, at the 
first of this month took over the duties 
of Dominion Legislative Representative of 
the Order of Railway Conductors and 
Brakemen, succeeding J. L. D. Ives, who 
retired at the end of July after 13 years 
in the Ottawa post (L.G., July, p. 951). 

Mr. Helston was elected to the position 
and also named Vice-president of the Order 
at the Conductor's convention at Columbus, 
Ohio, earlier this year. 

On his retirement, Mr. Ives received 
many messages of appreciation for his 
services from officers of Canadian railways. 

The new Dominion Legislative Repre- 
sentative for the Conductors was born in 
Staples, Minn., on January -27, 1899. He 
moved to Canada in 1909 and entered the 
service of the Canadian Northern Railway 
at Big Valley, Alta., in 1916. Transferring 
later to Winnipeg, he was promoted to 
conductor in 1926. 

He served on local committees and 
General Committees of Adjustment until 
his election to his present post. 



In his capacity as Vice-president and 
Dominion Legislative Representative, Mr. 
Helston will serve as a member of the 
Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment 
No. 1 and also as a member of the National 
Legislative Committee of the International 
Railway Brotherhoods. 



Up to 2,000 Workers 

Needed to Harvest Grain 

From 1,500 to 2,000 Ontario and Quebec 
farm workers will be required to help 
harvest this year's grain in the Prairie 
Provinces, it has been estimated by the 
National Employment Service. The move- 
ment began August 10 and is scheduled to 
continue until October 15. 

Transportation assistance to the Prairie 
Provinces is given by the NES to workers 
on condition that they agree to accept 
harvest work and other farm work during 
the grain harvest and that they accept the 
employment to which they are directed by 
officials in the Prairie Provinces. 

Assisted transportation is available to 
qualified workers only by application in 
person to NES offices. 



ECOSOC Hacks Study of 
World Calendar Proposal 

The Economic and Social Council of the 
United Nations, at its 18th session in 
Geneva last month, accepted a resolution 
introduced by the Government of India 
dealing with the World Calendar (see L.G., 
Dec. 1953, p. 1737). 

The resolution, seconded by Yugoslavia, 
takes note of the proposal for calendar 
reform and requests the UN Secretary- 
General to transmit to all world govern- 
ments relevant documents with a request 
to study the problem and submit their 
views for consideration at the 19th session 
of the Council to be held in New York 
next May. 

Arthur J. Hills, Assistant Director General 
of the World Calendar Association and 
Chairman of its Canadian affiliate, said in 
announcing the adoption of the resolution: 

"This is regarded as a magnificent step 
forward as the World Calendar plan is now 
officially before governments. This will be 
gratifying news for the large organizations 
of employers and employees in Canada and 
also scientific bodies and others who have 
endorsed and supported the plan requesting 
the Government to endeavour to advance 
adoption of the World Calendar through 
the United Nations." 



1112 



"Women Workers Often 
Hinder Own Careers" 

That women workers often hinder their 
own progress towards top careers was the 
conclusion reached in a recent panel dis- 
cussion on women in business and the 
professions. Failure to advance may be 
because of preference or error, it was agreed. 

The discussion, under the heading, 
"Trained Women", took place at the 12th 
biennial convention of the National Feder- 
ation of Business and Professional Women's 
Clubs at St. Louis, Mo., in June. Moderator 
of the panel was Miss Margaret Hickey, 
Public Affairs Editor, The Ladies' Home 
Journal. 

A member of the panel, Dr. Ashley 
Montagu, of Rutgers University and author 
of The Natural Superiority of Women, 
attributed to women a "highly important 
role" in the economic life of the country, 
declaring them to be better adapted to an 
economic role than men. 

"In addition to bringing all the technical 
skills which men can bring to the role," 
he said, "they bring what is more important, 
a humanizing quality which the economic 
world stands much in need of." 

Women, as the mothers of humanity, he 
continued, have many more complex 
demands made upon them than are made 
upon men. They should, therefore, receive 
an education that would "harmonically 
reconcile their capacity in their roles as 
mother, wife, worker, citizen and human 
being." 

The emphasis in education, he believed, 
should be first on motherhood and family 
life, with career in second place, but the 
foundations should be laid for usefully and 
profitably following some career in later 
life. 

Lena E. Ebeling, Director of Personnel, 
Sherwin - Williams Company, Cleveland, 
expressed the view that women often 
decline high business positions for which 
they are fitted because of a natural disin- 
clination either to leave their families or to 
acquire attitudes essential to business 
success. 

"As a higher and higher proportion of 
business women become married, this 
tendency to put family values above career 
cannot fail to hinder further the rise of 
American women in any large number of 
posts of great responsibility," agreed Dr. 
Lynn Townsend White, Jr., President of 
Mills College, Oakland, Calif., also a 
member of the panel. 



Women's Bureau Chiei 
Assumes Duties in Sept, 




Miss Marion V. Royce, MA., until 
recently Principal of Moulton College, 
Toronto, will assume the position of 
Director of the Women's Bureau, Depart- 
ment of Labour, in September. Miss 
Royce's appointment was announced in 
July (L.G., July, p. 939). 

The Civil Service Commission is now 
advertising for a woman officer to serve as 
assistant to Miss Royce. The Bureau will 
eventually have a staff of three. 



1 3/i Million British Women 
Are Members of Unions 

The number of women who are members 
of trade unions in Great Britain increased 
from 926,000 in 1938 to 1,774,000 in 1952 
but the figure is still low in relation to the 
number of women workers, the Women's 
Advisory Committee of the Trades Union 
Congress reported to the TUC Women's 
Conference. 

Of the 8,088,450 members of trade unions 
affiliated to the TUC, 1,315,314 are women 
and 6,773,136 are men, the report said. 

The report was based on an inquiry by 
the Committee into the participation of 
women in the trade union movement. 



93709—3* 



1113 



LABOUR DAY MESSAGES 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister of Labour 



"We in Canada believe that labour- 
management negotiations should be 
carried on in a free atmosphere. 

That is the reason why our labour 
relations legislation relies on collec- 
tive bargaining, rather than on gov- 
ernment decree, as the normal means 
of setting wage levels and working 
conditions. Our traditions and legis- 
lation emphasize a close working 
relationship between the two great 
partners in industry. 

While all of us still have a great 
deal to learn about the factors 
which make for constructive relations 
between labour and management, 
recent years have seen a growing 
recognition by both of each other's 
needs and aspirations and a realiza- 
tion that, although their primary 
functions are different, they have an 
interdependence which influences 
common goals. 

I do not mean to imply that this interdependence is taking the vigour out 
of collective bargaining relations; nor would that be desirable. However, it 
does reflect a growing maturity of relationships which helps labour and man- 
agement to get to the heart of their collective bargaining problems and to 
reach sound agreements with a minimum of friction. 

This growing understanding also means that labour and management are 
able to work together on problems which may normally lie outside the field 
of collective bargaining — problems which, for example, affect safety and 
efficiency in the plant or the welfare of the community. One good evidence 
of this also is the steady growth of Labour-Management Production Com- 
mittees in Canada. 

Joint consultation of this kind has helped labour and management to 
understand each other's problems, to stimulate mutual respect and confidence 
and a common loyalty to the enterprise on which the welfare of both ulti- 
mately depends. 

This improved atmosphere in industrial relations is largely a result of 
the recognition of labour as a full and responsible partner with management 
in the industrial life of our nation. Appreciation of this vital fact, on this 
another Labour Day, is our best means of paying tribute to the individual 
deeds down through the years by men of labour, many of whom will remain 
unsung — their names never having been recorded in trade-union history. 

My sincere good wishes for your prosperity and welfare. 
1114 





Percy R. Bengough, 

President, 

Trades and Labour Congress of Canada 



I am very pleased to have the oppor- 
tunity again to extend to all affiliated 
members and their families warm fraternal 
greetings and best wishes on Labour Day. 
It is a holiday of special significance to 
the working population as it was the result 
of the efforts of organized labour that this 
day was set out as a labour holiday. This 
Labour Day we can celebrate our gains as 
well as consider our immediate needs in 
the light of present conditions. 

The position of working people has been 
greatly improved mainly as a result of 
their own organized efforts and in the 
application of their skills. None can ques- 
tion the right of the people who do the 
work by their hands and brains to better 
lives and living. One might question 
the right of the watered stock holders and 
money manipulators to obtain so much for 
so little. However, as time passes, such 
will change and greater social improve- 
ments and better living conditions will be 
gained by the workers. 

In celebrating this great holiday for 
Labour, there are many who are thinking 
of the long period of enforced lay-offs that 
occurred during the past fall, winter and 
spring months. As lovers of freedom, Cana- 
dian workers don't look for enforced labour. 
They wouldn't want full employment if it 
meant slave camps such as millions are 
suffering in now in some countries. How- 
ever, they cannot, without protest, accept 
the instability of employment that still 
confronts the working people of this 
country. It is a disgraceful state of affairs 
when half a million people find their skill 
and services cannot be used, particularly 
when they are citizens of a country with 



unlimited natural resources awaiting devel- 
opment and surrounded by projects that 
need to be initiated to improve the well- 
being of the people, the economy and the 
development of the country. 

The system of unemployment insurance 
in effect in Canada, which incidentally was 
sought and secured by Labour, definitely 
demonstrated its worth during the past 
months when so many were in enforced 
idleness and in receipt of its benefits. It 
was also clearly demonstrated that there 
is a need for higher benefits and an exten- 
sion of the period for which benefits are 
paid. Doing first things first, such improve- 
ments should be made before we again 
meet the so-called seasonal lay-offs later 
this year. 

In calling attention to these immediate 
needs I am not suggesting that they are a 
solution of our unemployment problem. 
The only solution for unemployment is 
employment with wages and salaries that 
will give Canadians ability to buy more 
in balance with our ability to produce. 

We are all fortunate in being citizens 
of a wonderful country, one in which there 
are many things to be done in the best 
interests of Canada and Canadians. The 
workers, along with the rest of the people, 
have enough ability and confidence in them- 
selves to go forward under our system of 
democratic freedom to larger and fuller 
lives for all and completely free from the 
fears of unemployment, sickness and old 
age. 

In the name of The Trades and Labour 
Congress of Canada, I wish every member 
a happy time this Labour Day and good 
health and prosperity for themselves and 
their families now and in the future. 



1115 




A. R. Mostier, 

President, 

Canadian Congress of Labour 



Perhaps at no time since the end of 
World "War II has there been such wide- 
spread apprehension of the outbreak of 
another conflict. Every thoughtful person 
must be deeply disturbed by the growing 
tension between the free nations and the 
Communist-dominated group. 

However concerned any of us may be, 
the fact remains that there is little or 
nothing which we can do as individuals to 
prevent another war or to delay its out- 
break, and it is almost impossible to avoid 
a feeling that we are little more than pawns 
on the chessboard of fate, although our 
influence, both in domestic and foreign 
affairs, is undoubtedly of considerable 
importance. 

In the circumstances, the wisest course 
for us, as Canadians, would appear to be 
to do our work day by day to the best 
of our ability, in the hope that, if we 
perform our tasks faithfully, we are making 
some contribution toward the general 
welfare and helping to create an atmo- 
sphere in which war will be less likely. 

By any standard which we wish to use, 
Canada is one of the greatest countries in 
the world. We are the third trading 
nation, and our progress has aroused envy 
and admiration in almost every other 
country. It is quite evident that no 
accurate forecast can be made as to the 
development of our national resources, 
since new discoveries of highly valuable 
minerals are constantly being made. Vast 
amounts of money are being invested in 
Canadian industry, not only by Canadians 
themselves, but by the citizens of many 
other nations. 

From a long-run standpoint, no one 
doubts the greatness of Canada's destiny; 
but there are still many aspects of the 
Canadian economy which are far from 
being satisfactory. The unemployment 



situation is causing widespread alarm in 
many of our industrial centres, and, as 
the labour movement has made clear on 
many occasions, its opinion is very definite 
that the Federal Government has not given 
this problem anything like the attention 
it demands. 

The situation with regard to agriculture, 
particularly in Western Canada, is also 
very disquieting; and there are many other 
matters which deserve the closest possible 
attention of the best intelligence which the 
country can muster. Labour has advocated 
the setting up of committees on which 
Labour, industry, agriculture and the 
Government would be represented, and 
which might make useful suggestions 
regarding the policy to be followed by the 
Government; but these proposals have not 
borne fruit. 

One persistent problem, so far as the 
labour movement is concerned, is the 
disparity in wage-levels in various indus- 
tries and various areas throughout the 
Dominion. The labour movement has 
never advocated a flat and uniform rate 
of wages for all workers. It recognizes 
that skilled and experienced workers deserve 
higher remuneration than those who are 
unskilled and inexperienced. It recognizes 
further that higher wages represent an 
important incentive to the development of 
ability. However, it is important that 
minimum wages in any industry should be 
high enough to permit the maintenance of 
a reasonable standard of living, and this is 
far from being the case in some industries 
and industrial areas. Furthermore, there 
should be a fairly close approximation 
between the wage-levels in the basic indus- 
tries of the nation where skills and 
experience are comparable. 

Labour believes that there is room for 
improvement in wage-levels throughout 
Canadian industry as a whole, and that a 



1116 



constant effort must be made to improve 
the general standard of living of the 
workers and the people of Canada, which, 
in turn, is based upon wage-levels. 

The labour movement recognizes that 
wages are paid out of production, but it 
believes that, in many instances, production 
could be carried on more efficiently than is 
now the case. Waste and inefficiency are 
the enemies of decent wages and high 
standards of living. 

The workers of Canada have become 
increasingly aware in recent years of their 
obligation to do what they can to promote 
the raising of living standards in the less- 



fortunate countries of the world. Tiny 
believe, however, thai their own contribu- 
tion In this respect need not result in a 
reduction of their own standards, but 
rather thai any improvements obtained in 
Canada will enable them to fulfil their 
responsibilities towards the underpriviliged 
in other lands. 

On Labour Day, therefore, we are more 
aware than ever of the growing importance 
and influence of our nation, and we renew 
our determination to do everything we can 
to make Canada a powerful factor in the 
search for peace, goodwill and happiness 
throughout the world. 




Gerard Picard, 

General President, 

Canadian and Catholic Confederation of Labour 



Labour Day parades this year will not 
start out under the sign of prosperity. On 
the contrary, they will be followed by the 
spectre of unemployment. The usual 
rejoicing will be obscured by the serious 
concern of those who want work but are 
unable to find it, and a mere glance will 
also reveal the anxiety of those who are 
working but are afraid of being laid off 
from one pay-day to the next. Those who 
are responsible for the common good, what- 
ever may be the jurisdiction under which 
they have accepted public responsibility, 
do not seem overly concerned about the 
urgent insistence of the labour organiza- 
tions, especially the CCCL, on the adoption 
and putting into practice of a policy of full 
employment bound up with a standard of 
living sufficiently high to ensure the 
workers and their families of a normal life, 
free from need and from fear of the future. 

By way of routine, steps to reduce 
seasonal unemployment to a minimum are 
still being studied, without any appreciable 
results, but people do not seem to realize 
clearly enough that permanent unemploy- 
ment is getting worse, and also that the 
number of men and women who are 
working only about half the regular work 



week is increasing all the time. And yet, 
during the last world war, a policy of full 
employment was already being worked out, 
and the workers were assured that such a 
policy could be applied. People said they 
were anxious to put an end to war in order 
to devote Canadian resources to full 
employment, social progress and peace. 
Now that peace has been restored, they 
merely refer to incomplete statistics and 
calmly conclude that there is no cause for 
alarm and that the percentage of unem- 
ployed is not yet high enough to lead us 
to think that an economic crisis is at hand. 

Canadian workers, a greater number of 
whom are members of trade unions than 
a few years ago, and who are better 
acquainted with the facts, will not consent 
to be taken in as they were after the 
signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, 
when no stone was to be left unturned to 
bring about the reign of social justice ' in 
the world. 

The loud-speakers of verbal anti- 
Communism may perhaps succeed once 
more in discrediting the labour unions and 
in making some of their fundamental claims 
seem ridiculous; but they will not prevent 
the general body of workers from support- 



1117 



ing these claims. The establishment and 
maintenance of peace may be at the 
expense of respect, justice and the satis- 
faction of human needs. 

On the occasion of Labour Day 1954, 
the workers, through their respective labour 
organizations, and in the present message 
through the CCCL, call upon the various 
jurisdictions to establish a bold and enlight- 
ened social policy capable of redressing the 
grievances put forward against a society 
which prefers to ignore injustice rather 
than to remedy it, and whose totalitarian 
tendencies (more or less pronounced 



according as the economic dictatorship con- 
siders it more or less necessary for the 
protection of its interests) aim at exchang- 
ing the exercise of fundamental rights for 
a minimum of security. The Canadian 
workers require both security and real 
freedom; they have no notion of exchang- 
ing one for the other. A Christian country, 
if it wishes to remain Christian, cannot 
agree to lend itself to such bargaining, 
which would mean relegating to the back- 
ground those spiritual and cultural values 
without which there can be no serious talk 
of the blessings of civilization. 




W. H. Phillips, 

Chairman, 

National Legislative Committee (Canada) 

International Railway Brotherhoods 



The National Legislative Committee 
(Canada) International Railway Brother- 
hoods appreciates this opportunity to 
extend Labour Day Greetings to the mem- 
bership and families of the Organizations 
represented by the Committee and to the 
citizens of Canada as a whole. 

Labour Day was founded by union men; 
and union people established its popular 
and official recognition. The working man 
and woman no longer occupy the humble 
station of peasants. Democracy, political 
and economic, has in a large measure 
banished the attitude of contempt too often 
felt by employers towards those who toiled. 
Labour Day serves to set things right and 
to clothe Labour with its "wonted dignity 
and respect. 

Labour Day is significant of thousands of 
little advances, skirmishes along the road 
to success, a success that can never be 
taken for granted and which must con- 
stantly be rewon. Labour will not suffer 
a fraction of its reverses from its avowed 
enemies as it will from its lukewarm friends. 
The labour member who plays a purely 

1118 



passive role in all the progressive under- 
takings of his organization is guilty of the 
same disservice as his friend who "loves" 
Labour but "hates" unions. 

Organized Labour has been successful 
during the past half century in securing 
for the workers of this country many 
benefits in the way of improved working 
conditions and rates of pay. The legisla- 
tive departments of those labour organiza- 
tions have been successful in securing 
beneficial legislation both federal and 
provincial. The Legislative Committee of 
the International Railway Brotherhoods has 
always been in the forefront in seeking and 
securing legislation to promote the welfare 
of workers and to reduce the hazards 
incident to employment in industry and 
on the railways. 

The Organizations represented by the 
National Legislative Committee of the 
International Railway Brotherhoods will 
still continue to co-operate to the 'fullest 
degree in movements destined to raise the 
living standards of workers and to improve 
the lot of our older citizens. 






Seventh International Conference 

of Social Work Held in Toronto 

2,500 social workers from 41 countries conduct study groups on social 
welfare, immigration, retirement, co-operatives, and assistance to 
underdeveloped countries. Hon. L. B. Pearson opens week-long session 



No one could say yet that enough is 
being done to help the underdeveloped and 
underprivileged countries of the world, 
declared Hon. Lester B. Pearson, Minister 
for External Affairs, in the opening address 
of the seventh International Conference of 
Social Work held in Toronto June 27 to 
July 3. 

"The favoured nations of the world can- 
not afford to ignore the fact that one-half 
of the world's inhabitants live in areas 
where hunger, disease, poverty and human 
misery are the daily lot of all the people," 
he said. 

The conference, attended by 2,500 social 
workers and government officials from 41 
countries, conducted study groups on immi- 
gration, social welfare and labour unions, 
retirement, co-operatives, the cultural 
effects of assistance to underdeveloped 
countries, basic education, social security, 
the role of private welfare agencies, and 
other subjects of social importance. 

In his speech, Mr. Pearson said the 
favoured nations of the world "cannot con- 
tinue to live comfortably in the knowledge 
that one out of every two persons alive 
today is simply not getting enough to eat, 
that infant death rates in some sections of 
some countries rise as high as 400 for every 
thousand children born." 

He said that centuries of poverty, ill 
health and deprivation had raised disturb- 
ing questions in the minds of ordinary men 
and women in many continents. They 
wondered whether without the sacrifices of 
normal human values to totalitarian ruth- 
lessness, they could ever hope to achieve 
a reasonably adequate measure of economic 
and social reform. 

"The gigantic task confronting the less- 
developed countries as they struggle to 
improve themselves must be accomplished 
under the tremendous conflicting pressures 
of the cold war; under the fear of domina- 
tion from abroad and of subversive move- 
ments designed to make nationalist and 
social reform movements the creatures of 
totalitarian imperialism." 

The western world's program of technical 
assistance to these areas had far-reaching 



implications for all humanity, he continued, 
adding: — 

"Such programs are not simply acts of 
charity. They are investments in pros- 
perity and progress in which all will share." 

Mr. Pearson endorsed the theme of the 
conference, which was self-help and co- 
operative action in social welfare. No 
amount of outside help could be really 
effective unless the recipient peoples were 
prepared to put forward a "supreme and 
sustained effort" to do everything within 
their power to help themselves, he said. 

V. C Phelan 

Attending the conference as an official 
representative of the International Labour 
Organization was V. C. Phelan, Director of 
the ILO's Canadian Branch. Mr. Phelan 
spoke at a meeting of the conference of 
Non-Governmental Organizations Interested 
in Migration, held in conjunction with the 
international social work conference. 

Speaking on the employment implications 
of migration, Mr. Phelan said that employ- 
ment has an underlying importance in 
relation to migration activities. 

"Unless immigrants who are of the 
worker type can locate work opportunities 
in the new land, a migration movement 
can not succeed, and in fact the stream 
of immigrants, even if it should start to 
flow, will soon dry up. The greatest 
motivation in normal migration is the 
assurance or possibility of earning a live- 
lihood. For successful migration employ- 
ment must be available soon after arrival," 
he said. 

Admitting that movements of migrants 
always involve chance-taking, by both 
immigrants and the receiving countries, 
Mr. Phelan said migration today is much 
more carefully planned than it was a 
generation or more ago. 

Free and uncontrolled immigration, such 
as took place from Europe to North 
America in the years before the First 
World War, was no longer possible, said 
Mr. Phelan, in view of the basic economic 
changes that have taken place. Among 
these were the present lack of available 



1119 



and suitable untilled land, and the nature 
of industry which now depends mainly on 
skilled labour. 

"Workers must now be integrated care- 
fully into employment. With a compli- 
cated economy, even though on an expand- 
ing basis, a great ileal of planning for 
employment reception becomes necessary," 
he said. 

Predicting that the extent of free immi- 
gration from Europe into overseas countries 
is not likely to expand, Mr. Phelan said 
that "increasingly the movement out of 
western Europe will depend upon increased 
planning for employment reception." 

With regard to occupational qualifications, 
Mr. Phelan said the most desirable type 
of immigrant from the employment aspect 
was the worker who possesses a skill or 
craft utilized in the country of immigra- 
tion, and calling for about the same 
training there, and who is mentally and 
physically adaptable to other employment, 
even unskilled employment, if work at his 
own trade is not forthcoming. 

Experienced agricultural workers will long 
be in demand. General unskilled labourers, 
intelligent and physically fit, with several 
working years ahead of them, will also form 
a substantial part of any large movement. 

For women workers moving to a new 
country, the general situation closely 
parallels that of men. The movement of 
professional workers is regarded as 
important but presents peculiar difficulties. 
It is a slow process and nearly every case 
requires individual treatment, he said. 

Looking to the future, Mr. Phelan put 
forth several propositions as to the future 
techniques of most immigration movements 
in their employment implications, in rela- 
tion to the migrant's capacity as a worker. 

My first proposition is that increasing 
attention will be given to employment 
examination and selection among prospective 
immigrants before they leave the homeland. 
Job testing, for example, will be used to a 
greater extent. 

Second, employment selection against 
specific job vacancies will not be found 
feasible in more than a small number of 
cases, usually to be reserved for workers 
with wanted skills. 

Third, the effort will be to select cate- 
gories known to be in some general demand 
at the time in the country of immigration. 

Fourth, the principle of certain immi- 
grants having to agree to a restriction on 
their right to seek work in any industry or 
occupation for a specified time, will no doubt 
be continued. 

Fifth, protection of the immigrant worker 
from sub-standard working conditions will 
continue, or improve. 



Sixth, training of workers in the home- 
land, to better fit them for employment 
abroad, already found to be of not much aid 
to emigration, does not promise to be a 
future factor. 

Seventh, successful employment integra- 
tion of migrants is not a mere extension 
of employment placement service, but a 
separate technique, in which an efficient 
employment service still can be of first 
importance. 

Eighth, successful migration movements 
for employment depend both on the avail- 
ability of acceptable and suitable workers 
in a country of emigration, and on the possi- 
bilities of absorption in the employment 
market of the country of emigration. There 
must be supply and demand. 

Mr. Phelan concluded his address by 
indicating the interest and the practical 
activities of the ILO in the field of migra- 
tion. An International Classification of 
Occupations, which several governments 
find useful in migration work, was issued 
by the ILO in 1952, and at present a 
series of monographs on national regula- 
tions governing migration into more than 
30 countries is being prepared, he said. 

Immigration 

At the same session, Rt. Rev. John 
'Grady, Secretary of the National Con- 
ference of Catholic Charities, Washington, 
said that there was a false impression in 
the United States that the standards of 
workers there were being depressed by 
immigrant labour. This is creating a 
natural opposition to immigration, he 
added. 

During a panel discussion on immigra- 
tion, it was held that immigrants should 
be permitted to bring their families with 
them when they gain admittance to a new 
country. 

One of the greatest problems in immi- 
gration, the panel decided, were those 
imposed by the separation of families. 

Many governments favoured the man 
coming first and his family following, but 
social workers are opposed to this, the 
panel was told. The immigrant should be 
allowed to enter a country without his 
family only after it has been determined 
that the family will be able to get along 
without him and that there are guarantees 
the family will be able to follow. 

Factors in favour of the family head 
preceding the family were shortage of 
housing in some countries — Canada was 
held out as an example — and his greater 
mobility. 

Other Subjects 

Another study group found that trade 
unionism means different things in different 
countries. And trade union members in 



1120 






different parts of the world have sharply 
contrasting ideas as to what role unions 
should play in the welfare picture. 

Some groups felt that the union's prime 
responsibility in social welfare was to the 
membership itself. Others felt the union 
should act as a force for social welfare in 
the community as a whole. 

Social workers everywhere strongly oppose 
fixed retirement ages, it was stated at a 
workshop meeting on the ageing. Auto- 
matic retirement is bad both for the 
worker and the employer, they said. It 
may force people into idleness before they 
are ready for it, and it may take many 
people out of the labour market who still 
have a good contribution to make. 

Retirement, it was stressed by the meet- 
ing, should be based on each individual's 
needs and capacities. 

Experts in co-operatives from Canada, 
the United States, Israel, Germany and 
Pakistan agreed that the co-operatives 
which achieved the greatest success were 
those which were initiated by the people. 
Imposition of a co-operative plan upon the 
people by government seldom has the 
support of the people, it was concluded. 

Delegates from western countries at a 
workshop meeting on basic education urged 
that before large-scale educational and 
technical improvement measures were 
undertaken in the so-called underdeveloped 
areas, careful thought be given to their 
impact on the traditions and cultures with 
which they must exist. 

Welfare State 

Two opposing views of the welfare state 
in Great Britain were presented to the 
conference. Dr. Alan Moncrieff, Director 
of the British Institute for Child Health, 
warned delegates that full-scale application 
of the welfare state carries inherent dangers 
for society. He said the British welfare 
state was an inevitable development, 
spurred by widespread public demand. But 
he added that the public has a tendency 
to "demand and accept social rights with- 
out accepting on the other hand the corre- 
sponding obligations and responsibilities". 



Declaring that the old British poor laws 
were dead, Dr. Moncrieff asked whether 
individual effort was also dead. 

"Not dead, but sleeping," he said, adding 
thai the sleep was induced by the fact that 
gocial education had not kepi pace with 
the extension of state welfare programs. 

At a later session of the confer* nee, 
Dr. L. L. Cameron, Director of Social 
Service of the Church of Scotland, said the 
welfare state in Great Britain is not 
destroying voluntary social action and 
self-help. 

"Those of us in social work who were 
most apprehensive about the fate of the 
individual in the welfare state have become 
more and more satisfied," he said. "We 
have found that we can criticize and amend 
it. It has been a very great experiment. 
It was not forced upon us. We can 
modify it. 

"It is not so that the welfare state has 
taken away the self-help motive and 
voluntary group action. Voluntary social 
work is stronger today than it has ever 
been." 

Dr. Cameron also said that all the needs 
of the individual cannot be met by the 
welfare state. 

Among the addresses delivered to the 
conference was that of Dr. J. F. de Jongh 
of the Amsterdam School of Social Work, 
who spoke on self-help in modern society, 
and that of Dr. A. N. Sinha, Minister of 
Finance, Labour and Agriculture of the 
Government of Bihar, India, who named 
Mahatma Gandhi as the genius behind 
India's quickly growing social work move- 
ment. 

Dr. George F. Davidson, Deputy Minister 
of National Health and Welfare, was 
elected one of the Vice-presidents of the 
conference. William H. Dewar of Toronto 
was re-elected Treasurer-General. 

George E. Haynes of London, England, 
was re-elected President for another two- 
year term. 

The 1956 conference is slated for Munich, 
Germany, and the 1958 session for Tokyo, 
Japan. 



IUE Ousts UE from General Electric's Schenectady Plant 

The International Union of Electrical Workers (CIO) last month was declared the 
winner of a National Labour Relations Board election at the main General Electric plant 
at Schenectady, N.Y. It replaced as the bargaining agent for about 20,000 employees the 
independent United Electrical Workers, who had represented the workers there for the 
past 18 years. 

The voting was 9,005 for the IUE and 5,179 for UE, with 267 votes for "no union", 
33 challenged and 32 void. 



1121 



Canadian Conference on Social Work 



More than 1,000 social workers from all parts of Canada attend 3-day 
meeting. Subjects discussed included health insurance, older worker 
problem, employment, the ageing population, rehabilitation of disabled 



An adequate health insurance program is 
the main need for the future development 
of social welfare in Canada, said R. E. G. 
Davis, Executive Director of the Canadian 
Welfare Council, at the Canadian Confer- 
ence on Social Work held in Toronto 
June 24 to 26. Such a health program, 
he said, should cover both income loss due 
to illness and the costs of medical care. 

More than 1,000 social workers from all 
parts of Canada attended the conference, 
where 11 workshop groups and seven insti- 
tutes discussed employment, the ageing 
population, rehabilitation of the disabled, 
employment of older workers, and other 
social problems. 

Mr. Davis said loss of working time due 
to illness was greater annually than that 
for which unemployment benefits were paid 
out in Canada. 

"We have no public program to deal 
with wage loss resulting from illness," he 
said, "and except in a few provinces, no 
public provision to assist families with the 
cost of hospital and medical care." 

Mr. Davis suggested the best approach 
to the problem would be to add sickness 
benefits to the unemployment insurance 
program, as was done in Great Britain and 
the United States. 

The present controversy concerning pro- 
visions for meeting the costs of medical 
care centred mainly around methods of 
payment, and there were many proposals, 
said Mr. Davis, adding: — 

"I think we shall see that our present 
preoccupation with methods of payment is 
a passing phase, as it has proved in coun- 
tries like England and Scandinavia." 

The real focus in the problem, he said, 
"must be on questions of personnel and 
facilities, on planning and organization. 

"In this larger context, as in the matter 
of payment plans, the debate will doubt- 
less continue as to the respective roles that 
are appropriate for public and private 
agencies. There seems little doubt, how- 
ever, that the major reliance will be on 
government action. 

"One reason for this is the sheer size 
and cost of the undertaking. But another 
is that in a matter so vital to the national 
interest as is the health of the Canadian 
people, governments cannot leave ultimate 
decisions on public policy to private groups, 

1122 



professional or otherwise, which, however 
community-minded, may well reflect in their 
views on social policy the bias of their 
particular interests." 

In the field of social services and welfare 
generally, Mr. Davis said there was a need 
for a more closely integrated approach, both 
in the local community and nationally. 

Mr. Davis pointed out that Canada 
spends eight per cent of its national income 
each year on welfare services. He com- 
pared this figure with 13-2 per cent for New 
Zealand and 11-9 per cent for Great Britain 
on the one hand with 7-3 per cent for 
Australia and 5-5 per cent for the United 
States on the other. 

Observing that there has been a progres- 
sive shifting of welfare financing from the 
local and provincial to the federal level, he 
said: "It is obvious that without this 
transfer of financial responsibility it would 
have been impossible for Canada to have 
made the progress it has in the develop- 
ment of its social welfare program." 

Members of a panel discussing employ- 
ment agreed that any large-scale depression 
in Canada could not be handled adequately 
with present unemployment machinery. 

The members felt that some compre- 
hensive plan was required and that work 
on it should begin immediately. There 
was disagreement, however, on what the 
plan should entail. 

There was not a major recession today, 
said Cleve Kidd, Research Director of the 
United Steelworkers of America (CIO- 
CCL), but there was still a serious situa- 
tion. Layoffs were extensive and there 
were no signs of any sort of pick-up in the 
situation, he said. 

Mr. Kidd said the final test of the free 
enterprise system was whether it could do 
something about unemployment. 

Harvey Perry, Director of the Canadian 
Tax Foundation, said the Federal Govern- 
ment is better equipped now than it has 
been any time in the past quarter-century 
to meet a major recession, but any plans 
now existing could be useless if the Gov- 
ernment's economic balance was knocked 
out by some unexpected development. 

Dr. H. L. Pottle, Newfoundland Minister 
of Public Welfare, declared that "the main 
responsibility for maintaining a high degree 
of economic stability . . . rests with the 
Federal Government." 






Another panel under the chairmanship of 
George Blackburn, Director of Information, 
Federal Department of Labour, concluded 
that education was the key to relieving the 
employment problem of older workers. 

The panel declared that the time had 
arrived for the formation of community 
co-ordinating committees to bring direct 
influence to bear on specific problems of 
employment of older workers. The group 
also felt that such a committee should 
explore the problem of older people who 
are definitely unemployable. It was pointed 
out that there is a problem in "retaining 
in employment" as well as "obtaining 
employment" for these people. 

The new federal-provincial program of 
disability allowances for rehabilitation 
training was discussed by a panel headed 
by Maj.-Gen. E. L. M. Burns, Deputy 
Minister of Veterans' Affairs. H. C. 
Hudson, Assistant Co-ordinator of Civilian 
Rehabilitation, Department of Labour, said 



that expanding programs of rehabilitation 
of the disabled would result in the restora- 
tion of a large percentage of the disabled 
to their place of maximum usefulness in the 
community. 

A danger that the recently passed federal 
legislation providing allowances for disabled 
persons might interfere with possible reha- 
bilitation was seen by Dr. J. W. Willard, 
Director of Research, Department of 
National Health and Welfare. The problem, 
Dr. Willard said, is to work out methods 
of co-ordination between the federal gov- 
ernment and the provinces in problems of 
rehabilitation. 

"We are now in the position of having 
disability allowances without a well- 
developed rehabilitation program," he said. 

"We have to make sure that the disability 
allowances scheme doesn't run away with 
itself, that we don't have a lot of people 
on disability allowances who should have 
been rehabilitated," he explained. 



Personnel in Employment Security 

Meet in 41 st Annual Convention 



Canadian elected President and Canadian delegates and speakers take 
prominent part in proceedings. U.S. Under-Secretary of Labor warns 
that security programs must not create "a welfare-minded generation' 



Discussion at the 41st convention of the 
International Association of Personnel in 
Employment Security was concentrated on 
the theme, "Strengthening Employment 
Security through Constructive Supervision". 
Held at Asheville, N.C., from June 1 to 4, 
the convention was attended by 950 
delegates. 

Gearing this theme into the larger 
national orbit, Arthur Larson, United 
States Under-Secretary of Labor, threw out 
a challenge in his key-note address to his 
own countrymen, and more especially to 
personnel in employment security. He 
confronted the delegates with the com- 
pelling problem of making a government 
security program function as an adjunct to 
the free enterprise system and still not 
create "a welfare-minded generation". He 
declared this to be "the number one 
domestic issue of our time". 

Delegates were present from 43 states, 
the 10 provinces of Canada, from two 
United States Territories, from Japan, 



Israel, Korea, and Puerto Rico; they 
represented nearly 16,000 international 
members. 

From a Canadian viewpoint, one of the 
features of the gathering was the election 
as International President, by acclamation, 
of Ralph P. Hartley, of Moncton, N.B., 
Atlantic Regional Superintendent of the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission. 
Ralph Hartley thus succeeds an impressive 
list of international presidents from Canada 
— Bryce M. Stewart, R. A. Rigg, H. C. 
Hudson, V. C. Phelan and B. G. '(Bart) 
Sullivan. 

Serving under Ralph Hartley on the 
International Executive Board for 1954-55 
are: F. J. Kristjansson, District 13, 
Winnipeg; B. G. Sullivan, District 14. 
Toronto; and Marcel Guay, District 15, 
Montreal. 

Canadian delegates participated in the 
open forums, panel sessions, and work- 
shops; their contributions were well 
received. 



1123 








Ralph P. Hartley 

New IAPES President 



Major addresses were given by A. J. 
Boudreau, Commissioner, Civil Service 
Commission; Leo J. Curry, Assistant 
Executive Director, Unemployment Insur- 
ance Commission; and E. C. Desormeaux, 
Executive Secretary, Unemployment Insur- 
ance Commission. 

Prominent in the formal opening pro- 
ceedings was the reading of personal 
messages from the President of the United 
States and the Prime Minister of Canada. 
President Irene S. Gable was in the chair. 

Arthur Larson 

In his keynote address, Arthur Larson, 
United States Under-Secretary of Labor, 
sharply etched the social and economic 
implications inherent in a system of gov- 
ernment employment security thus: — 

.... We are a part of an over-all enter- 
prise whose success or failure is easily the 
number one domestic issue of our times. 
I will go further and say that this enter- 
prise is not only the most important 
domestic issue — it is by all odds the most 
difficult and delicately balanced. Someone 
may say: "All we do is handle unemploy- 
ment claims and help people get jobs — how 
do you magnify and glorify these activities 
into the greatest domestic problem of the 
age?" 



The answer is this: We are all part of 
one of the most crucial, audacious and risky 
demonstrations of tight-rope-walking in 
economic and political history. We are, in 
this country, attempting to get most of the 
benefits of a "welfare state" without at the 
same time damaging the dynamic character 
of our private enterprise system and without 
sacrificing our individual freedom, mobility 
and drive. We are determined to have 
security, and we are equally determined to 
get it with no loss of our characteristic 
American virtues of thrift, self-sufficiency, 
independence, and initiative. We are setting 
out to obtain almost all of the protection 
against unemployment, old age and disability 
promised by socialized governments through- 
out the world; but we propose to do this 
without any undue concentration of gov- 
ernmental power. . . . 

Can we provide the essentials of employ- 
ment security and still not create a 
"welfare-minded" generation? That is our 
challenge. 

It is no exaggeration to # say that the 
future of this country lies in the answer. 
If our security activities do indeed weaken 
the mainspring of our private-enterprise 
economy, stultify personal initiative, and 
turn this race of hardy pioneers into a mass 
of soft, lazy, whining dependents of the 
state, as some people predict, we will have 
been accessories to one of the greatest 
collective crimes in the history of any race. 
But if we successfully strike this balance 
of security and enterprise, stability and 
dynamic flexibility, we shall on the other 
hand have had a part in creating the most 
completely satisfactory society yet to 
appear. . . . 

Pointing out the necessity of getting 
across to the American public the real 
picture as to how the system complements 
a private-enterprise economy, Mr. Larson 
observed: — 

A great many Americans are still a little 
suspicious of all such things as social 
security, unemployment compensation and 
workmen's compensation. They have never 
learned the simple truth that these systems 
are all a business-like straightforward 
pattern of income insurance. 

A. J. Boudreau 

One of the principal participants in the 
forum on the "Influence of Constructive 
Supervision in Government and Industry" 
was A. J. Boudreau, Commissioner of 
Canada's Civil Service Commission. 

In his evaluation, Mr. Boudreau empha- 
sized that it was more difficult to measure 
constructive supervision in government 
than in industry, and that it was easier 
to assess efficiency in industry than in 
government. He said: — 

The balance sheet of any industry will 
tell a fairly accurate story as to the effi- 
ciency of its supervisors, supervision of its 
operations; whereas, in government, where 
operations lack the profit motive or where 
balance sheets do not tell the exact story 



1124 



at the end of the year, it is most difficult 
in any stage to evaluate the extent of con- 
structive supervision. 

One of the factors entering into super- 
vision, he considered, is the percentage of 
turn-over among employees. The Cana- 
dian Civil Service Commission was 
developing measures to reduce this factor, 
and with considerable success. 

We believe that the Canadian Civil Ser- 
vice is one of the lowest turn-over agencies, 
especially in light of conditions in the last 
few years. Our turn-over in the last few 
years has been about 7 per cent. Some 
agencies and some organizations have experi- 
enced staff turn-overs as high as 27 per cent. 
Cost of such a turn-over is, of course, hard 
to evaluate. 

Mr. Boudreau then observed: — 

We believe that supervision must be 
directed to the growth of the individual 
employee. The best guarantee of collective 
efficiency and power in operation is delibera- 
tion and use of the diversity of individual 
capacities which come to you as an employer. 
We have endeavoured to develop, based on 
that philosophy, not mainly the technical 
qualifications of our supervisory staff but 
the human qualities, using a number of 
methods to do so. We have been stressing 
the importance of personal relations to 
supervisors and to the rank and file of the 
staff. We believe that the real employment 
policy of any concern must be formulated 
on the basis of day-to-day and hour-to-hour 
relationships between the supervisors and 
the individual employees. The individual 
employee, we know, is a very sensitive social 
being who will respond to all sorts of real 
or imaginary influence. Those influences 
which act upon the efficiency of the employee 
must be known to the supervisor, must be 
analysed by the supervisor, and must be 
taken into account when endeavouring to 
achieve good employer-employee relations 
and the full utilization of capacities of the 
individual employee. 



Leo J. Curry 

Declaring that "we in the public services 
have been remiss in giving proper emphasis 
to the supervisory aspects of management," 
Leo J. Curry, Executive Director of the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission, told 
a luncheon session of delegates that the 
public services are too prone to regard 
supervision as "something of an art con- 
fined mainly to industry". 

Insisting that supervision and manage- 
ment cannot be divorced, he asserted: — 

It is my own opinion and the opinion of 
many of the administrators in our Unem- 
ployment Insurance Commission organization 
in Canada that the need exists more so in 
the public services than it does in industry; 
and, to be more specific, it exists more in 
the field of social security operations than 
it does perhaps in any other government 
operation and in most of the industrial 
operations. 



Emphasizing that effective supervision 
requires that supervisors be taken into the 
management circle and participate in 
planning, policy-making and decision, he 
concluded: — 

Participation or direct leadership produces 
or stimulates in people good relations, 
happiness, productivity and loyalty. If 
employees are happy and loyal, we have 
nothing to worry about. Whether in indus- 
try or public service, happy, loyal employees 
transmit this attitude to their families "and 
friends and the end result is that you have 
a happy and contented nation of people. 

E. C. Desormeaux 

Chairing the panel on "Strengthening 
Clerical Operations through Better Super- 
visory Methods," E. C. Desormeaux, 
Executive Secretary of the Unemployment 
Insurance Commission, set the pattern of 
discussion for this group and summarized 
its major recommendations. He outlined 
the problem as it applied to a large pool 
or a one-clerk office. 

He stressed that effective supervision 
within the organization increases in value 
with staff training, and the influence of the 
supervisor increases in proportion to his 
knowledge. 

"Moreover, the supervisor must have 
sufficient grasp of his problems, so that he 
may not only carry out the policy which 
has been laid down, but must also be able 
to appreciate new methods and to compare 
intelligently his own system with those of 
other similar organizations. 

"The attitude of the staff reflects the 
quality of his supervision and he will thus 
be concerned not only with on-the-job 
training, but with the broad field of human 
relations. If there is to be staff participa- 
tion, then the supervisor must be able and 
willing to discuss problems with his staff. 

"Following on from a well-trained organ- 
ization is the need for effective control." 

This section of the panel considered the 
effects and defects of centralized control, 
the quality of controls, the problems, scope 
and regularity of inspection, the produc- 
tion of group effort and such details as 
check lists, individual assignments and 
group assignments. 

Five panel sessions developed authori- 
tative appraisals of such subjects as 
supervisory training, methods of selection, 
evaluation, measurement of tangible results 
and evaluation of reactions and attitudes 
among those supervised. 

The panels, each running for about two 
hours, generally covered standards and pro- 
cedures currently in use by the several 
agencies both in the United States and 
Canada. 



1125 



Canadian Delegation 

The Canadian delegation held its annual 
luncheon and caucus under the chairman- 
ship of B. G. (Bart) Sullivan. At this 
session the Canadians set their sights on 
policy and matters pertaining to Canadian 
Chapters. 

Participating Chapter presidents included: 
R. C. Crosdale, Ontario; Oliver Deschamps, 
Quebec; Horace Keech, British Columbia; 
Roland Huggett, Alberta; J. F. Krist- 
jansson, Manitoba; R. P. Hartley, New 
Brunswick; and J. K. MacDonald, Atlantic 
Chapter. 

Other delegates from Canadian Chapters 
included: Roger Bergeron, Montreal; 
Roland Boisvert, Montreal; Edward Carr, 
Toronto; Rose Cloutier, Winnipeg; Marcel 
Guay, Montreal; M. C. Johnson, Winnipeg; 
Hazel O. Laycock; G. A. Lough, Halifax; 
Rose Mayorie; William McKinstry, Van- 
couver; Ruby E. Miller; Burton Pearson; 
T. Ross Pennington, Kitchener; N. C. 
Smith, Montreal; Sue Mulcahy, Orillia; 
J. Dingle, North Bay; J. Linegar, Windsor; 
and Norman Batten, St. John's. 

Messages Received 

Indicative of the status of this interna- 
tional organization of civil servants engaged 
in the administration of employment 
security were the messages received from 
President Eisenhower of the United States 
and Prime Minister St. Laurent of Canada. 

The following extract is from President 
Eisenhower's message: — 

Programs to improve and strengthen 
employment security have become an essen- 
tial part of the economy of the United 
States. By helping workers find employment, 
such programs help to maintain high employ- 
ment levels, and, through unemployment 
insurance, they enable workers to bridge 
periods of temporary unemployment. More 
important than the stabilization of the 
nation's purchasing power through these 
programs is the indispensable help unem- 
ployment insurance payments give many 
citizens at a crucial time. 

This program is, therefore, already funda- 
mental in our system. Yet it must become 
more effective. The Congress has been asked 
to broaden the coverage; and the States 
have been encouraged to increase both the 
benefits and their duration. I confidently 
hope that these legislative steps will soon 
be taken. 

The Rt. Hon. Louis St. Laurent sent 
his felicitations, in part as follows: — 



Meetings such as yours provide a splendid 
opportunity for sharing information and 
solving common problems. In addition, they 
contribute to goodwill and understanding 
among the groups and nationalities which 
are represented, and by so doing are an 
important factor in maintaining good official 
relations between the nations represented. 

Citations 

On the final evening of the convention 
the delegates honoured those who had 
rendered distinguished service in the field 
of employment security. This year's 
"Service Citation" was awarded to Basil 
Charles Seiple, Secretary-Treasurer of the 
Association for 24 consecutive years. Thus 
Mr. Seiple joins a distinguished citation 
alumni comprising: — 

1948 — Frances Perkins, Washington, D.C., 
member, U.S. Civil Service Com- 
mission (later U.S. Secretary of 
Labor). 
1950 — Arthur MacNamara, Ottawa, Deputy 
Minister of Labour for Canada. 
W. Frank Persons, San Diego, 
Calif., Director of Civil Service, 
San Diego County. 
1951 — Harry S. Truman, President of the 
United States of America. 
V. C. Phelan, Ottawa, Director, 
Canada Branch, International 
Labour Office. 
1953— Milton F. Gregg, Ottawa, Minister 
of Labour for Canada. 
By acclamation, Toronto was designated 
the convention city for 1956. 

Retiring President 

In her valedictory, Retiring President 
Irene S. Gable, who had been honoured 
by the delegate body for her "outstanding 
and distinguished service," urged the 
removal of constitutional barriers "which 
limit participation of employment security 
personnel of other free countries. 

"They are pleading with us to help them. 
They are looking to us for guidance. They 
are holding us, and what we stand for, up 
as a model. Yet because of limiting pro- 
visions of our constitution which demands 
dollar certification for memberships we are 
letting them down," she said. "There 
should be no monetary barrier to affiliation 
with us of any free country having a 
public employment security program of, by, 
and for its people." 



Canada's major labour congresses are holding their annual conventions this month 
and next. The Trades and Labour Congress of Canada meets August 23-28 at Regina 
for its 69th annual convention. The Canadian and Catholic Confederation of Labour 
will hold its 33rd annual convention at Montreal September 19 to 24 and the Canadian 
Congress of Labour its 14th annual convention at Toronto September 27 to October 1. 



1126 



From the Labour Gazette, August 1904 



50 Years Ago This Month 



Militia called out because of strike in Nova Scotia. William Lyon 
Mackenzie King, then Deputy Minister of Labour, brought parties to 
agreement. Canada's economic conditions were generally favourable 



Fifty years ago this summer, in July 
1904, the militia was called out as the 
result of a strike at a Nova Scotia steel 
mill, a strike brought to an end through 
the efforts of the late William Lyon 
Mackenzie King, then Deputy Minister of 
Labour. These events were reported in the 
August 1904 issue of the Labour Gazette, 
in which the strike was described as "the 
largest and most serious strike which has 
occurred in the Dominion during the 
present year". 

The strike began June 1, when between 
1,500 and 2,000 workers at the Dominion 
Iron and Steel Company at Sydney, N.S., 
members of the Provincial Workmen's 
Association, walked off the job to support 
their demand for a restoration of the wage 
scales in effect the previous December 1, 
at which time the company had imposed a 
pay cut. It ended July 22. 

In July the militia was called out and 
stationed near the company's mill. 

The Department of Labour, acting under 
the Conciliation Act of 1900, intervened on 
July 17. The Hon. Sir William Mulock, 
Minister of Labour, sent Mr. King to 
Sydney to attempt to bring about an 
understanding between the company and 
the workers. By July 22, after a series of 
meetings with both sides, Mr. King was 
able to report a satisfactory end to the 
dispute. 

No wage increases were agreed upon but 
the company agreed to reinstate employees 
in their former positions in so far as their 
jobs had remained vacant up to the end 
of the strike, to give employment to the 
largest number of workers possible by 
operating the plant to the fullest extent 
to which it would be profitable, not to 
discriminate against any worker for being 
a member of the Provincial Workmen's 
Association and finally to advise local 
magistrates that the recall of the troops 
stationed on or near the company's works 
would be justified. 

Throughout the rest of the country 20 
labour disputes were reported for the 
month of July. It was estimated that 
about 46,500 working days were lost as a 
result of these disputes. 



Wage rates paid in Canada 50 years ago 
present an interesting comparison with 
those in effect today. The Labour Gazette 
for August 1904 reported the following rates 
in effect for workers in the Government 
Printing Bureau at Ottawa: printers, $13.50 
a week; linotype operators, $16.65; press- 
men, $16; composing room foremen, $25 
and deputy foremen, $18. In Winnipeg, 
common labour was being paid at the rate 
of 17£ cents an hour while in Victoria, 
plumbers, gas and steamfitters received four 
dollars a day for eight hours' work. 

Sawmill workers at Disraeli, Que., had 
just had their working day cut from 12 
to 10 hours. 

Throughout the country as a whole, 
economic conditions were reported to be 
generally favourable, with employment 
more active in July than in June. Accord- 
ing to Labour Gazette correspondents, 
employment was on a normal basis and 
the demand for the supply of labour was 
stated to be well balanced. Employment 
conditions in Canada in this period were 
reported upon by correspondents at various 
centres in the country. According to the 
classification then in use, centres were 
listed as active, busy, very active, quiet, 
dull and very dull with respect to the 
labour market. Reports were received in 
1904 from correspondents in all the prov- 
inces with the exception of Saskatchewan 
and Alberta, which were still part of the 
Northwest Territories and did not enter 
Confederation until 1905. 

The cost of living was stable with only 
the price of meats and rents being noted 
as on the increase. Cured meats and 
canned goods were increasing in price in 
British Columbia while flour was showing a 
tendency to decline in price as a result of 
favourable crop reports from Western 
Canada. 

A large number of immigrants were 
arriving in Canada in 1904. According to 
figures released by the Department of the 
Interior, 75,892 immigrants had arrived 
during the first six months of the year, 
16,152 arriving during the month of June. 



1127 



International 
Labour Organization 



37 th General Conference Adopts 
Holidays with Pay Recommendation 

ILO's 98th, it states that all workers should be entitled to annual 
holiday with pay of not less than two weeks for 12 months of service 



The 37th general conference of the 
International Labour Organization on June 
24 closed its three weeks of deliberations 
in Geneva after adopting a formal Recom- 
mendation on holidays with pay. 

The conference also adopted several 
resolutions, rejected objections to seating 
the Chinese delegation, voted to seat the 
employer and worker delegates from the 
Soviet Union and other eastern European 
countries, adopted a budget for 1955, and 
heard an address by Director-General 
David A. Morse in reply to the discussion 
on his General Report. No Conventions 
were adopted at this session. 

More than 650 government, employer and 
worker delegates and observers from 66 of 
the ILO's 69 member countries attended 
the conference, which began June 2. 

The Recommendation on holidays with 
pay declares that employed persons, with 
certain exceptions, should be entitled to an 
annual paid holiday "proportionate to the 
length of service performed with one or 
more employers during the year concerned". 
The paid holiday should be "not less than 
two working weeks for twelve months of 
service". 

(Full text of the Recommendation is 
given on page 1132 of this issue.) 

The Recommendation was one of four 
"technical" questions considered by the 
conference. It was debated for the second 
year in succession under the ILO's "double 
discussion" procedure. 

The Recommendation is the 98th such 
international instrument to be approved by 
the ILO since its establishment in 1919. 

The Recommendation on holidays with 
pay was approved by the conference by 
146 votes to 11, with 39 abstentions. The 
Canadian government and worker dele- 
gates voted in favour, while the Canadian 
employer delegate voted against. 

The second report of the Committee on 
Holidays with Pay had appended to it a 
resolution concerning the utilization of 
holiday facilities. This resolution, sub- 
mitted by a number of workers' delegates, 



urged that consideration be given to a 
number of possible methods of assisting 
workers to derive maximum benefit from 
their annual holidays with pay. 

Such methods were provision for travel, 
increased accommodation in hotels and 
resorts, reduction in the price of transport, 
staggering of holidays, special schemes 
for financing holidays, information ser- 
vices, international co-operation and other 
measures. 

The resolution considered that "it may 
be necessary or desirable in certain coun- 
tries or certain areas to promote, encourage 
or supplement such facilities where they 
do not exist or are clearly inadequate, 
through action taken by public authorities, 
employers, workers' organizations or other 
appropriate bodies". 

Government's Stand 

During the general discussion, Donald S. 
Tysoe, Canadian government adviser, in- 
formed the conference that the Govern- 
ment of Canada found itself unable to 
support the resolution, and that the Cana- 
dian government delegates would abstain 
in any voting on it. 

Mr. Tysoe said the Government of 
Canada is sympathetic to sound social 
legislation and supports instruments which 
provide. proper and sensible objectives con- 
sistent with conditions in the world today. 
He said that despite some important 
reservations, the Government of Canada 
had supported the Recommendation on 
holidays with pay "because we feel that 
as a Recommendation it is acceptable for 
the guidance of members of the ILO". 

He said the standard of two weeks' 
holiday after one year of service is not the 
general practice in Canada. He said the 
Canadian governmnet delegates objected 
to the reference to holidays for service 
with one or more employers, to the lack 
of any qualifying period, and to the require- 
ment that young workers should be given 
longer holidays. 



1128 



"The application of this Recommendation 
in Canada," he said, "would be subject also 
to such considerations as conditions in our 
seasonal industries and the fact that this 
subject matter is in large measure under 
provincial jurisdiction. But we feel that 
in this international instrument the prin- 
ciple and the value of the majority of the 
provisions contained therein warrant our 
support of the Recommendation in spite of 
these reservations." 

Mr. Tysoe said the resolution on the 
utilization of holiday facilities was con- 
trary to the Canadian way of life. 

"We believe," he said, "that our people 
should be free of suggestion as to how they 
shall relax, what they shall do and where 
they shall go on holidays. We do not 
believe the Canadian workers want to be 
managed. Canada's social legislation is 
aimed at benefiting all of her people and 
not one particular section. We do not 
believe that Canadian workers would accept 
the implication in this resolution that 
workers require special treatment in a 
matter of this kind. 

"It is our conviction that the best 
solution to this problem in our expanding 
economy is in adherence to the principles 
that workers are entitled to a fair share 
of the nation's production, and that what 
they do with their earnings is no one's 
business but their own. We believe that 
this position is sound. Let the workers 
have their fair share of the nation's wealth, 
but let them retain their individual freedom 
to enjoy it as they choose. 

"Although this resolution is contrary to 
our principles, we recognize that some 
countries will welcome it. Consequently, 
we have decided merely to abstain in any 
voting." 

In a record vote, the resolution was 
adopted by 138 to with 52 abstentions. 
The Canadian workers' delegate, Claude 
Jodoin, voted in favour. 

Resolutions 

The conference agreed that the other 
three "technical" questions should come 
before next year's conference for "second 
discussion" with a view to the consideration 
of Recommendations. The three subjects 
are vocational rehabilitation of the disabled, 
penal sanctions for breaches of contract of 
employment, and the conditions of migrant 
workers in underdeveloped countries. 

The conference adopted a resolution, 
proposed by the Resolutions Committee 
after two weeks of study, which "noted 



with satisfaction the efforts and achieve- 
ments of the ILO" in the field of technical 
assistance. 

The resolution expressed belief that the 
special contribution of the ILO could be 
of major importance in assisting the 
economically less developed countries to 
promote a well-balanced economic and 
socially beneficial development designed to 
raise living standards. 

Another resolution adopted by the con- 
ference urged that governments make 
effective use of international machinery for 
expanding the flow of capital for the 
economic development of underdeveloped 
countries. The resolution also urged that 
private capital be encouraged to participate 
in the development of less-advanced 
countries. 

As in previous years, the conference 
reviewed the manner in which member 
countries are honouring their obligations in 
regard to the Conventions and Recom- 
mendations adopted at previous sessions. 
The report on this matter said there was 
considerable evidence of a general 
endeavour by governments to eliminate 
discrepancies between their legislation and 
the Conventions they had ratified. 

On the unanimous recommendation of its 
Credentials Committee, the conference 
decided that it was not competent to deal 
with objections, raised by the Polish 
Government delegation, to the seating of 
the Chinese delegation. It also rejected 
objections to seating the worker delegates 
of Panama, Venezuela, the Phillipines and 
the Dominican Republic. 

The conference also decided by 133 votes 
to 48 that the Republic of China should 
be permitted to vote in spite of the fact 
that it is more than two years in arrears 
in its contributions to the budget. A 
request that Hungary should also be 
permitted to vote, despite its arrears, was 
defeated by 82 votes to 71. 

After a day-long debate, the conference 
rejected proposals for unseating the 
employer and worker delegates of the 
USSR and other Communist countries. 

The proposal to refuse to seat the 
employer delegates from the Soviet Union, 
the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, 
the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, 
Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, 
and Poland was made by 32 members of 
the employers' group of the conference. 
On the recommendation of the govern- 
ment and worker members of the three- 
man Credentials Committee, the proposal 
was rejected by 105 votes to 79. with 26 
abstentions. The Canadian worker and 
employer delegates supported the proposal. 



1129 



The objection to seating the worker 
delegates of the Soviet Union and Czecho- 
slovakia came from the International Con- 
federation of Free Trade Unions. At the 
urging of the government and worker 
members of the Credentials Committee, 
this objection was turned down by 93 votes 
to 83, with 30 abstentions. The Canadian 
worker and employer delegates supported 
the objection. 

In both votes the Canadian government 
delegates abstained. 

The Credentials Committee submitted 
separate reports on the objections against 
the employers and the workers. In each 
case it divided by two to one. 

In the case of the employer delegates, 
the Committee denned the "essential" issue 
as being whether under the ILO constitu- 
tion a government of a country with a 
fully nationalized economy is entitled to 



nominate as employer delegates and 
advisers persons who are directors of, or 
are otherwise connected with, individual 
undertakings and have executive and 
managerial functions and responsibilities 
that correspond to those normally exer- 
cised by employers in other economic 
systems; and, accordingly, whether such 
nominations, when duly made, are valid 
under the constitution of the ILO. 

The Committee reported that the 
essence of the objections to the worker 
delegates was that "freedom of associa- 
tion does not exist in the USSR or in 
Czechoslovakia" and that the governments 
of those countries "were not in a position 
to nominate worker delegates 'in agreement 
with the industrial organizations . . . which 
are most representative of workpeople' in 
the spirit of the tripartite structure" of 
the ILO. 




K 









The Canadian delegation to the 37th International Labour Conference at Geneva- 
front row (left to right) : V. B. Anderson, Chairman, Manitoba Provincial Executive, 
and Secretary, Winnipeg and District Trades and Labour Council (TLC), worker adviser; 
J. A. Lapres, Canadian Construction Association representative, employer adviser; 
Pat Conroy, Canadian Labour Attache at Washington, government adviser; Harry Taylor, 
Canadian Manufacturers' Association representative, employer delegate; A. H. Brown, 
Deputy Minister of Labour, head of delegation; Claude Jodoin, TLC Vice-president, 
worker delegate; Hector Allard, government adviser; and Gerard Picard, General 
President, Canadian and Catholic Confederation of Labour, worker adviser; back row: 
W. K. McKee, Vice-president, Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employees, worker 
adviser; K. Mcllwraith, government adviser; Paul Goulet, Assistant to the Deputy 
Minister of Labour and Director, ILO Branch, government delegate; S. M. Gossage, 
Canadian Chamber of Commerce representative, employer adviser; J. A. Brass, General 
Secretary, Railway Association of Canada, employer adviser; Donald S. Tysoe, Indus- 
trial Relations Officer, Department of Labour, government adviser; W. A. Campbell, 
CM A representative, employer adviser; Ian Campbell, National Co-ordinator of Civilian 
Rehabilitation, Department of Labour, government adviser; and J. P. Francis, Depart- 
ment of Labour, secretary to the delegation. H. A. Chappell, President, Canadian Brother- 
hood of Railway Employees and Other Transport Workers, is missing from the picture. 

— Photo by Kernen, Geneva 



1130 




Harry Chappell 

Adviser to Workers' Delegate 

On the proposal of its Finance Com- 
mittee, the conference voted 197 to one, 
with three abstentions, to adopt a budget 
of $6,745,196 to finance the ILO's work in 
1955. This sum exceeds the 1954 figure by 
$434,026. The United States employer 
delegate cast the single vote against its 
adoption. 

Director-General's Reply 

In his reply to the debate on his report, 
Director-General Morse said that the ILO's 
accomplishments during the last 35 years 
resulted "largely because it has kept politics 
out of its technical activities". 

The Director-General agreed that the 
recent adherence to membership by the 
Soviet Union, Byelorussia and the Ukraine 
raised problems; but, he said, it was "no 
time to recoil from the path towards 
universality". Rather it was the duty of 
the delegates, he said, to consider "how 
we may turn this new membership situa- 
tion to advance the cause of peace. 

"Before long," he continued, "we must 
come to grips with the issues proper to 
the fundamental purposes of the ILO. 

"Our record of constructive co-operation 
on substantive problems of social policy 
must continue uninterrupted — our research, 
the work of setting agreed standards, our 
technical assistance which so many of you 
emphasized. 

"We will continue to deal with forced 
labour questions. 



"We will press forward with action to 
defend, freedom of association. These are 
purposes for which the ILO exists. The 
pursuit of these will call for a full measure 
of mature objectivity and restraint, of 
passion for truth and justice — and of 
responsible democratic procedure. Our 
object must be to help men be free, not 
to make propaganda. Only thus can the 
issues be made clear to the whole world." 

Turning to future opportunities for the 
ILO to promote and strengthen worker- 
employer relations, Mr. Morse said he 
intended to make labour-management 
relations a special theme in his report to 
next year's conference. 

"I hope thereby," he said, "to initiate 
a new phase in ILO action, carrying our 
program a stage further. This program 
began with the traditional research and 
standard-setting work of the ILO. Research 
provides the raw material information on 
social conditions, and the standards 
approved by this conference lay down basic 
objectives for national policy on the 
various problems we have to deal with. 

"Several years ago we moved into the 
technical assistance phase, as a means of 
helping governments overcome practical 
obstacles in the way of carrying out their 
social policies. These two phases are 
complementary, but they alone do not 
cover the whole of our field. 

"Good labour-management relations are 
essential to give a full and sustaining life 
to the process of social betterment. This, 
I submit, is the third phase into which our 
program should now begin to move. It is 
a phase in which we will have to treat 
carefully and with due deliberation. It 
may well call for the adoption of new 
methods of action. But it should also 
offer the ILO new and greater oppor- 
tunities for seeing its objectives attained 
throughout the world. 

"In our approach to labour-management 
relations, the main emphasis, I am con- 
vinced — and many of your statements have 
strengthened this conviction — should be on 
the human factor. The essential thing is 
to give men a sense of purpose in their 
work. Only when men have this sense of 
purpose — only when they understand how 
by their work they contribute to the well- 
being of society — can they have that con- 
fidence in their own true worth which is 
the mark of freedom." 

Concluding his address, Mr. Morse said: 
"Through these programs which I have 
mentioned briefly we have the essentials of 



1131 



the ILOs purpose in the world. Now, 
when this Organization has a more extensive 
membership than ever before, is the time 
to turn forcefully to the essentials in our task. 



"We live in a time when failure or 
unwillingness to face the realities of life 
across the council table may ultimately 
mean to face the awful realities of war." 



Text of Recommendation Concerning Holidays with Pay 



Following is the text of Resolution No. 98, concerning Holidays with Pay, adopted at 
the 37th general conference of the International Labour Organization: — 

The General Conference of the Interna- 
tional Labour Organization, 

Having been convened at Geneva by 
the Governing Body of the International 



Labour Office, and having met in its 
Thirty-seventh Session on June 2, 1954, 
and 

Having decided upon the adoption of 
certain proposals with regard to holidays 
with pay, which is the seventh item on 
the agenda of the session, and 

Having determined that these proposals 
shall take the form of a Recommendation, 
adopts this Twenty-third day of June of the 
year One thousand nine hundred and fifty- 
four the following Recommendation, which 
may be cited as the Holidays with Pay 
Recommendation, 1954: 

The Conference recommends that the 
following provisions should be applied and 
that each Member should report to the 
International Labour Office as requested by 
the Governing Body concerning the measures 
taken to give effect thereto. 

1. (1) Having regard to the variety of 
national practices, the provisions of this 
Recommendation may be given effect by 
means of public or voluntary action, through 
legislation, statutory wage fixing machinery, 
collective agreements or arbitration awards, 
or in any other manner consistent with 
national practice, as may be appropriate 
under national conditions. 

(2) The adoption of any procedures speci- 
fied in subparagraph (1) should not prejudice 
the particular concern of governments to 
call into action all appropriate constitutional 
or legal machinery when voluntary action, 
action by employers' and workers' organiza- 
tions or collective agreements do not give 
speedy and satisfactory results. 

2. The follownig forms of action might be 
considered, inter alia, by the competent 
authority in the various countries, wherever 
appropriate: 

(a) encouraging the provision of holidays 
with pay through collective agreements 
freely concluded by both parties participat- 
ing in collective bargaining machinery; 

(b) assisting employers' and workers' 
organizations to establish joint voluntary 
machinery, or establishing, where necessary, 
statutory machinery, which would, inter alia, 
be competent to determine annual holidays 
with pay in a particular trade or activity; 

(c) granting powers in the field of annual 
holidays with pay to existing statutory wage 
fixing bodies where these bodies do not 
already possess such powers; 

(d) collecting detailed information regard- 
ing provisions governing annual holidays 
with pay, and making such information 
available to employers' and workers' 
organizations. 



3. The Recommendation applies to all 
employed persons, with the exception of 
seafarers, agricultural workers and persons 
employed in undertakings or establishments 
in which only members of the employer's 
family are engaged. 

4. (1) Every person covered by this 
Recommendation should be entitled to an 
annual holiday with pay. The duration of 
the annual holiday with pay should be 
proportionate to the length of service per- 
formed with one or more employers during 
the year concerned and should be not less 
than two working weeks for twelve months 
of service. 

(2) The appropriate machinery in each 
country may, where appropriate, determine — 

(a) the number of days which a worker 
should have worked to become eligible for 
the annual holiday with pay or for a pro- 
portion thereof; 

(b) the method of calculating the period 
of service of a worker in a particular year 
for the purpose of determining the annual 
holiday with pay to be taken by him in 
respect of that year. 

(3) It should be left to the appropriate 
machinery in each country to provide that, 
where employment ceases before the worker 
has completed the service necessary to 
become eligible for an annual holiday with 
pay in accordance with the provisions of 
subparagraphs (1) and (2) above, he should 
be entitled to a holiday with pay propor- 
tionate to the period of service performed 
or to compensation in lieu thereof or to the 
equivalent holiday credit, whichever is the 
more practicable. 

5. The appropriate machinery in each 
country should determine the days such as 
public or customary holidays, days of 
weekly rest, days of absence from work on 
account of accident at work or sickness, and 
periods of rest occasioned by pre- and post- 
natal care which are not to be counted as 
days of holiday with pay for the purpose 
of these provisions. 

6. It should be left to the appropriate 
machinery in each country to determine 
whether the duration of the annual holiday 
with pay should increase with length of 
service or by reason of other factors. 

7. (1) Interruptions of work during which 
the worker receives wages should not affect 
entitlement to or the duration of the annual 
holiday with pay. 

(2) Interruptions of work which do not 
give rise to a termination of the employ- 
ment relationship or contract should not 
affect any entitlement to a holiday with pay 
which has been accumulated prior to the 
interruption. 

3. The appropriate machinery in each 
country should determine the manner in 
which the principles set out in subparagraphs 



1132 



(1) and (2) above should bo applied to 
interruptions of work occasioned by — 

(a) sickness, accident and periods of rest 
occasioned by pre- and post-natal care; 

(b) absences on accounts of family events; 

(c) military obligations; 

(d) the exercise of civic rights and duties; 

(e) the performance of duties arising from 
trade union responsibilities; 

(f) changes in the management of the 
undertaking; 

(g) intermittent involuntary unemploy- 
ment. 

8. The entitlement of a worker to the 
annual holiday with pay and the duration 
of such holiday should not be affected by 
interruptions occasioned by pregnancy and 
confinement if the worker concerned resumes 
employment and if her absence does not 
exceed a specified period. 

9. (1) There should be consultation 
between employers and workers regarding 
the time when the annual holiday with pay 
is to be taken. In determining this time 
the personal wishes of the worker should be 
taken into consideration as far as possible. 

(2) The worker should be notified of the 
date at which the annual holiday with pay 
is to begin sufficiently in advance so that he 
can make use of his holiday in an appro- 
priate manner. 

10. Young workers under eighteen years 
of age should receive a longer period of 
annual holiday with pay than the minimum 
provided for in Paragraph 4. 

11. Every person taking an annual holiday 
with pay should receive in respect of the 
full period of the holiday, at the minimum, 
either — 



(a) the remuneration determined for such 
holiday period l>.\ collective agreements, arbi- 
tration awards or national laws and regula- 
tions; or 

(b) his normal remuneration, as prescribed 
by national laws or regulations or by any 
other means established by national practice, 
including the cash equivalent of his remun- 
eration in kind, if any. 

12. It should be left to collective agree- 
ments, arbitration awards, or national laws 
and regulations, to prescribe the system of 
holiday records which should be maintained 
and the particulars which should be in- 
cluded in such records, as may be necessary 
for the proper administration of provisions 
or regulations concerning annual holidays 
with pay. 

13. Preliminary consultation, in such a 
manner and to such an extent as may be 
consistent with national laws and practice, 
should take place between representative 
organizations of employers and workers and 
the competent authorities prior to the fram- 
ing of laws or regulations governing annual 
holidays with pay. 

14. Representative organizations of 
employers and workers should be given an 
opportunity to participate on a basis of 
complete equality in the operation of bodies 
entrusted by national laws or regulations 
with the determination of annual holidays 
with pay or in the implementation of regu- 
lations concerning annual holidays with pay, 
or should be consulted or have a right to be 
heard in such a manner and to such an 
extent as may be consistent with national 
laws and practice. 



ILO Increases Emphasis on Labour-Management Relations 



Increasing emphasis is being placed upon 
the field of labour-management relations by 
the International Labour Organization, 
David A. Morse, ILO Director-General, 
told the United Nations Economic and 
Social Council July 15. Mr. Morse said 
the ILO could play "an increasingly useful 
part in this phase of work which is of 
vital importance in the whole economic and 
social field" by drawing on the views of 
employers' and workers' organizations. The 
Director spoke in introducing the ILO's 
annual report to the UN. 

Referring to the Organization's opera- 
tional work, the Director noted that what 
could be done under the Expanded Tech- 
nical Assistance Program depended upon 
what had been requested by the under- 
developed countries and on available 
resources. In this connection he added that 
"it is of the greatest importance that we 
have some firm assurance of the resources 
at our disposal over a given period of 
time". 

Discussing forced labour and freedom of 
association, Mr. Morse stated that recent 
ILO decisions implied an increased attack 



upon forced labour practices of an 
economic nature, an intensified effort to 
secure the application of ILO standards 
and a revision of these standards when 
necessary. He noted that the very exist- 
ence of machinery for the investigation and 
conciliation of disputes arising from allega- 
tions of the violation of freedom of 
association was "itself a deterrent to 
abuses". The operation of such machinery 
had had "a steady influence favouring 
respect in practice for freedom of associa- 
tion" but its accomplishment depended 
upon the co-operation of the governments 
and trade unions concerned, the ILO 
Director noted. Respect for human rights 
could not be secured on any sound and 
lasting basis solely by protective measures, 
he added. 

Mr. Morse concluded his remarks as 
follows: "Our job of promoting respect for 
human rights will not be complete, unless 
we help foster the conditions in which 
freedom can flourish, the institutions 
through which men can work together in 
freedom, and the habit of overcoming 
problems by mutual co-operation". 



1133 




TEAMWORK 
in INDUSTRY 



Many LMPC bulletin boards took on a 
more colourful appearance during June 
when the first in the 1954 series of posters 
issued by the Labour-Management Co- 
operation Service made its appearance. 
Accompanying each poster is a pay 
envelope stuffer which enlarges on the 
poster's message. 

A sample of the current poster and 
stuffer is sent to each LMPC on the list 
maintained by the Department of Labour. 
Quantity orders may then be placed. No 
charge is made for this service. 

This year's stuffers tend more towards a 
short snappy message, rather than the 
more lengthy explanatory type previously 
used. This should appeal to the average 
reader. 

All of the posters are attractively printed 
in colour and are approximately 13 inches 
by 10 inches in size. The importance of 
some problem faced by LMPCs is stressed 
in each. Included in the subjects dealt 
with are good housekeeping, absenteeism, 
safety, fire prevention and conservation. 
* * * 

More than 50 representatives of labour 
and management attended the 28th annual, 
system meeting of the Union-Management 
Co-operative Movement, Mechanical Sec- 
tion, Canadian National Railways, held in 
Montreal recently. Top executives of the 
railway and the unions met to discuss the 
system-wide system of co-operation which 
has been successfully carried on since 1926. 

The Chairman of the meeting was A. C. 
Melanson, Chief of Motive Power and Car 
Equipment, and the labour delegation was 
headed by J. J. Cuppello, Montreal, 
President, CNR System Federation No. 11, 
and H. Smith, Montreal, President and 
Secretary-Treasury of Division No. 4 AFL. 
Donald Gordon, C.M.G., CNR President, 
addressed the meeting. 

During 1953, 814 regional co-operative 
meetings were held and 1,157 different 
subjects reviewed. Of these, 837 recom- 
mendations were adopted, 74 were dropped 
and the rest are either pending or deferred 
to a later date. This means that more 
than 72 per cent of committee recommen- 
dations became effective. 

1134 



Under the chairmanship of R. 0. 
Steward, System Chief Engineer, approxi- 
mately 50 CNR management and labour 
representatives met in Montreal for the 
23rd annual meeting of the Maintenance 
of Way Section, Union-Management Co- 
operative Movement. LabQur delegates 
from across the country were headed by 
F. P. Donovan, Winnipeg, and J. E. Roy, 
Ottawa, General Chairmen of the Brother- 
hood of Maintenance of Way Employees. 
Vice-president of Operations S. F. Dingle 
addressed the meeting. 

A total of 1,264 items was discussed in 
the 138 labour-management meetings held 
in 1953. Of these, 63 per cent originated 
with the employees and 37 per cent with 
management. Subjects discussed ranged 
from improved tools and housing condi- 
tions to rules, safety, first aid and fire 
prevention. 

Due to the effective work of the 
Employee-Management Co-operation Com- 
mittee, the work of claims prevention at 
the Montreal Terminal of the Canadian 
National Express has produced effective 
results. Items published in two recent 
editions of the Mount Royal News dis- 
cussed this work. The Mount Royal News 
is the monthly news sheet of Division 
No. 39, Canadian Brotherhood of Railway 
Employees and Other Transport Workers, 
the bargaining agent. 

The items said: — 

"The figures indicate that our EMCC 
(i.e. LMPC), Claims Prevention Com- 
mittee and our members have really gone 
to town on this issue with the result that 
there has been a tremendous drop in the 
costs of claims. 

"This group of our fellow workers have 
really got down to cases, have tackled 
their job with earnestness and vigour. It 
is now paying results after a long time of 
seemingly wasted effort. But persistence 
and co-operation have won out and the 
faith that some of our people had that 
this could work has been fully justified." 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Production Committees (LMPCs) is 
encouraged and assisted by the Labour- 
Management Co-operation Service, In- 
dustrial Relations Branch, Department 
of Labour. In addition to field repre- 
sentatives located in key industrial 
centres, who are available to help both 
managements and trade unions set up 
LMPC's, the Service provides publicity- 
aids in the form of booklets, films and 
posters. 






Industrial Relations 
and Conciliation 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board met 
for one day during June. The Board issued 
five certificates designating bargaining agents, 
issued Reasons for Judgment in two applica- 
tions for certification, ordered one represen- 
tation vote, and allowed the withdrawal of 
one application for certification. During the 
month, the Board received one application 
for certification. 



This section covers proceedings under 
the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act, involving the admin- 
istrative services of the Minister of 
Labour, the Canada Labour Relations 
Board and the Industrial Relations 
Branch of the Department. 



Scope and Administration of Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Indus- 
trial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act are provided by the Minister 
of Labour through the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch. The branch also acts as 
the administrative arm of the Canada 
Labour Relations Board in matters under 
the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on 
September 1, 1948. It revoked the War- 
time Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 
1003, which became effective in March, 
1944, and repealed the Industrial Dis- 
putes Investigation Act, which had been 
in force from 1907 until superseded by 
the Wartime Regulations in 1944. Deci- 
sions, orders and certifications given 
under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime 
Labour Relations Board are continued in 
force and effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, ship- 
ping, interprovincial railways, canals, 
telegraphs, interprovincial and interna- 
tional steamship lines and ferries, aero- 
dromes and air transportation, radio 
broadcasting stations and works declared 
by Parliament to be for the general 
advantage of Canada or two or more of 
its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if 
they so desire, may enact similar legis- 
lation for application to industries 
within provincial jurisdiction and make 
mutually satisfactory arrangements with 
the federal Government for the admin- 
istration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is 
directly responsible for the appointment 
of conciliation officers, conciliation boards, 
and Industrial Inquiry Commissions con- 
cerning complaints that the Act has been 
violated or that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively, and for applications 
for consent to prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the cer- 
tification of bargaining agents, the writ- 
ing of provisions — for incorporation into 
collective agreements — fixing a procedure 
for the final settlement of disputes con- 
cerning the meaning or violation of such 
agreements and the investigation of com- 
plaints referred to it by the minister that 
a party has failed to bargain collectively 
and to make every reasonable effort to 
conclude a collective agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regula- 
tions made under the Act, and the Rules 
of Procedure of the Canada Labour 
Relations Board are available upon 
request to the Department of Labour, 
Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: 
(1) Certification and other Proceedings 
before the Canada Labour Relations 
Board, and (2) Conciliation and other 
Proceedings before the Minister of 
Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the 
Department of Labour are stationed at 
Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa,' 
Montreal, Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's, Newfoundland. The territory of 
two officers resident in Vancouver com- 
prises British Columbia, Alberta and the 
Yukon and Northwest Territories; two 
officers stationed in Winnipeg cover the 
provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba 
and Northwestern Ontario; three officers 
resident in Toronto confine their activi- 
ties to Ontario; three officers in Mont- 
real are assigned to the province of 
Quebec, and a total of three officers 
resident in Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. 
The headquarters of the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch and the Director of 
Industrial Relations and staff are situated 
in Ottawa. 



93709- 



1135 



Applications for Certification Granted 

1. Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, on 
behalf of a unit of conductors and assistant 
conductors employed by the Quebec 
Central Railway (L.G., June, p. 814). 

2. Sherbrooke Printing S3'ndicate, Inc., on 
behalf of a unit of employees of La Tribune 
Ltee. (Radio Station CHLT), Sherbrooke, 
Que. (L.G., May, p. 669). 

3. Sherbrooke Printing Sjmdicate, Inc., on 
behalf of a unit of employees of Sherbrooke 
Telegram, Printing and Publishing Com- 
pany Limited (Radio Station CKTS), 
Sherbrooke, Que. (L.G., May, p. 669). 

4. Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen 
and Enginemen, on behalf of a unit of 
locomotive firemen, firemen-helpers, hostlers 
and outside hostler helpers employed on 
the Canada Southern Division of the 
Michigan Central Railroad Company (New 
York Central Railroad, Lessee) (L.G., 
June, p. 814). 

5. Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, on behalf of a 
unit of licensed personnel employed by 
Anticosti Shipping Company, Montreal, 
Que. (L.G., July, p. 992). 

Representation Vote Ordered 

Canadian Merchant Service Guild Inc., 
applicant, and Transit Tankers and 



Terminals Limited, Montreal, Que., 
respondent, and Local 13735, United Mine 
Workers of America, District 50, Region 75, 
intervener (deck officers) (L.G., July, 
p. 992). The names of the applicant and 
intervener will appear on the ballot. 

Application for Certification Withdrawn 

The Eastern Townships Telephone Oper- 
ators' Union, applicant, and the Bell 
Telephone Company of Canada, respondent 
(L.G., June, p. 814). 

Application for Certification Received 

West Coast Seamen's Union (Canada), 
on behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
of Pacific Towing Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. 
(Investigating Officer: G. R. Currie). 

Reasons for Judgment Issued 

The Board issued Reasons for Judgment 
in applications for certification affecting the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
Enginemen, applicant, and Michigan 
Central Railroad Company, Canada 
Southern Division (New York Central 
Railroad, Lessee) and Wabash Railroad 
Company, Buffalo Division, Lines East of 
Detroit, respondents, and Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Engineers, intervener (L.G., 
July, p. 991). The text of the Reasons 
for Judgment is reproduced below. 



Reasons for Judgment in Certification Applications affecting 



Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen (applicant) 

and 

Michigan Central Railroad Company, Canada Southern Division (New York 

Central Railroad, lessee) and Wabash Railroad Company, Buffalo Division 

(lines east of Detroit) (respondents) 

and 

Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers (intervener) 



These are two applications for certifica- 
tion as bargaining agent by the Brother- 
hood of Locomotive Firemen and Engine- 
men for units of locomotive engineers 
employed by the respondent companies in 
their railway operations in Canada. 

The greater part of the railway under- 
takings affected by these proceedings are 
in the United States but both railway 
operate between Detroit, Mich., and Buffalo, 
N.Y., by way of Southwestern Ontario in 
Canada. 

The locomotive engineers in the two units 
applied for reside in Canada and perform 
their duties in Canada, though in some few 
cases their runs extend across the interna- 
tional boundary line between the United 
States and Canada. Through their employ- 



The Board consisted of Mr. C. 
Rhodes Smith, Chairman, and Messrs. 
W. L. Best, J. A. D'Aoust, A. J. Hills, 
A. R. Mosher and A. C. Ross, members. 



ment by United States railway companies, 
the locomotive engineers employed in 
Canada have been brought under the 
United States Railroad Retirement Act and 
the Railroad Unemployment Act, and 
receive the same rates of pay as locomotive 
engineers employed by the respondents in 
their United States operations. 

The respondent Companies have each 
notified the Board that they do not wish 
to intervene to contest these applications 
for certification. 



1136 



The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engi- 
neers has intervened to contest the applica- 
tions and has submitted both written and 
oral representations against the applica- 
tions. The intervener has argued that for 
many years the two units of locomotive 
engineers embraced in the applications 
have been represented by the Brotherhood 
of Locomotive Engineers and have been 
included respectively in two system-wide 
units of locomotive engineers employed by 
the respondent Companies in both the 
United States and in Canada, and that the 
granting of these applications will result in 
comparatively small groups of locomotive 
engineers being separated from such long- 
established and appropriate international 
bargaining units. 

In arguing that units confined to Cana- 
dian locomotive engineers would not be 
appropriate, the intervener has set forth 
that there is no logical basis for the appli- 
cations, as on these railways a locomotive 
engineer, regardless of his organizational 
affiliation, has the right to have the 
applicant represent him in the adjustment 
of grievances, if he so desires, and that 
confusion in international railway opera- 
tions will result if as the result of certifi- 
cation proceedings a dividing line is drawn 
at the international boundary for purposes 
of representation in collective bargaining. 
The intervener contends that for these 
reasons and the fact that the Canadian 
employees of the respondents have bene- 
fited materially through their past collec- 
tive bargaining association with the United 
States employees in common bargaining 
units represented by the intervener, the 
applications for certification should not be 
granted and the existing recognized bargain- 
ing units should be allowed to remain 
undisturbed. 

In 1945, the Wartime Labour Relations 
Board (National), the predecessor of this 
Board, dealt with similar representation 
proceedings involving road train conductors 
employed in Canada by the two respon- 
dents and also the Pere Marquette Rail- 
road Company (Canadian Division). In 
those proceedings the applicant was the 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen and the 
applications were contested by the Order of 
Railway Conductors, the organization which 
was bargaining for system-wide units of 
road train conductors employed in both 
Canada and the United States. 

The Wartime Board gave reasons for 
judgment in the 1945 proceedings (CLS 
7-582) and ordered votes of the employees 
affected with the names of both organiza- 
tions on the ballot. The conditions and 
circumstances surrounding the applications 



93709—4* 



before the Wartime Board in 1945 were 
practically identical with the conditions and 
circumstances surrounding the applications 
here under consideration. The position was 
then, and still is, that the United States 
National Mediation Board, because its 
territorial jurisdiction is confined to the 
United States, can not allow Canadian 
employees to participate in representation 
proceedings before it, and Canadian rail- 
way employees can not have grievances 
processed before the United States National 
Railroad Adjustment Board. To meet this 
latter situation, the Wartime Board in 
April 1946, on an application participated 
in by the applicant and internever here, 
established a grievance procedure for cer- 
tain classes of Canadian railway employees 
of the Wabash Railroad Company (CLS 
7-624). 

This instance is cited to make it clear 
that, even though some conditions of 
employment of United States railway 
employees have been applied to the Cana- 
dian employees here involved, there are 
instances where these Canadian employees 
cannot avail themselves of the provisions 
of United States legislation and, therefore, 
should have access to the benefits afforded 
by Canadian legislation. The intervener 
itself recognized this fact in participating 
in the 1946 application for the grievance 
procedure referred to above. 

It is beyond question, and the inter- 
vener has not argued otherwise, that the 
employees affected in these proceedings are 
within Canadian territorial jurisdiction and 
within the scope of the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act. They 
are subject to the penalty provisions for 
breach of the Act and, therefore, have a 
right to the benefits or services given 
under the Act. To deny them the right to 
choose a bargaining agent because they 
have hitherto formed minority parts of 
bargaining units comprising both Canadian 
and United States employees would be to 
deny to them the rights conferred by Cana- 
dian labour relations legislation while 
requiring from them the duties prescribed 
in such legislation, though they can have 
no voice in representation proceedings in- 
volving them originating in the United 
States. Such a policy would mean that 
the larger United States portion of the 
international unit could keep or change its 
bargaining agent regardless of the wishes 
of the minority in Canada. 

The converse disability would apply in 
the case of L T nited States employees who 
formed parts of bargaining units, the 
larger portion of which comprised Cana- 
dian employees, if they were denied access 

1137 



I i United States Legislation. Such access 
is not denied as will be seen from the 
action taken by the United States National 
Mediation Board in Case No. R-1551, 
January 28, 1946, which involved certifica- 
tion proceedings initiated by the Order of 
Railway Conductors affecting road con- 
ductors employed in the United States by 
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company on 
its Eastern Lines in New England. In 
that case, the road conductors involved 
were represented by the Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen, which also repre- 
sented the far larger number of road 
conductors employed by the Company in 
Canada. The United States Board directed 
that a vote be taken of the road con- 
ductors "citizens of and domiciled in the 
United States". 

While system-wide units are generally 
appropriate for collective bargaining on 
the national scene, internationally they 
lose the essence of that quality if the 
groups of employees in either country 
desire representation by separate or 
different bargaining agents. The different 
labour legislation of the two countries, and 
changes in such legislation, may dictate 
from time to time separate courses of 
action for the employees in Canada and 
those in the United States. 

In the opinion of the Board it would 
be inequitable and not conducive to stable 
labour relations to so confine groups of 
employees forming minority parts of 
bargaining units which have hitherto 
bargained as international units. If such 
groups of employees should elect to change 
their bargaining agent, it may be that, as 
the intervener contends, some bargaining 
problems will arise at the points where the 
two units meet, but these should be 
adjusted in the same spirit of compromise 



and good faith between the two unions as 
should apply in collective bargaining 
generally. 

The Board is of opinion that the units 
of locomotive engineers involved in these 
proceedings should be allowed to determine 
their choice of bargaining agent and, as in 
the 1945 proceedings, the units applied for 
have been found to be appropriate in the 
circumstances and votes of employees have 
been ordered with the names of both the 
applicant and the intervener on the ballots. 
The elections have been held and a 
majority of the employees in each unit 
have voted in favour of representation by 
the applicant. Accordingly the Board has 
granted certification in each case. 

(Sgd.) C. Rhodes Smith, 
Chairman, 

for the majority 
of the Board. 
I dissent: 

(Sgd.) A. J. Hills, 
Member. 
J. G. McLean, Esq. 
H. J. Brennan, Esq. 
A. Ethier, Esq. 
E. T. Shiplett, Esq. 
W. S. Bell, Esq. 

for the Applicant. 
D. M. Fleming, Esq. QC 
C. F. Grimes, Esq. 

For the Respondent, 

Michigan Central 

Railroad Company. 
J. B. Ward, Esq. 
U. W. Carpenter, Esq. 
C. J. Brabenac, Esq. 
L. J. Anderson, Esq. 
M. T. Barry, Esq. 

for the Intervener. 
Dated at Ottawa, June 23, 1954. 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During June the Minister appointed con- 
ciliation officers to deal with the following 
disputes: — 

1. Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
(SS Princess Helene) and Seafarers' Inter- 
national Union of North America, Cana- 
dian District (Conciliation Officer: H. R. 
Pettigrove). 

2. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway 
Employees and Other Transport Workers 



and Colonial Coach Lines Limited, 
Montreal, Que. (Conciliation Officer: 
R. Trepanier). 

Settlements Reported by Conciliation Officers 

1. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 
and International Alliance of Theatrical 
Stage Employees and Moving Picture 
Machine Operators of the United States 
and Canada (Conciliation Officer: F. J. 
Ainsborough) (L.G, July, p. 992). 



1138 



2. Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
(Sleeping Car Department) and Order of 
Railway Conductors of America (Concilia- 
tion Officer: R. Trepanier) (L.G., July, 
p. 992). 

3. Lake of the Woods Milling Company 
Limited, Medicine Hat, and United Pack- 
inghouse Workers of America, Local 510 
(Conciliation Officer: R. H. Hooper) 
(L.G., June, p. 815). 

Conciliation Boards Appointed 

1. Gatineau Bus Company Limited, and 
Amalgamated Association of Street, Elec- 
tric Railway and Motor Coach Employees 
of America (Conciliation Officer: R. 
Trepanier) (L.G., July, p. 992). 

2. Lakehead Terminal Elevators Associa- 
tion, representing elevator companies at 
Fort William and Port Arthur, and Local 
650, Brotherhood of Railway and Steam- 
ship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees (Conciliation Officer: 
R. H. Hooper) (L.G., May, p. 670). 

Conciliation Boards Fully Constituted 

The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in May to deal with 
matters in dispute between the Polymer 
Corporation Limited, Sarnia, and United 
Gas. Coke and Chemical Workers, Local 14 
(L.G., July, p. 993) was fully constituted 
in June with the appointment of Eric G. 



Taylor, Toronto, as Chairman. Mr. Taylor 
was appointed by the Minister in the 
absi nee of a joint recommendation from 
the other two members, J. C. Richardes, 
Windsor, Ont., and A. Andras, Ottawa, 
who were previously appointed on the 
nomination of the company and union 
respectively. 

The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in May to deal with 
matters in dispute between the Canadian 
Overseas Telecommunication Corporation 
(clerical employees), Montreal, and Local 
272, Overseas Communication Union (L.G., 
July, p. 993) was fully constituted in June 
with the appointment of Prof. H. D. Woods, 
Montreal, as Chairman. Prof. Woods was 
appointed by the Minister on the joint 
recommendation of the other two members, 
C. H. Cheasley, Montreal, and A. Andras, 
Ottawa, who were previously appointed on 
the nomination of the company and union 
respectively. 

Strike Following Board Procedure 

The Oshawa Railway Company (Cana- 
dian National Railways) and Division 1255, 
Amalgamated Association of Street, Elec- 
tric Railway and Motor Coach Employees 
of America (L.G., July, p. 993). The 
strike was elected in June following further 
negotiations between the company and 
union. 



NLRB Rules Unions Entitled to Payroll Figures 



By a four to one vote the United States 
National Labour Relations Board ruled 
Jul}* 1 that an employer must furnish a 
union with complete payroll figures for 
collective bargaining purposes without 
requiring the union to prove it needs the 
information. The majority stated "it is 
sufficient that the information sought by 
the union is related to the issues involved 
in collective bargaining and ... no specific 
need as to a particular issue must be 
shown". 

The Board in its ruling stated that in 
the case before it no proof had been offered 



to show that "the union's request would 
have placed an unwarranted and undue 
burden on the employer". The case arose 
when the employer concerned agreed to 
give the union its employees' names and a 
list of pay rates but without relating the 
individual's pay to his name. 

In a case decided June 30, the Board 
unanimously ruled that an employer may 
refuse to bargain with a labour union that 
is operating a competing business. The 
ruling will affect unions that have invested 
surplus funds in banks, buildings and 
private businesses. 



Ontario Compensation Act Featured in U.S. Journal 



An analysis of the Ontario Workmen's 
Compensation Act is contained in a feature 
article in the June issue of the Monthly 
Labor Review, official publication of the 
L'nited States Department of Labor. 

The article is adapted from a book 
entitled The Theory and Practice of Work- 
men's Compensation by Herman M. Somers 
and Anne R. Somers, to be published in 



September this year by John Wiley and 
Sons, Ltd. 

The article analyses the background, 
coverage, benefits, financing, administration 
and safety aspects of the Ontario Act, 
which the authors claim is the best-known 
Canadian workmen's compensation law, and 
the most frequently cited in the United 
States. 



1139 



Collective Agreements 



Union Security Provisions 

in Collective Agreements 

Some provision for union security made in 9 of every 10 agreements 
among 910 examined. Only 7 per cent of the 786,300 workers covered 
by agreements studied not covered by membership or check-off clause 



In approximately nine out of every ten 
agreements among 910 examined recently 
by the Economics and Research Branch, 
some provision was made for union 
security* 

The main union objective in bargaining 
security clauses is to insure the support of 
the largest possible number of the 
employees in the bargaining unit. Since 
both membership support and financial 
support are important to the union, 
security has two main aspects, one related 
to union membership, the other to the 
payment of dues. Through the collective 
agreement many unions endeavour to have 
the company employ, or retain in employ- 
ment, only union members, either through- 
out the entire bargaining unit or a 
substantial proportion of it. Even more 
frequently unions will seek a check-off 
clause through which the employer will 
deduct union dues from the pay of 
employees and turn the funds over to the 
union. 

Among the 910 agreements analysed, 21 
per cent have requirements concerning the 
employment of union members, 37 per cent 
have a check-off provision, and 31 per cent 
provide both membership and dues check-off 
clauses. The agreements and workers 
covered by them can be broadly classified 
for union security as follows: — 



The material in this section is prepared 
in the Economics and Research Branch of 
the Department. 

The article dealing with union security, 
which begins on this page, is based on a 
sample of 1,000 collective agreements 
selected for analytical purposes from the 
Branch's files. Agreements from all in- 
dustries, from the various geographical 
regions, from the various unions in each 
industry, and from bargaining units of 
various sizes, are included in the sample. 



Union Membership Clauses 

Union security arrangements concerning 
the employer's freedom to hire or retain 
employees may take several forms. The 
employer may agree to hire and retain only 
union members. He may be free to hire 
whom he pleases but union membership 
obligations after hiring may be a condition 
of continued employment. Under other 
arrangements the employer may merely 
agree to give preference in employment to 
union members. The various union mem- 
bership requirements on the employer may 
be classified as shown in the table at the 
top of the facing page. 



Agreements Workers Covered 

No. % No. % 

Membership clause only 191 21 90,200 11 

Check-off clause only 335 37 373,500 48 

Both membership and check-off clause 284 31 264,000 34 

No membership or check-off clause 100 11 58,600 7 

910 100 786,300 100 



*For this particular study, 910 agreements 
from the 1,000-agreement sample were 
analysed. The remaining 90 agreements 
were out of date at the time the article 
was prepared. An earlier study of union 
security, dealing with the manufacturing 
industries only, appeared in the October 
1951 Labour Gazette, p. 1359. 

1140 



Closed Shop 

Where the closed shop exists all 
employees in the bargaining unit must be 
members of the contracting union and, as 
a rule, the employer must hire only union 
members. The hiring restriction may 
usually be relaxed only if union members 






Agreements Workers Coveted 



No. 

Closed shop : . 112 

Union shop 115 

Modified union shop 131 

Maintenance of membership only 70 

Option of joining union or paying dues 18 

Preferential hiring only 23 

No union membership provision 435 



% 


No. 


% 


12 


00,900 


8 


13 


75,700 


9 


14 


87,900 


11 


8 


92,800 


12 


2 


21,300 


3 


3 


15,600 


2 


48 


432,100 


55 



910 



100 



786,300 



100 



are not available for employment. In such 
circumstances non-union members taken on 
are required to join the union or they 
may be replaced by union members as they 
become available. The closed shop involves 
relatively few workers in the sample, since 
it is most often found for craft workers 
where union membership indicates a certain 
degree of trade qualification on the part 
of the worker and large groups of unskilled 
workers are not employed at one time. 
Closed shop agreements are most commonly 
found in the construction industry, the 
printing trades, and in clothing manufac- 
turing. The following are examples of 
closed shop clauses: — 

I 

The employer shall employ only members 
of the Union. In the event that the local 
union is unable to supply suitable union 
members, the parties of the second part shall 
be at liberty to hire other men. Employees 
who are not members of the Union must 
become members thereof within 30 days 
from the date of employment or be 
discharged. 

II 

(1) The Employers shall, subject to the 
provisions of subsection (3) of this clause, 
engage and retain in their employ only 
workers who have been furnished by the 
Union and who are members in good stand- 
ing of the Union. 

(2) Subject to the provisions of subsection 
(3) of this clause no new worker shall be 
engaged by any employer unless and until 
such worker presents to the Employer a 
working card properly signed by the respon- 
sible official of the union directing such 
worker to the place of business of such 
employer. 

(3) If the Union is unable to supply to 
an employer, within forty-eight hours after 
he . . . submits a request therefor to the 
Union, such help as he may require, the 
Employer may engage persons who are not 
members of the Union, provided that such 
employees shall become members of the 
Union within two weeks of the date upon 
which they commence their employment, 
upon the request of the Union. 

Union Shop 

As under a closed shop, a union shop 
agreement requires all employees to become 
union members. No direction is, however, 
given to the employer as to whom he shall 
hire. He is entirely free to employ non- 
union workers but they must join the union 
within a specified period after being 



employed. The employer must discharge 
any who fail to do so. As compared with 
the closed shop, the union shop is more 
often found in bargaining units having a 
turnover of unskilled and semi-skilled 
workers who may or may not have had 
previous contact with the union. Union 
shop clauses may be worded along the lines 
of the following examples: — 

I 

The parties mutually agree that all 
employees at present employed and all 
employees hereinafter employed in the said 
"Unit", shall, from the date of this agree- 
ment, or within 30 days of employment, 
become and remain a member in good stand- 
ing of the Union, for the life of this 
Agreement. 

II 

The Employer agrees that all employees 
in the bargaining unit who have served the 
four weeks probationary period shall become 
and remain Members of the Union, in good 
standing, as a condition of employment. 

Modified Union Shop 

A modified form of union shop, common 
in agreements, exempts from compulsory 
membership all employees who are not 
union members at the time the agreement 
comes into force, but requires all those 
taken on subsequently to join the union. 
Maintenance of membership for those 
already members may or may not be 
mentioned. Two sample modified union 
shop clauses are: — 

I 

All new employees hired by the Company 
on or after this date shall become members 
of the Syndicate and shall start paying their 
dues ninety days after being hired and the 
Syndicate agrees to accept as members all 
such new employees. 

II 

Every employee who is now or hereafter 
becomes a member of the Union shall main- 
tain his membership in the Union as a 
condition of his employment and every new 
employee whose employment commences here- 
after shall, within (30) days after the 
commencement of his employment, apply 
for and maintain membership in the Union 
as a condition of his employment. 

Maintenance of Membership 

In addition to those agreements which 
provide for maintenance of membership 
along with a modified union shop, a larger 
number of agreements provide solely for 
maintenance of membership. In such 



1141 



cases employees are under no obligation to Preferential Hiring 
join the union. However, those who do, s ome un ion membership clauses specify 
must, as a condition of continued employ- on i y that the employer must give prefer- 
ment, maintain their union membership ence to members of the contracting union 
throughout the life of the contract. In when hiring employees. Preferential hiring is 
some agreements of this kind an "escape frequently found in conjunction with other 
period" is allowed, usually at the end of membership clauses such as the union shop, 
the term of the agreement, and occasion- but it appears in the tables in this study 
ally at the beginning of the term. on i y w here it is the sole type of union 
I membership directive on the employer. 
It is agreed that all employees now However, preferential hiring combined with 
members of the Union, or who may become union shop was als0 found m 16 agree _ 
members of the Union, or are reinstated , • 10tftn , ,f. , 
to membership, shall as a condition of ments covering 13,500 workers; combined 
employment, maintain their membership in with modified union shop in 22 agreements 
good standing. affecting 33,600 workers; combined with 

_ . ,. . , , , maintenance of membership in 9 agree- 
It is a condition of employment that any ™^*„ „,.„ •„„ k onn -,^«v^-«. ~„a „~™ 
employee, who, at the date of this agreement ™ en \ s covering 5,800 workers; and corn- 
was a member of the union in good stand- bmed with the option of joining the union 
ing, or who becomes a member after that or paying dues without joining, in 9 agree- 
date, shall maintain such membership during ments a ff ec ting 6,200 employees. Thus, a 

the term ot this agreement; provided, now- , , , c - c , • Cfiinn 

ever, that he may resign from membership total of 56 agreements covering 59,100 

in the Union within fifteen days imme- workers had preferential hiring clauses, in 

diately preceding the expiry date of this addition to the 23 agreements and 15,600 

th S ere e b me affected hiS employment sha11 not be workers covered, shown in the table, in 

jjj which preferential hiring was not coupled 

Every present employee who is a member with any other membership requirement, 
of the Union shall be given a period of 

fifteen (15) days from the date of the sign- c\\t*rV nflF rim.c^c 

ing of this Agreement or the date upon ^"^ck orr amuses 

which the Agreement is posted as herein- r*u t cc • • i »• • i i 

after provided, within which to elect in Check-off provisions may be divided 

writing to be filed with the Company and broadly into voluntary and compulsory 

the Union Committee to withdraw from the types. 

Union. If he does not elect to withdraw TT , , , . „ . 

from the Union then the continuance of his Under a voluntary check-off clause, an 

membership during the life of the Agreement employee must sign an authorization before 

shall be a condition precedent to his retain- the check-off becomes effective in his case, 

ing his employment with the Company. Under gome typeg of vo]imtary plan he 

Optional Clause may have the right to revoke his author- 

A small number of agreements require all ization later ; either at any time or only 

employees who are not members of the during a short period before the anni- 

union either to join or, as an alternative, versary, renewal or termination date of 

to pay union dues, and sometimes initiation the contract> Alternatively, the check-off 

ees as well. The following is a sample of be irrevocable duri the Hfe of the 
this type of clause: — 

Personnel hired who are not members of to 
the Union, will be required, as a condition On the other hand, a compulsory check- 
ed employment, either to join the Union and off i eaves no choice to the individual; nor 
to continue as members thereot during their , , , , . „ _ 
employment or, in the alternative, to tender ma y ne revoke the check-off. I he check-oft 
to the Union one month's dues as well as may apply to union members only or to all 
the initiation fees as presently established „™v.i~,r^o ;~ +u~ u„„„„;v,;v,„ „~;+ 
and to pay subsequent monthly dues as employees m the bargaining unit, 

required of Union Members and failure to The following table shows the frequency 

pay arrears of monthly dues at pay-off shall Uh which th yarious forms f check _ off 

be a bar to further employment until such . 

arrears are paid. were found in the sample of agreements: — 

Agreements Workers Covered 

No. % No. % 

Voluntary revocable 106 12 114,700 14 

Voluntary irrevocable 122 13 91,900 12 

Voluntary and revocation not provided 92 10 82,700 10 

Compulsory for union members 19 2 14,600 2 

Compulsory for all employees in the bargaining unit.... 241 27 281,300 36 

Compulsory for some categories and voluntary for others 39 4 52,300 7 

No provision 291 32 148,800 19 

910 100 786,300 100 

Sample voluntary-revocable and voluntary-irrevocable check-off clauses are : — 



1142 



I 

Upon the receipt of a written request 
from any employee forwarded through the 
Secretary of the Union, the Company agrees 
to deduct such employee's monthly union 
dues from his pay and to transmit the dues 
so deducted to the duly accredited official of 
the Union. Any such employee shall at any 
time be at liberty to cancel his request for 
such deduction upon giving notice in writing 
to the Company through the Secretary of 
the Union. 

II 

No employee shall as a condition of 
employment or otherwise be obliged to sign 
any such authorization card but once an 
employee has voluntarily authorized the 
Company to deduct Union dues as herein 
provided, such employee shall not be entitled 
to cancel such authority prior to the expira- 
tion date of this Agreement while he remains 
in the employ of the Company. 

A compulsory check-off is usually, as the 
tables show, compulsory for all employees 
in the bargaining unit. It may occur in 
agreements in which union membership is 
a requirement, that is, in closed or union 
shop agreements. It is also found, however, 
in agreements where union membership is 
not a requirement. 

In a few agreements a compulsory check- 
off applies to union members only, and 
occasionally only employees hired after a 
specified date are subject to a compulsory 
check-off. 

Check-offs compulsory for all employees 
fall into two main categories. The first is 
that known as the Rand Formula. This 
consists of the conditions contained in the 
decision of Mr. Justice Rand, who was 
arbitrator in a dispute between the Ford 
Motor Company of Canada and the United 
Automobile Workers of America, the main 
principle of which was that union dues be 
deducted from the pay of all employees in 
the bargaining unit whether or not they 
are members of the union. The formula 
includes a stipulation that it shall apply 
to regular union dues only, excluding 
initiation fees or other assessments; it lays 
down penalties for unauthorized strikes and 
picketing, and provides for voting with 
regard to strike action and union repre- 
sentation. The full text of this award was 
published in the Labour Gazette, 1946, 
p. 123. A number of agreements contain 
the full terms of the award. In others, the 
formula is modified to provide for the 
compulsory check-off without all of the 
restricting and penalty features. 

The other category simply applies a 
compulsory check-off for all employees in 
the bargaining unit without any of the 
other features of the Rand Formula. Some- 
times it is combined with a compulsory 
membership clause and sometimes it is not. 



The following sample clauses illustrate 
three types of compulsory check-off: 

(1) compulsory for union members only; 

(2) compulsory for employees hired after 
a certain date; and (3) compulsory for all 
employees where union membership is not 
compulsory: — 

I 
The Company shall deduct Union dues of 
— per week from all employees of the Com- 
pany who are members of the Union and 
shall submit same to the local union by 
cheque payable to the Financial Secretary 
of the local union, together with a list of 
names and check numbers of the employees 
on whose behalf the dues were deducted. 

II 

The Union and the Company agree each 
with the other of them: (a) that all 
employees, excepting students temporarily 
employed, who are hired on or after May 8, 
1950, and during the term of this Agreement 
will be required as a term of their employ- 
ment, and within thirty days after the date 
of commencement of employment to assign to 
the Union, through payroll deductions, an 
amount of money equal to the monthly Union 
dues, and for such purpose to sign an 
"Authorization to Deduct Union Dues" in 
the form provided (Agreement effective 
April 1, 1952). 

The Company agrees to a compulsory check- 
off respecting all employees of the Company. 
The amount to be deducted from each such 
employee's wages each month shall not exceed 
the amount of the dues of those employees 
who are members of the Union or Two 
Dollars and Fifty Cents (whichever is the 
lesser) . 

Both Membership and Check-off Clauses 

Although substantial numbers of the 
agreements have either some type of 
"shop" or check-off provision, the two 
aspects of union security are commonly 
found together. Six out of every ten con- 
tracts having a membership requirement, 
also provide for a check-off of union dues. 
The accompanying full-page table shows the 
relationship between the various types of 
union membership clauses and check-off 
provisions. 

Note that check-off provisions are infre- 
quent where closed shops exist. This can 
be explained by the fact that closed shops 
are most commonly found among com- 
paratively small units of craft workers. In 
such circumstances the collection of dues 
presents little problem to the union. In 
larger industrial units not having a check- 
off, the collection of dues becomes a 
problem to the union even though a com- 
pulsory membership clause may be included 
in the contract. Therefore, in bargaining 
units of this type, many unions will seek 
a check-off regardless of whether or not 
they have a clause concerning membership 
requirements. Since the Rand Formula 



93709—5 



1143 



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decision in 1945, an increasing number of shows thai in more than 15 per cenl of the 

unions have soughl a compulsory check-off agreements analysed this type of clause La 

for all employees in the bargaining unit, the sol6 union security provision in the 

both union and non-union. The table contract. 



Collective Agreement Act, Quebec,- Industrial 
Standards Acts, New Brunswick and Ontario 



Pining June, certain changes in minimum 
wage rates and working conditions were 
made obligatory by Orders in Council under 
the Collective Agreement Act, Quebec. 
Six Orders in Council provided wage in- 
creases, as well as minor changes in hours, 
statutory holidays, vacations with pay, etc.; 
one granted a reduction in weekly hours; 
the cloak and suit manufacturing industry 
agreement throughout the province was 
'.•mowed without change. 

In the construction industry at Sorel, 
a new agreement is now in effect with a 
scale of minimum rates similar to those 
previously in force; weekly hours remain 
at 48 but are now distributed throughout 
a 5^-day week instead of 6, as previously. 
In addition, the new agreement provides 
for changes in territorial jurisdiction, pay- 
ment of Zone I rates to employees working 
in Zone II, under specified conditions, 
establishment of shift system and revision 
of the vacation with pay provision. 

In the construction industry at Hull, a 
new minimum scale of hourly rates (last 
complete schedule in 1952) provides in- 
creases for most trades ranging from 10 
to 25 cents per hour; a few rates were 
unchanged; weekly rates for permanent 



omplo3< r ees are increased by $12.60 for 
labourers and $20.60 for tradesmen; over- 
time in Zone I is prohibited except in 
certain cases of an emergency nature, or 
subject to permission. 

In hardware, paint and building material 
stores at Quebec, weekly hours are reduced 
from 51 to 48. 

In longshore work (ocean navigation) at 
Montreal, minimum hourly rates for 
checkers and coopers are increased by from 
5 to 1\ cents per hour; for longshoremen 
and shipliners by from 7 to 10^ cents per 
hour. The general longshore rate for day 
hours is now $1.78 per hour. In addition, 
all work on Good Friday is now payable 
at double time. 

Under the Industrial Standards Acts: 
In New Brunswick, a new schedule made 
binding for carpenters in the Saint John- 
Lancaster Zone increases the hourly 
minimum rate from $1.50 to $1.53 per hour. 

In Ontario, new schedules were made 
binding for carpenters at Owen Sound and 
for plumbers at Windsor, replacing those 
which had last been gazetted in 1951. 
These new schedules provide an increase 
of 10 cents per hour for carpenters at 
Owen Sound and of 40 cents per hour for 
plumbers at Windsor. 



Third of British Workers under Payments by Results System 

One worker in every three in Great Britain is covered by a system of payments by 
results, a recent survey by the Ministry of Labour shows. 

Payments by results is the system by which payments vary according to the output of 
individuals, groups or departments. Nearly 62,500 manufacturing and non-manufacturing 
firms in the country employing about 6,750,000 workers use the s} T stem. The only major 
industries not covered are coal-mining and railways. 

Since 1938, the numbers paid by results in industry have increased considerably, with 
men and girls affected more than any other groups of workers. Before the Second World 
War only 18 per cent of the men and 27 per cent of the girls at work were paid according 
to output. Now the percentages for both these groups have risen to 29 and 37 respectively. 
More boys are now paid by results, although the increase from 21 to 22 per cent is smaller. 
Only among women has the percentage dropped — from 46 to 42. although the actual number 
of women paid in this way is greater as there are more women in industry. 

Among firms with more than 1,000 workers, nine in ten have some system of the kind 
which covers about half their workers. In firms with fewer than 100 workers, such methods 
cover a far smaller proportion of the labour force. 

Payment by results is much more common in directly productive industries than in 
service industries. In manufacturing two workers in five are covered : in textiles, engineer- 
ing and the metal industries, more than one worker in every two. On the other hand, in 
such service industries as gas, water and electricity, only two workers in every 100 are paid 
on this basis. 



93709—5* 



1145 



Labour Law 



Labour Legislation in Ontario in 1954 

Labour Relations Act amended; time limits for conciliation procedure 
reduced, trade councils allowed to bargain on behalf of member trade 
unions. New Act designed to prevent accidents in trench excavation 



At the session of the Ontario Legislature 
which began on February 11 and prorogued 
April 6, the Labour Relations Act was 
amended and new legislation was passed 
aimed at the prevention of accidents in 
trench excavation work. 

The expenditure which the Workmen's 
Compensation Board may make each year 
for rehabilitation purposes was doubled. 

Minor changes were made in the 
Elevators and Lifts Act, the legislation 
passed in 1953 and proclaimed in force 
June 17, 1954 to provide for the licensing 
of elevator and lift operators throughout 
the province and set standards for safe 
operation. New inspection requirements 
for the prevention of air-line explosions 
were added to the Mining Act. 

A new provision in the legislation under 
which allowances are paid to disabled 
persons authorizes an agreement to be 
made with the federal Government under 
which the costs of the pensions will be 
shared equally. The education Acts and 
the child welfare legislation were com- 
pletely revised and some slight changes 
were made in the legislation providing for 
mothers' allowances. 

A new law prohibits discrimination on 
grounds of race, colour or creed in any 
place to which the public is customarily 
admitted. 

Industrial Relations 

Substantial amendments were made to 
the Labour Relations Act this year, the 
first since the Act was passed in 1950. 
The principal changes reduce the time 
limits within which certain steps must be 
taken under the Act in order to expedite 
collective bargaining and conciliation pro- 
ceedings, empower the Minister of Labour 
to refuse to appoint a conciliation board, 
and provide for the recognition of councils 
of trade unions as bargaining agents. 
Other amendments give the Labour Rela- 
tions Board certain additional powers in 
connection with the certification of bargain- 
ing agents. 

The Act now makes provision for 
bargaining and the signing of a collective 
agreement by a "council of trade unions" 



on behalf of its member trade unions. 
"Council of trade unions" is defined as 
including an allied council, a trades council, 
a joint board and any other association of 
trade unions. The Minister explained that 
this amendment would especially benefit 
the construction industry, where many 
unions were endeavouring to negotiate as 
trades councils. He made it clear, how- 
ever, that such recognition did not give 
councils the right to apply for certifica- 
tion under the legislation. In a further 
amendment it is provided that it is not 
necessary for each individual union 
belonging to the trades council or the 
employees of each individual employer in 
an employers' association to be represented 
on the bargaining committee. 

A collective agreement between a council 
of trade unions and an employer or an 
employers' organization is binding on each 
of the trade unions individually and if 
any one of the group of trade unions ceases 
to be a member of the council it will, 
during the remainder of the term of the 
agreement, be deemed to be a party to a 
like agreement with the employer or the 
employers' organization, as the case may 
be. When the trades council begins 
bargaining with the employer, it must 
furnish him with a list of the unions 
on whose behalf it is bargaining. If it 
fails to do so, it will be deemed to 
bargain for all its members or affiliates 
except any union which has notified the 
employer, either itself or through the trades 
council, that it will not be bound by a 
collective agreement between the council 
of trade unions and the employer. 

Under the Act the Labour Relations 
Board has authority to determine the 
appropriateness of the bargaining unit. 
A new provision — one which does not 
appear in any other labour relations legis- 
lation in Canada — empowers the Board, on 



This section, prepared by the Legisla- 
tion Branch, reviews labour laws as they 
are enacted by Parliament and the 
provincial legislatures, regulations under 
these laws, and selected court decisions 
affecting labour. 



1146 



receipt of an application for certification, 
to conduct a vote to determine the wishes 
of the employees as to the appropriateness 
of the bargaining unit. 

A further change permits the Board to 
include in a craft unit "persons who accord- 
ing to established trade union practice are 
commonly associated in their work and 
bargaining with such group". In explaining 
the intent of this amendment, the Min- 
ister stated that it would, for example, 
allow the inclusion in a unit of operating 
engineers of the coal shovellers who 
normally work with them. 

The amending Act also replaced the 
section dealing with security guards, making 
it apply to collective bargaining as well 
as to certification. At present the certifica- 
tion of a union containing guards is 
prohibited unless the union consists exclu- 
sively of guards and is not affiliated with 
an organization which admits to member- 
ship persons other than guards. Now, in 
addition, the Act provides that an employer 
is not required to bargain with such a 
union unless it consists exclusively of 
guards. Any question as to whether a 
person is a guard is to be decided by the 
Board. 

The period of time allowed for bargaining 
and conciliation procedures was consider- 
ably shortened, effecting a saving of 19 
days. The Act now requires the giving 
of 15 days' instead of 20 days' notice to 
begin bargaining. The minimum time 
which must elapse before either party may 
apply for conciliation services, unless the 
Board is satisfied that no progress in 
bargaining is being made and that the 
parties have exhausted their efforts to 
agree, is reduced from 50 to 35 days (20 
days after the 15 days' notice to bargain 
has expired). After a conciliation officer is 
appointed, he is given 14 days in which to 
endeavour to settle the matters at issue 
and report the results to the Minister. 
This period remains unchanged. If the 
conciliation officer fails to effect a collec- 
tive agreement, a conciliation board may 
be appointed. The time allowed for the 
nomination of conciliation board members 
was reduced from 7 to 5 days and the 
period allowed after they are appointed for 
nomination of the chairman was reduced 
from 5 to 3 days. 

The Minister is now empowered to 
refuse to appoint a conciliation board 
where he considers it would serve no useful 
purpose. Under the labour relations legis- 
lation of all the other provinces except 
Quebec, the appointment of conciliation 
boards is not mandatory and the federal 



Act and the Acts of Manitoba, New 
Brunswick, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia 
specifically make provision for the Min- 
ister to refuse to appoint a conciliation 
board. In the 1948 Labour Relations Act 
of Ontario, which adopted Part I of the 
federal Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act, the Minister of Labour 
had this power but this provision was 
dropped in the 1950 Act. 

The Act provides that, if a union does 
not make a collective agreement within a 
year after its certification, any of the 
employees in the unit may apply to the 
Board for a declaration that the union no 
longer represents the employees in the unit. 
A new subsection provides that if a trade 
union has not made a collective agreement 
within one year of certification but it has 
notified the employer of its desire to 
bargain with a view to concluding a 
collective agreement, and the Board has 
granted a request for conciliation services, 
no application for decertification may be 
made unless a conciliation board has been 
appointed and 30 days have elapsed after 
the board has reported to the Minister or 
30 days have elapsed after the Minister 
has informed the parties that he has 
decided not to appoint a board. 

A further amendment makes it clear that 
neither an employer nor a trade union may 
alter working conditions during the period 
of negotiation of a collective agreement or 
during conciliation proceedings, except by 
mutual consent. The previous provision 
applied only to employers. 

It is now an unfair labour practice for 
an employer to bargain with or conclude 
a collective agreement with another union 
so long as a trade union continues to be 
entitled to represent the employees in the 
bargaining unit. Similarly, no trade union 
may bargain or enter into an agreement 
with an employer so long as another trade 
union has bargaining rights. 

The Act provides that every collective 
agreement must contain an appropriate 
provision for final settlement by arbitration, 
without stoppage of work, of disputes which 
arise concerning the interpretation or an 
alleged violation of the agreement. The 
Act sets out a clause, which becomes part 
of every agreement lacking such a provi- 
sion, providing for the appointment of a 
three-member arbitration board whose deci- 
sion in final and binding on the parties. 
An amendment designed to speed up arbi- 
tration proceedings makes it clear that the 
Minister may appoint arbitrators at the 
request of either party if the parties them- 
selves fail to do so. 



1147 



A qi w subsection added to the section 
Betting out the genera] powers and duties 
of the Board authorises the Board to 
determine the form in which evidence of 
membership in b trade union must be 
ated to the Board. In like manner 
the Board may determine the form in 
which employees register objection to cer- 
tification oi a trade union and signify that 
they no longer wish to be represented by 
a trade union. 

Workmen's Compensation 

The Workmen's Compensation Act was 
amended to increase from $100,000 to 
S200.000 the amount which the Workmen's 
Compensation Board may spend in any 
calendar year for the rehabilitation of 
injured workmen. In all provinces the 
Workmen's Compensation Boards are 
authorized to adopt any means considered 
expedient to aid in getting workmen back 
to work and in lessening or removing their 
disabilities, and to pay the cost from the 
Accident Fund. The maximum amount 
that may be spent for rehabilitation is 
fixed by statute in all but three provinces, 
British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskat- 
chewan, where the amount is left to the 
discretion of the Boards. 

A further amendment clarifies the sec- 
tion which permits the Board to penalize 
an employer who has not taken adequate 
precautions for the protection of his work- 
men by imposing a higher assessment rate 
on him than is imposed on the industry 
as a whole. As re-worded, the section, 
now much like the corresponding section 
of the Alberta Act, gives the Board greater 
discretion by stating that it may add to 
the amount of an assessment such a per- 
centage as the Board deems just when it 
determines that "sufficient precautions have 
not been taken for the prevention of 
accidents to workmen in the employment 
of an employer or where the working con- 
ditions are not safe for workmen". 
Formerly, the Board was authorized to 
impose a higher assessment rate on an 
industry "where a greater number of 
accidents has happened in any industry 
than in the opinion of the Board ought to 
have happened if proper precautions had 
been taken ... or where in the opinion of 
the Board the ways, works, machinery or 
appliances in any industry are defective, 
inadequate or insufficient". 

The provision authorizing the Board to 
exclude such an industry from the class 
in which it was included for assessment 
purposes and to make the employer indi- 
vidually liable to pay compensation was 
repealed. 



Protection of Workers in Trenches 

The Trench Excavators Protection Act, 
1954, is a new Act designed to protect 
workers in trenches from cave-ins, falling 
objects, explosions, accumulations of gas 
and rock dust and other dangers present 
in trench excavation work. It is the first 
Act of its kind in Canada, although con- 
trol of trench excavation is provided for 
by regulations of the Workmen's Compen- 
sation Boards in Alberta, British Columbia 
and Saskatchewan and in regulations under 
the Building Trades Protection Act in 
Manitoba. 

The Act applies to all work in trenches 
except trenches four feet deep or less, 
trenches where the work is done only by 
the owner himself and those into which 
no person is required to enter. It does 
not apply to a mine within the meaning 
of the Mining Act. 

The Act is to be administered by the 
municipalities. Every municipal council is 
required to appoint one or more inspectors 
to enforce the Act in the municipality. To 
enforce the Act in territories without muni- 
cipal organization the Lieutenant-Governor 
in Council is authorized to appoint 
inspectors. 

Before work is begun on a trench the 
owner or contractor is required to notify 
the inspector of the name and address of 
the owner of the land and the contractor, 
if any; the location of the proposed 
trench; the depth and width of the trench; 
the proposed date of commencing work; 
and the name and address of the person 
who will be in charge of the work. 

No person under 16 years of age is 
permitted to enter or work in a trench. 

The sides of trenches more than four 
feet deep must be securely shored and 
timbered with good- quality material to 
at least one foot above the top of the 
trench. Shoring and timbering are not 
necessary if the trench is cut in solid rock 
or if the sides are sloped to within four 
feet of the bottom of the trench so that 
the sloped sides do not have more than 
one foot of vertical rise to each foot of 
horizontal run. If the sides are sloped 
in this manner but not to within four feet 
of the bottom of the trench, the vertical 
walls must be shored and timbered to at 
least one foot above the vertical walls 
and fitted with toe-boards to prevent 
material rolling down the slope into the 
part of the trench with vertical walls. 
Drawings and specifications for the shoring 
and timbering of all trenches to exceed 30 
feet deep and 12 feet wide must be sub- 
mitted in duplicate to the inspector and 



1148 



the excavation must not begin until the 
drawings and specifications are approved. 
Shoring and timbering must be carried 
along with the excavating but if condi- 
tions permit it may be done before the 
excavation begins. Details regarding the 
size, composition and arrangement of 
materials to be used are to be laid down 
in regulations. 

If staging or scaffolding for handling 
excavated material by hand in relays is 
erected independently of the shoring or 
timbering, it must be strongly constructed 
so as to protect persons from injury by 
its collapse or from falling objects. If 
staging or scaffolding is attached, the 
shoring and timbering must be strong 
enough to withstand the additional load 
imposed. Ladders or other means of 
escape satisfactory to an inspector must be 
provided, spaced at intervals of not more 
than 50 feet and extending beyond the 
top of the trench. 

The person in charge of the work must 
permit only experienced persons to handle, 
transport, prepare or use dynamite or 
other high explosives and he is required to 
post their names in the field office and at 
the magazines. One person is to be desig- 
nated to be in charge of blasting opera- 
tions in each section of the trench affected, 
and to supervise the fixing of all charges. 
Firing circuits in connection with blasting 
operations are to be broken outside the 
trench at a point and in a manner satis- 
factory to the inspector. Explosives may 
not be taken into the trench in greater 
quantity than is required for immediate 
use. 

The person in charge is also required to 
ensure that no harmful gases or fumes are 
present in the trench in such a degree as 
to endanger health. If such fumes are 
likely to be present, or if tests indicate 
their presence, sufficient mechanical venti- 
lation must be provided to protect the 
workmen. An internal combustion engine 
may only be operated if adequate provi- 
sion is made to discharge the exhaust at 
such distance outside the trench as to 
ensure that it will not return and accumu- 
late in the trench. 

Where rock-drilling operations are in 
progress, an adequate water supply must 
be provided at the drill hole to prevent 
the dissemination of dust into the breath- 
ing area of the drill operator or any other 
workers. 

Hats designed to protect persons from 
falling objects must be worn by persons 
working in a trench more than six feet 
deep. No tools, machinery, timber, rock 
or other material may be placed or stored 



within two feet of the edge of a trench. 
The Act also provides thai vehicles, 
machinery or horses may not be driven, 
operated or located so close to the edge 
of the trench as to endanger the stability 
of the walls by vibration. 

Fences, guards or barricades must be 
provided near the sides of the trench to 
prevent persons from falling in, and must 
be kept in place at all times except when 
their presence will interfere with the 
excavation work. When operations are 
suspended and during darkness the guards 
must be in place and all piles of exca- 
vated material, tools and machinery must 
be marked by lighted lanterns or flares. 
No person may move, alter or destroy any 
shoring, timbering, or fencing required by 
the Act or regulations without permission 
of the owner or contractor. During periods 
of temporary shut-down no person may 
work alone in a trench more than 20 feet 
deep unless another person is on duty 
nearby outside the trench. 

An obligation is placed on the owner of 
the land, or on the contractor if the work 
is done under contract, to ensure that the 
provisions of the Act and regulations are 
observed. The person in charge must not 
allow anyone to enter the trench if the 
Act is not being complied with. If an 
inspector finds a violation of the Act, he 
may require compliance by written order 
and, until the order is carried out, the 
work on the part of the trench where the 
violation occurred must be suspended. If 
the person to whom the inspector's order 
is directed is found guilty of failing to 
obey the order, he will be liable, on 
summary conviction, to a fine of from $10 
to $100 for every day on which the viola- 
tion continues. The general penalty pro- 
vided for violations of the Act is a 
maximum fine of $500. 

The Act does not affect the authority of 
a municipality to pass by-laws relating to 
safety in trench construction work and 
does not affect any by-law which imposes 
additional or more stringent requirements. 

Regulations may be made by the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council to regulate 
the method of shoring and timbering, to 
provide for fees for inspection and other 
matters. 

Safe Operation of Elevators and Lifts 

The Elevators and Lifts Act was passed 
in 1953 to provide for the compulsory 
licensing and inspection of elevators, dumb- 
waiters, escalators, manlifts and incline lifts 
(L.G., 1953, p. 1641). 



1149 



- , <ral minor amendments were made to 
the Act this year. Some of these merely 
clarify the wording of certain sections prior 
to the Act being proclaimed in force. 

The Act authorized the issuing of regu- 
lations to prescribe the qualifications and 
provide for the licensing of elevator oper- 
ators. "When such regulations are made, 
the amending Act states, only a qualified 
or licensed attendant may be permitted to 
operate an elevator or incline lift. 

In addition to the provision prohibiting 
any person from operating an elevator or 
other lift if he has reason to believe it 
is in an unsafe condition, there is now 
also the general stipulation that no person 
shall operate an elevator, dumbwaiter, 
escalator or lift or permit it to be operated 
in an unsafe manner. A further amend- 
ment makes it clear that the prohibition 
in the Act against operating unlicensed or 
unsafe equipment does not apply to an 
inspector during the installation, alteration, 
repair, testing or inspection of the equip- 
ment. An amendment also authorizes the 
fixing by regulation of inspection fees for 
the annual inspection of every elevator and 
hoist which is required by the Act. 

The Act provides that no urban muni- 
cipality, except Toronto, may pass by-laws 
relating to any matter covered by the Act 
and that all such by-laws now in existence 
will be repealed when the Act is pro- 
claimed. The amendment states, however, 
that this prohibition does not apply to 
by-laws prescribing fire safety require- 
ments for hoistway enclosures. In the 
event of conflict between such a by-law 
and the Act or regulations the provision 
prescribing the more stringent requirements 
will prevail. 

The Act was proclaimed in force on 
June 17 and regulations providing for the 
licensing of elevating devices, the granting 
of certificates of competency to inspectors 
and elevator operators, the submission of 
plans and specifications, fees and other 
matters were gazetted on June 19. (See 
page 1158.) 

Safety in Mines 

New sections added to Part VIII of the 
Mining Act, which governs the safety and 
health of persons working in mines, are 
chiefly designed to minimize the danger of 
air-line explosions. The Act already 
required air receivers at the surface to be 
inspected annually by an inspector and 
the inspection certificate to be posted in 
the compressor room at all times. 

In addition, all intercoolers, aftercoolers, 
inlet and discharge valves on stationary 
compressors in operation must be exam- 



ined at least once in every 12 months and 
cleaned when necessary. A temperature- 
indicating device must be installed on the 
high pressure discharge of each com- 
pressor and the temperature must be 
recorded at least once a shift. 

All air receivers on the surface are 
required to be examined at least once 
every 12 months and must be cleaned 
when necessary. A book must be kept for 
recording the date of every examination 
and cleaning required by the amendments 
and a note must be made regarding the 
condition of the appliance examined or 
cleaned. 

Operating Engineers 

The Operating Engineers Act, 1953, which 
has not yet been brought into force, was 
amended to- provide that certificates of 
registration of plants and certificates of 
qualification of engineers granted under the 
legislation now in effect will continue in 
force after the new Act is proclaimed (L.G., 
1953, p. 1643). 

Fair Accommodation Practices 

The Fair Accommodation Practices Act 
is a new piece of legislation designed to 
prevent discrimination on grounds of race, 
colour or creed in places to which the 
pubic is customarily admitted. • It is a 
further step in the Ontario Government's 
program against discrimination which has 
developed over the past 10 years and which 
has been embodied in four other statutes. 

The first of these, the Racial Discrim- 
ination Act, was passed in 1944 to prohibit 
the publication or display of notices, signs 
or other representation indicating discrim- 
ination or intent to discriminate because 
of race or creed. The Conveyancing and 
Law of Property Amendment Act, 1950, 
renders null and void covenants restricting 
the sale, ownership, occupation or use of 
land because of the race, creed, colour, 
nationality, ancestry or place of origin of 
any person. A section of the Labour 
Relations Act, 1950, invalidates a collec- 
tive agreement which discriminates against 
a person because of race or creed. Finally, 
the Fair Employment Practices Act, 1951, 
prohibits discrimination in hiring, in all 
conditions of employment and in trade 
union membership. 

The preamble to the new law states that 
it was enacted because it is already public 
policy in Ontario and in accord with the 
United Nations Declaration of Human 
Rights that places to which the public is 
customarily admitted should be open to all 
persons. The Act goes on to declare: "No 
person shall deny to any person or class of 



1150 






persons the accommodation, services or 
facilities available in any place to which 
the public is customarily admitted because 
of the race, creed, colour, nationality, 
ancestry or place of origin of such person 
or class of persons." 

The Act also contains the provisions of 
the Racial Discrimination Act, wihch is now 
repealed. It prohibits a person from pub- 
lishing or displaying or from causing or 
permitting to be published or displayed on 
lands or premises, in a newspaper or 
through a radio broadcasting station or by 
any other medium which he owns or con- 
trols, any notice, sign, symbol or repre- 
sentation indicating discrimination against 
any person because of race or creed. The 
Act states, however, that it shall not be 
deemed to interfere with free expressions 
of opinion on any subject by speech or 
writing nor to confer any protection or 
benefit upon enemy aliens. 

Complaints of violations of the Act are 
to be dealt with in the same manner as 
complaints under the Fair Employment 
Practices Act, that is, by investigation and 
conciliation. It is expected that the Act 
will be administered by the Minister of 
Labour through the Fair Employment 
Practices Branch of the Department of 
Labour. A complaint is to be made in 
writing to the Minister on a form pre- 
scribed by him. The Minister is to try 
to effect a settlement, first by having an 
officer investigate the complaint and, if he 
fails, by appointing a commission with the 
powers of a conciliation board under the 
Labour Relations Act. After attempting 
to ascertain the facts, which will include 
giving the parties full opportunity to 
present evidence and to make submissions, 
the Commission will recommend to the 
Minister the course which should be taken. 
The Minister may then issue whatever 
order he considers necessary and the order 
is final and must be complied with. 

Failure to comply with any provisions of 
the Act or an order of the Minister will 
make an individual liable, on summary 
conviction, to a fine of $50 and a corpora- 
tion to a fine of $100. A prosecution may 
be instituted only with the written consent 
of the Minister. If a person has been 
convicted of a violation of Section 3 of the 
Act (the publication or display of discrim- 
inatory signs, etc.) the Minister may apply 
to the Supreme Court for an order enjoin- 
ing such person from continuing the offence. 

Protection of Children 

The Child Welfare Act, 1954, is a con- 
solidation and revision of three previous 
statutes dealing with child welfare, the 



Children of Unmarried Parents Act, the 
Adoption Act and the Children's Protec- 
tion Act. The latter Act was the statute 
which restricted the employment of 
children under 16 in street trades and 
public places of amusement. 

As before, the Act prohibits girls under 
16 and boys under 12 years of age from 
• imaging in a street trade or occupation. 
Boys between 12 and 16 may not engage 
in street trades before 6 a.m. and after 
9 p.m. Previously the Act permitted boys 
between 12 and 16 to carry on street trades 
until 10 p.m. 

The new Act also continues to prohibit 
children from offering anything for sale 
or from performing for profit in a circus, 
theatre or other place of amusement to 
which the public is charged admission 
without a licence from the head of the 
municipal council. A licence will be 
granted only where it is shown that provi- 
sion has been made to protect the health 
and ensure proper treatment of the child 
in question. Formerly a permit could be 
granted only to children over 10 years of 
age. This age limit has been removed but 
a permit may now be granted only with 
the approval of the Children's Aid Society. 

Revision of Education Acts 

Eleven Acts dealing with education were 
revised and consolidated into three new 
statutes, The Schools Administration Act, 
The Department of Education Act and 
The Secondary Schools and Boards of 
Education Act. The provisions governing 
compulsory school attendance, formerly in 
the School Attendance Act and the 
Adolescent School Attendance Act, are now 
contained in Part I of the Schools Admin- 
istration Act. 

All children between the ages of 6 and 
16 are now required to attend school, in- 
stead of between 8 and 16, as previously. 
The new Act requires attendance from the 
first day of school year commencing after 
the child's sixth birthday until the last 
school day in June in the year in which 
he has his sixteenth birthday. 

A child is excused from attending school 
if he is, in the opinion of the Minister of 
Education, receiving satisfactory instruction 
at home or elsewhere, if he is unable to 
attend because of sickness or other unavoid- 
able cause, if he is employed under 
authority of a home permit or employment 
certificate, if he has obtained his secondary 
school graduation diploma, or equivalent 
standing, or if he is over 10 years old and 
his parents require his services in their 
farm household or on the farm. If no 



1151 



transportation is provided by the school 
board, a child who is under 7 years on 
the first day of September is excused from 
attendance if there is no school within one 
mile; if he is between 7 and 10 within two 
miles; or if lie is over 10 within three 
miles. 

A child under 14 may be granted a home 
permit or employment certificate and be 
relieved from attendance at school for a 
period of not more than six weeks during 
the school year on written application of 
the parent if the child's services are 
required in farming, home duties or in 
some gainful occupation for the main- 
k nance of the child himself or some person 
dependent upon him. A child over 14 years 
of age may be granted a certificate of 
exemption for an unlimited period on 
application of the parent if he is required 
for home duties or if he is to be employed 
for the maintenance of himself or his 
dependents. The certificate of exemption 
may be revoked if in the opinion of the 
attendance officer the conditions under 
which it was issued cease to exist. 

The provisions of the former Act 
respecting part-time courses are now 
rescinded. Previously, children between 14 
and 16 who held a home permit or employ- 
ment certificate were required to attend at 
least 400 hours of part-time instruction 
each year, and adolescents between 16 and 
18 were required to attend for 320 hours 
year^ r unless excused by the Act. No 
person between 16 and 18 could be 
employed unless he held a school dismissal 
card or a school registration card. Urban 
municipalities with a population of 5,000 
and over were required to establish and 
maintain part-time classes. 

The maximum penalty which may be 
imposed on a parent or guardian who 
unlawfully fails to send a child to school 
or on a person who illegally employs a 
child of compulsory school attendance age 
was raised from $20 to $25. 

Mothers' Allowances 

The Mothers' Allowances Act provides 
for the payment of an allowance to a 
needy mother whose husband is dead or 
incapacitated or has deserted her in respect 
of each of her children who are under 16 
years of age, or under 18 if attending 



school. An amendment permits the 
Director of mothers' allowances to con- 
tinue payment of the allowance to a child 
between 16 and 18 years during the time 
he is on vacation from school if he is 
satisfied that the child will return to school 
after the vacation period. Previously, the 
Director paid the allowance covering the 
vacation period after the child actually had 
returned to school. 

Pensions for the Disabled 

The Disabled Persons' Allowances Act 
was passed in 1952 to provide for the 
payment of an allowance of not more than 
$40 a month to permanently and totally 
disabled residents of Ontario between the 
ages of 18 and 65 years, subject to a means 
test. By an amendment this year, persons 
receiving workmen's compensation benefits 
or an allowance from the Government of 
Canada in respect of war service are no 
longer excluded from the Act. In future, 
therefore, a disabled persons' allowance may 
be paid to a person receiving workmen's 
compensation benefits or a war pension. In 
total disability cases under the Workmen's 
Compensation Act the amendment will 
benefit workers who suffered injuries at a 
time when the rate of compensation and 
average earnings were low. 

The amendment also authorizes the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council to partici- 
pate in the federal-provincial plan for 
providing pensions to the totally disabled. 
The federal Disabled Persons Act was 
given assent on June 26. It provides for 
joint agreements under which the federal 
Government will pay to the provinces one- 
half of the cost of pensions of not more 
than $40 a month to be provided to totally 
and permanently disabled persons between 
the ages of 18 and 65 years in cases of 
need. The maximum income which a 
person may have in order to receive an 
allowance is the same as that fixed under 
the Old Age Assistance Act and the resi- 
dence requirement is 10 years. 

Bill Not Passed 

A private member's Bill to amend the 
Labour Relations Act, 1950, sought to 
require employers to institute the voluntary 
revocable check-off of union dues. The 
motion for second reading was defeated. 



A Brazilian labour court recently ordered a shoe factory to reinstate with full back 
pay a worker who had been caught stealing, because "to steal in case of extreme necessity, 
for example when there is sickness in the family, does not constitute a crime worthy of 
being punished". The defence counsel said the worker had been earning a "starvation 
wage". 



1152 



Labour Legislation in Manitoba in 1954 

New statute provides for binding arbitration for firemen. Department 
of Labour Act amended; provision made for allowances to the disabled 



The Manitoba Legislature, which was in 
session from February 2 to March 25, 
enacted a new statute granting fire fighters 
the right to compulsory arbitration. The 
Department of Labour Act was amended 
to extend the powers and duties of in- 
spectors to other persons authorized by 
the Minister, to provide for the appoint- 
ment of alternate members to the Manitoba 
Labour Board, and to ensure that anything 
said or done during conciliation proceed- 
ings under the Labour Relations Act will 
not be admissible as evidence before the 
Labour Board or a court. Legislation was 
also enacted to enable the Government to 
enter into an agreement with the Govern- 
ment of Canada for the payment of 
allowances to disabled persons. 

Compulsory Arbitration — Fire Fighters 

The Fire Departments Arbitration Act, 
which became effective on March 25, 
provides for the arbitration of disputes 
between a municipality and a certified 
union of fire fighters when a conciliation 
officer appointed under the Labour Rela- 
tions Act has failed to effect a settlement 
between the parties. Similar legislation is 
in effect in Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, 
Alberta and British Columbia. 

The Manitoba Act applies only to a 
union of firemen which has been certified 
under the Labour Relations Act as the 
bargaining agent for its members and 
which, by its constitution, does not have 
the right to strike. The Act also stipu- 
lates that no firemen may strike and no 
municipality may declare a lockout of 
firemen. 

When collective bargaining has begun 
between a municipality and a certified 
union of firemen, and a conciliation officer 
has been appointed to assist the parties 
in reaching an agreement, the Minister 
may, if he is satisfied that collective 
bargaining has been carried on in good 
faith but that an agreement within a 
reasonable time is unlikely, establish a 
board of arbitration to formulate a collec- 
tive agreement or the renewal or revision 
of an existing agreement. If the board is 
not able to formulate an agreement 
satisfactory to both parties, it is required 
to make an award, binding on both parties, 
setting out the manner in which the 
matters in dispute must be settled. 



The collective agreement or award will 
become effective on the first day of the 
fiscal period of the municipality in respect 
of which the municipal council can provide 
in its estimates for any expenditures in- 
curred under the agreement or award 
unless another day is named in the agree- 
ment or award as the effective date. If 
a day is named which precedes the first 
day of the fiscal period, the provisions 
involving expenditures will become effective 
only from the first day of such fiscal period. 
The agreement or award is to remain in 
effect until the end of the year in which 
it became effective or until a later date 
specified, thereafter continuing in effect 
until replaced by a new agreement or 
award. 

A board of arbitration is to be appointed 
in the same manner as a board of con- 
ciliation under the Labour Relations Act 
and is to receive the same remuneration, 
but each party must assume its own costs 
of arbitration and share equally in all 
other general expenses of the board, in- 
cluding the remuneration of the chairman 
and the expenses of any person, other than 
witnesses of the parties, who is summoned 
by the Board. 

Violation of the provisions of the Act, 
generally, render an individual other than 
a corporation or trade union liable to a 
maximum fine of $100; a corporation or 
trade union, to a fine not exceeding $500. 
Special penalties are set forth in the Act 
for declaring a strike or lockout. A 
maximum fine of $250 a day may be 
imposed on a municipality that declares 
a lockout or on a trade union that declares 
a strike. An officer or representative of a 
trade union who authorizes or participates 
in the taking of a strike vote, or who 
declares or authorizes a strike, or a person 
acting on behalf of a municipality who 
declares a lockout, is liable to a fine not 
exceeding $300. 

Department of Labour Act 

One amendment to the Department of 
Labour Act provides that the powers and 
duties given to inspectors appointed under 
the Act, or under any of the Acts admin- 
istered by the Department, may be vested 
also in any other person authorized in 
writing by the Minister. To carry out the 
provisions of the Acts the inspectors and 
other authorized persons are now given 
statutory power to enter any premises 



1153 



covered by the Acts for purposes of inspec- 
tion and to examine any book, register, 
notice, certificate, licence or other docu- 
ment which an employer, emploj^ee, 
manager or other person is required by 
law to keep. 

The penalties now provided in the Act 
for refusal to comply with the orders of 
an inspector or other authorized person, 
or for hindering him in the discharge of 
his duties, are a maximum fine of $100 or 
not more than 30 days' imprisonment for 
the first offence, and a fine ranging from 
S25 to S500 or a maximum of 90 days' 
imprisonment for a second and subsequent 
offence. 

By another amendment the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council may, when appointing 
any member to the Manitoba Labour 
Board, which administers the Labour Rela- 
tions Act as well as wages and hours 
legislation, designate him as an alternate 
member to act, at the chairman's request, 
in the absence of one of the members or 
when a member is disqualified because of 
undue interest in any particular matter 
before the Board. Such member is 
deemed to have an "undue interest" either 
on his own declaration or on the declara- 
tion of a majority of the other members 
of the Board. 

A new section has been added to the 
Act to provide that nothing said or done 
by the Minister or Deputy Minister of 
Labour, a conciliation officer, the registrar, 
or an employee of the Department of 
Labour while endeavouring to settle an 
industrial dispute will be admissible as 
evidence in any action or proceedings 
arising out of the dispute which is before 
the Labour Board or a court. The Min- 
ister may, however, submit to the Board 
or a court a signed statement certifying 
as to whether he has been requested to 
do, or has done, anything that he is 
authorized to do under the Labour Rela- 
tions Act. 

The above amendments became effective 
on March 1. 

Disabled Persons' Allowances 

The Disabled Persons' Allowances Act, 
which will come into force on proclamation, 
authorizes the Government of Manitoba 
to enter into an agreement with the Gov- 
ernment of Canada for the payment of 
allowances to disabled persons. The 
agreement must provide for the payment 
by the Government of Canada to the 
Government of Manitoba of not less than 
50 per cent of the amount paid out by the 
province for such allowances. 



The Old Age Assistance and Blind 
Persons' Allowances Board of the province 
will administer the provisions of the 
agreement. 

Oil Pipe Lines 

A new Pipe Line Act lays down condi- 
tions for the construction, operation and 
maintenance of oil pipe lines situated 
wholly within the province and authorizes 
regulations to be made to require safety 
measures to be taken during the construc- 
tion and operation of the pipe line. The 
Act is to be administered by the Minister 
of Mines and Natural Resources. Similar 
legislation is in effect in Alberta and 
Saskatchewan and an Oil Pipe Line Act 
passed in 1953 in Ontario will come into 
force on proclamation. 

Every person planning to construct an oil 
pipe line must make application to the 
Minister for a permit and submit at the 
same time a preliminary plan on a pre- 
scribed form indicating the proposed route, 
size and capacity of the pipe line, and the 
proposed location and capacity of all 
pumping stations, gate and check valves, 
tanks and other terminal facilities. 

The Minister may direct the applicant 
to give notice of the application in such 
manner as he considers necessary. Before 
referring the application for approval to 
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council as 
required by the Act, the Minister may 
also, upon his own motion or upon the 
application of any interested party, order 
the Oil and Natural Gas Conservation 
Board to conduct a public hearing on the 
matter. 

Provisions governing the operation of a 
pipe line after installation are also laid 
down in the Act. The holder of an oper- 
ating licence, or any other person, may 
apply to the Minister to have a pipe line 
declared to be a public utility. If the 
declaration is made, the pipe line and the 
operating licence then become subject to 
the provisions of the Municipal and Public 
Utility Board Act. 

The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may 
make regulations to carry out the provi- 
sions of the Act. These include regulations 
prescribing safety measures which must be 
taken to protect life and property during 
and after the construction, installation or 
operation of a pipe line, and regulations 
providing for their inspection. Regulations 
may also be made prescribing the measures 
to be taken in the case of an emergency 
which endangers, or is likely to endanger, 
life and property. 

The Act came into force on March 25. 



1154 



Resolutions 

On March 19 a resolution was adopted 
urging the provincial Government when 
planning future public works programs to 
give consideration to the desirability of 
maintaining a high level of employment 
and recommending that full financial 
responsibility for unemployment relief be 
borne by the federal Government. 

A resolution defeated on March 9 
requested the Government to pay supple- 
mentary allowances to old age pensioners 
and persons in receipt of old age assistance 
whose total incomes do not exceed $40 a 
month. 

A resolution recommending that the 
Government consider the advisability of 



co-operating with the federal Governmenl 
in establishing a national health insurance 
plan t and urging the Manitoba Go 
ment to take the initiative in promoting 
such a plan was defeated on March 24 by 
a vote of 44 to 5. 

A further resolution adopted on March 21 
authorized the Select Standing Committee 
of the Legislature on Industrial Relations, 
which was appointed at the current session 
to carry on the work which they had been 
undertaking as an Industrial Relations 
Commission in accordance with an Order in 
Council of August 26, 1953, to continue 
their work as a Commission. They are to 
make definite recommendations in regard 
to all phases of industrial relations and 
legislation affecting them. 



Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 

Certification of British Columbia store union quashed on grounds that 
employer not given fair hearing. New York State's final appeal court 
dismisses appeal against order of Commission Against Discrimination 



British Columbia Supreme Court . . . 

. . . quashes certification order on grounds that 
employer denied opportunity to present evidence 

On March 26 the British Columbia 
Supreme Court quashed a union's certifi- 
cation order, holding that the provincial 
Labour Relations Board had failed to give 
the employer opportunity to present 
evidence and make representations with 
regard to the union's application for 
certification as required by the Industrial 
Conciliation and Arbitration Act. 

Mr. Justice Wilson gave the judgment 
of the Court. He stated that the ICA 
Act gave the Board power to deal with 
applications for certification by examining 
records and making inquiries as it deemed 
necessary, including holding hearings or 
taking votes. The Board could prescribe 
the nature of the evidence to be furnished 
by an applicant union and could determine 
its own procedure, but was required by 
Section 55 to "give an opportunity to all 
interested parties to present evidence and 
make representation". 

In the case at bar, the company was 
asked by the Board to comment on the 
application made by Local 580 of the 



Retail, Wholesale and Department Store 
Union on October 29, 1953, to be certified 
as bargaining agent for its employees. An 
agent for the company wrote to the Board 
on November 3 objecting to the applica- 
tion on the ground that more than 50 per 
cent of the employees in the proposed 
bargaining unit were seasonal employees 
who would be employed by the company 
only four or five weeks longer. On 
November 5 he sent the Board a record 
of the company's payroll for the past 10 
months, pointing out the fluctuation and 
noting that at that time the number of 
employees was at a seasonal high. The 
reason for this was that large numbers of 
employees were required to pack various 
food products which had a very short 
season. In both letters the agent requested 
that the company be allowed to present 
this evidence at a hearing before the Board. 

The Registrar of the Board notified the 
agent on November 5 that his letter of 
November 3 would be submitted to the 
Board for consideration with the reports 
of investigation into the application. On 
November 10 the Board certified the union 
without any further notice to the company. 



1155 



Mr. Justice Wilson stated that in making 
the decision to certify the union the 
Board was exercising a judicial function. 
He referred to the judgment of the Ontario 
Court of Appeal in Toronto Newspaper 
Guild. Local 87 v. Globe Printing Com- 
pany (L.G.. 1952, p. 615) as justification for 
this statement. In performing that func- 
tion the Board was required to act 
judicially and also to give an opportunity 
to all interested parties to present evidence. 

The Board was not necessarily required 
to give the company an oral hearing; it 
might be that it could properly deal with 
the matter through written representations 
and evidence. In any case, however, an 
interested party was entitled to present its 
evidence. In the case at bar the Board 
had ignored the company's request for an 
opportunity to do so. This was a refusal 
of jurisdiction, His Lordship concluded. 

The Court accordingly quashed the 
union's certification. Martin and Robertson 
Limited v. Labour Relations Board 
'British Columbia) [1954] 2 DLR 622. 

New York Court of Appeals . . . 

. . dismisses employment agency's appeal against 
order of N. Y. Commission Against Discrimination 

The New York Court of Appeals on 
April 23 upheld the judgments of the 
Supreme Court at Special Term and the 
Appellate Division of the Supreme Court 
requiring an employment agency to carry 
out an order of the New York Commission 
Against Discrimination (L.G., 1952, p. 1611; 
Oct. 1953, p. 1517). 

The Commission had found that the 
Holland Vocational Service in New York 
City had engaged in the unlawful practice 
of making an inquiry in connection with 
prospective employment which expressed a 
limitation as to race, creed, colour or 



national origin not based upon a bona fide 
occupational qualification. The employ- 
ment agency was ordered to cease and 
desist from making any such inquiries when 
interviewing or receiving applications from 
persons seeking employment, from giving 
consideration to such factors in making 
evaluations of applicants for referral to 
prospective employers, and from using an 
application form containing any inquiry 
concerning change of name unless approved 
by the Commission. It was directed not 
to furnish any information to prospective 
employers as to an applicant's race, creed, 
colour or national origin and not to accept 
any job orders containing any limitation 
on that score. The Commission's order 
also required the agency to submit for a 
period of one year a record of the action 
taken on all employment applications and 
employers' job orders and to submit all 
other records to the Commission until it 
determined that the agency was complying 
with the law. The Supreme Court at 
Special Term directed the agency to comply 
with the Commission's order and the 
Appellate Division dismissed an appeal 
from that judgment. 

The appellant, the operator of the agency, 
raised a new question before the Court of 
Appeals. She challenged the Commission's 
jurisdiction on the ground that the com- 
plainant was not an aggrieved person within 
the meaning of the statute because there 
was no finding that she was refused a job 
referral because of the discrimination. The 
Court did not deal with this objection 
because of the express statutory provision 
that a question not raised before the 
Commission may not be considered by a 
court. 

The Court of Appeals accordingly dis- 
missed the appeal from the earlier judg- 
ments. Holland v. Edwards, 34 LRRM 2018. 



Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 

Ontario issues safety regulations covering most elevators in province; 
B.C. Labour Relations Board issues rules of procedure under new Act 



Following proclamation of the Ontario 
Elevators and Lifts Act on June 17, safety 
regulations were issued covering most 
elevators in the province except passenger 
elevators in cities. 

The British Columbia Labour Relations 
Board has issued rules of procedure to be 
followed in carrying out its functions 
under the 1954 Labour Relations Act 
proclaimed in force June 16. 



From August 2, 1954, employees of 
co-operative purchasing associations and 
wholesale distributors of gasoline and 
petroleum products will be included in the 
collective liability system under the 
Saskatchewan Workmen's Compensation 
(Accident Fund) Act. Small retail stores 
and restaurants with only one employee 
are now also included. 



1156 



Employees of rural municipalities in 
Saskatchewan who arc employed solely on 
road maintenance have been declared 
i xempl from the provisions of the Hours 
of Work Act. An exception from the 
44-hour work week for certain other 
employees was continued to Jul}' 31. 

FEDERAL 

Prevailing Rate Employees 

The Prevailing Rate Employees General 
Regulations (L.G., March, p. 417; June, 
p. 859) have been amended to permit 
vacation leave credits to be carried over 
from one fiscal year to another in cases 
where the deputy head considers that it 
is in the best interests of his department 
to do so. The general rule is that unused 
leave credits expire at the end of the fiscal 
year in which they accrue. 

The amendment was made by a Treasury 
Board Minute, T.B. 458000-2, on June 11, 
effective June 1, 1954. 

PROVINCIAL 

Alberta Apprenticeship Act and 
Trademen's Qualitication Act 

Under authority granted by the Alberta 
Tradesmen's Qualification Act, new T regula- 
tions applicable to trades designated under 
the Act specify that no one may engage 
in any of these trades unless he holds a 
certificate of proficiency or has entered 
into a contract of apprenticeship. 

The 10 trades listed are those of auto 
body mechanic, electrician, internal com- 
bustion engine mechanic, motor vehicle 
mechanic, plumber, steamfitter, radio tech- 
nician, refrigerator mechanic, barber and 
beauty culture. 

Regulations setting out the conditions for 
obtaining certificates of proficiency in the 
last two trades were issued in 1953 (L.G., 
April, 1953, p. 587; May, p. 737) and regu- 
lations for the other trades were gazetted 
in 1954 (L.G., May, p. 687). 

The amendment restricting work in the 
trades to certificate holders and appren- 
tices was approved by O.C. 788-54 on 
May 28, gazetted June 15. This is a 
further step in revision of the regulations 
governing licensing of tradesmen in Alberta. 
The requirement of a certificate in these 
trades is not new. 



British Columbia Labour Relations Act 

Regulations made on June 18 under the 
new r Labour Relations Act in British 
Columbia and gazetted June 24 set out 
the rules of procedure for the Labour 
Relations Board. 

They set out the manner in which 
applications for certification are to be 
made, the procedure the Board will follow 
in dealing with them, and the criteria for 
determining membership in good standing 
in a union. The Board will consider as 
a member in good standing in a union a 
person who at the date of application for 
certification (1) has signed an application 
for membership in the union and (2) has 
paid on his own behalf at least one month's 
dues for or within a specified period ("the 
period commencing on the first day of the 
third month preceding the calendar month 
in which the application is made and 
ending upon the date of application") or, 
if he has joined within that period, has 
on his own behalf paid the union admis- 
sion fee in an amount at least equal to 
one month's union dues. 

When a group applies for certification as 
a craft union, the Board may require a 
statement outlining the collective bargain- 
ing history of the employees concerned. 
The information is to assist the Board to 
determine whether or not the unit applied 
for is appropriate for collective bargaining. 

When an application for certification of 
the trade union for a unit is made in a 
case where the emploj^er has separate 
operations in progress in different parts of 
the province, the Board may require both 
the applicant and the employer to file 
statutory declarations showing what the 
employer's operations are and what the 
bargaining history in all the operations 
has been. 

All decisions of the Board are to be 
published after the formal notices or orders 
have been sent to the persons affected. 
Any request to vary or revoke a decision 
must be made within 30 days of its 
publication. 

The duties of the chief administrative 
officer of the Board, known as the Registrar. 
include the processing of applications, the 
issue of notices, the conduct of investiga- 
tions for the Board, and the issue of 
documents giving effect to the Board's 
decisions. 

When the Board has directed a repre- 
sentation vote, the Board will determine 
the form of the ballot and settle the list 
of employees eligible to vote. The voters 
list will be the employer's payroll for or 
nearest to the date of application for 



1157 



certification unless the Board orders other- 
The Registrar is responsible for the 
taking of the vote. As in the case of 
representation votes in Saskatchewan, the 
employer and trade union affected are each 
to be invited to appoint scrutineers. 

The regulations specify the information 
to be included in complaints dealing with 
unfair labour practices and in applications 
for the Board's consent to a prosecution for 
violation oi the Act. A schedule contains 
the form to be used in making an applica- 
tion for certification and various other 
forms. 

Newfoundland St. John's Shops Act 

- turday closing of shops in St. John's 
during the summer months was put into 
effect by a proclamation made and gazetted 
on June 8. During the period June 14 
to September 25, 1954, shops may not open 
on Saturdays except when there is another 
whole holiday in the same week. 

The St. John's Shops Act was amended 
in 1953 to provide that a day on which 
shops must remain closed may be fixed 
either by the Minister of Provincial Affairs 
upon the joint recommendation of the 
Importers and Employers' Association and 
the Retail Clerks International Association 
or. in the absence of such recommendation, 
by proclamation of the Lieutenant-Governor 
in Council. 

Ontario Elevators and Lifts Act 

The Elevators and Lifts Act, passed in 
1953 to provide for provincial control over 
the licensing and inspection of elevators 
and lifts, was proclaimed in force on 
June 17. 

The Act (L.G, Nov. 1953, p. 1641) is 
to be administered by a new branch in 
the Department of Labour under the 
direction of a Chief Inspector. At the same 
time regulations were issued under the Act 
(O.Reg. 82/54, June 11, gazetted June 19). 

Up to now elevators were subject to 
regulation by municipal by-laws, and cer- 
tain safety requirements were contained in 
Section 58 of the Factory, Shop and Office 
Building Act. A 1953 amendment to that 
Act repealing Section 58 was brought into 
effect by proclamation June 17. 

In general, all freight elevators, passenger 
elevators outside of cities, and some other 
lifting devices, are subject to the new regu- 
lations. They exclude passenger elevators 
in cities except those owned by the Ontario 
Government or a provincial Board or 
Commission, and other elevators and lifts 
in municipal buildings in Toronto and the 
municipality of Metropolitan Toronto. The 
regulations also exclude agricultural elevat- 



ing devices installed in or near a barn and 
used exclusively for agricultural purposes 
and certain types of small dumb-waiters. 
Certain other types of elevators and lifts 
were excluded by the Act itself, mainly 
those in mines, temporary construction 
hoists, lubrication hoists, feeding machines 
and various types of freight conveyors. 

The Act and regulations are designed to 
promote safety in lifting devices by 
requiring approval by the Department for 
new plans and specifications, the licensing 
of the elevator or hoist before it goes into 
operation, annual inspections, and the 
licensing of operators. Inspectors must be 
qualified persons holding certificates of 
competency. Contractors are required to 
be registered annually and may lose their 
registration if they fail to comply with the 
Act or regulations. 

Licensing of Elevators and Hoists 

Every elevator and hoist must be 
licensed by the Department of Labour. In 
order to obtain a licence tht> owner is 
required to send an application, with the 
necessary fee, to the Chief Inspector, who 
will grant a licence unless he believes that 
the elevating device does not comply with 
the Act or is likely to be operated in an 
unsafe condition or manner. Licences are 
renewable annually. 

The licence may be transferred by the 
Chief Inspector, on application and pay- 
ment of the prescribed fee, but it must 
not be transferred while it is suspended or 
if the Chief Inspector believes that any 
of the conditions exist which would make 
a licence liable to suspension or if the 
applicant for transfer is in arrears in paying 
his fees. 

A licence may be suspended by the Chief 
Inspector if he believes that the elevator 
or hoist is being operated contrary to the 
regulations, if a major alteration has been 
commenced, if the owner has failed to 
comply with a notice or order of an 
inspector, if an insurer cancelled or rejected 
insurance because the elevator was being 
operated contrary to the regulations, or if 
the fees or expenses are in arrears for more 
than 14 days. Where the Chief Inspector 
has suspended a licence he must notify the 
licence holder of the reasons for suspension, 
the date of suspension, and send him a 
copy of the sections of the regulations 
setting out conditions under which a 
suspended licence may be reinstated. The 
Chief Inspector may discontinue the 
suspension on written order if he is satisfied 
that the conditions under which the licence 
was suspended are remedied. The licensee 
will receive a copy of the reinstatement 



1158 



order on payment of the special fee unless 
the licence was suspended because of a 
major alteration in which case the copy 
will be furnished free of charge. 

Inspection 

The Act provides for the appointment 
of a Chief Elevator Inspector and an 
inspection staff. No one may make an 
inspection of an elevator under the Act 
who does not have a certificate. 

In order to qualify as an inspector and 
receive a certificate of competency, the 
regulations require that a candidate must be 
25 years of age, obtain at least 60 per cent 
in an examination and furnish proof of 
being an engineer or having had adequate 
training and experience in the design, 
construction, maintenance and inspection of 
elevating devices. 

A provision is made for issuing a cer- 
tificate of competency to an inspector 
employed by an insurance company. 
Insurance company inspectors may be 
employed to make inspections under the 
Act. A certificate will be issued if the 
inspector meets the required standard for 
a government inspector outlined above 
and if the insurer files a letter with the 
Minister stating that the person in ques- 
tion is in his employ as an inspector or 
will be so when he obtains a certificate 
of competency, certifying as to the person's 
integrity and ability to make inspections, 
and recommending that a certificate of 
competency be issued to him. An applica- 
tion for a certificate of competency must 
be made on the prescribed form and 
accompanied by the proper fee. 

The certificate of a government inspector 
will be automatically renewed without 
charge each year so long as he carries out 
his duties as an inspector but the certificate 
of an insurance company inspector must 
be renewed annually before December 31 
by application and payment of the fee. 
An inspector's certificate may be cancelled 
if he is found untrustworthy or wilfully 
negligent in his duties; is known to have 
falsified an inspection report or is found 
to have an interest in the manufacture, 
sale, installation or maintenance of elevat- 
ing devices. 

Approval of Drawings and Specifications 

The drawings and specifications of all 
new installations or major alterations must 
be approved by an engineer of the Depart- 
ment before work is begun. The regula- 
tions state, in general, that every elevating 
device and all equipment used in connec- 
tion with it must be so designed as to 
ensure at all times under normal conditions 
the safety of persons and freight and that 



it must not travel beyond nor deviate 
from the safe limits of its fixed position 
or proper line of travel. The requirements 
for submitting drawings and specifications 
are set out in detail in the regulations. 

New Installations 

The approval of the Department is 
required before a new installation may be 
made or a major alteration undertaken. 
Not less than 72 hours before the work is 
commenced, the person undertaking it must 
deliver to the Chief Inspector written 
notification of the day and time he will 
begin. Every installation and alteration 
must conform to the approved drawings 
and specifications and must be inspected 
before it is put into use. In carrying out 
their duties inspectors are required by the 
Act to apply the CSA Safety Code for 
Passenger and Freight Elevators to new 
installations. 

Registration of Contractors 

Contractors engaged in the business of 
constructing, installing, altering, repairing, 
servicing or testing elevating devices are 
required to apply for registration within 
15 days after the regulations come into 
force or, if they are not already engaged 
in the business, before commencing to 
carry on work as a contractor; they must 
apply and pay the fee for registration 
before April 1 in each subsequent year. 
The Minister may cancel a contractor's 
registration for violation of the Act or 
regulations; if, while the elevator is under 
his control, the contractor permits it to be 
used while it is in an unsafe condition or 
overloaded; if he is so negligent in his 
workmanship or knowingly permits a sub- 
contractor to be so negligent as to cause 
a hazard to persons or freight or if he 
performs any work or allows his sub- 
contractor to work while his ability is 
impaired by the use of alcohol or drugs. 

When the Minister suspends the con- 
tractor's registration he must give him five 
days' written notice setting out the details 
of the violation and the nature of the sup- 
porting evidence and appointing the date, 
time and place of a hearing. At the hearing 
the contractor is entitled to be represented 
by counsel or an agent and hear the evi- 
dence against him, to cross-examine and call 
witnesses on his behalf and present his 
argument. After the hearing the Minister 
is required to issue an order discontinuing 
the suspension, continuing the suspension 
to a specified date not later than the 
following March 30 or cancelling the regis- 
tration, and he must send a copy of the 
order to the contractor. 



1159 



Licensing of Elevator Operators 

Elevator attendants are also required to 
be licensed. To qualify for a licence a 
son must be over 18 years of age and 
have adequate experience to enable him 
to appreciate all dangers connected with 
elevator operation and to operate the 
elevator safely. A person 18 years of age 
or over learning to be an attendant may 
obtain the necessary experience only under 
the supervision of a qualified attendant who 
is present at all times and ready to take 
control. Automatic elevators and certain 
incline lifts which meet the requirements 
set out in the regulations are not required 
to be operated by licensed attendants. 
Otherwise, the Act provides that only a 
licensed attendant may operate an elevator 
or incline lift. 

Safety Requirements 

Safety requirements with respect to oper- 
ation and maintenance are also set out in 
the regulations. A notice in the form of 
a metal plate must be affixed by the owner 
in the load earning unit of each elevator, 
dumbwaiter or incline lift and as close as 
practicable to the bottom landing of each 
escalator, manlift, ski lift and ski tow. 
The notice must set out in letters at least 
i inch high the maximum capacity of the 
elevator or lift. The maximum capacity of 
an elevator is to be determined by the 
method which uses the maximum permis- 
sible stress and the factor of safety for 
material used, set out in the Code. The 
plate or label supplied by the Department 
setting forth the installation number must 
also be displayed. In the case of a freight 
elevator, a notice must be displayed in the 
car stating that no person other than the 
attendant and freight handlers must ride in 
the elevator. 

With regard to the operation of elevators 
and lifts, the regulations prohibit the use 
of any elevating device unless it is main- 
tained at all times in a condition which 
will ensure safety in all respects. No 
person may use an elevator or lift unless 
the required plates, labels or notices are 
maintained in such location and condition 
as to be clearly legible at all times. Every 
elevating device must always be maintained 
so that it will not travel beyond nor deviate 
from the safe limits of its fixed position 
or proper line of travel. 

Xo person must conduct himself in or 
around an elevator so as to impair its safe 
operation or so as to endanger himself or 
others or any freight. No person may 
remove or interfere with any safety device 
installed in connection with an elevator, 
except an inspector or a contractor or 



competent mechanic making a test or 
repair. If a safety device is removed or 
interfered with, the inspector, contractor 
or mechanic must make sure that the 
elevator is not used until it is restored 
in good working order except for inspec- 
tion, or repairs. 

Fees 

The fees set for inspections, approval of 
drawings and for the various licences 
required and the application forms are 
appended to the regulations. 

Saskatchewan Hours of Work Act 

Three orders issued under the Saskat- 
chewan Hours of Work Act in 1953 
permitting an exception from the 44-hour 
standard set by the Act until May 31, 1954, 
have been amended. 

The period during which shop and office 
employees in 83 listed towns and villages 
with a population of between 300 and 500 
may work up to 48 hours a week without 
payment of overtime has been extended 
from May 31 to July 31, 1954. A 48-hour 
work week without payment of overtime 
is also permitted until July 31, 1954, in 
140 listed places with a population of more 
than 300, including the nine larger towns 
but excluding cities, for employees in 
establishments other than shops, offices and 
factories. 

The extension of the period was made 
effective by O.C. 1275/54, gazetted June 11, 
which amends O.C. 867/53, 868/53 and 
1019/53 (L.G., Aug. 1953, p. 1192). 

An Order in Council, O.C. 1466/54 of 
June 25, gazetted July 2, declared 
employees of a rural municipality employed 
solely on road maintenance to be exempt 
from the provisions of the Act. 

The Act provides that the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council, upon the recom- 
mendation of the council of any city, 
town or village or without such recom- 
mendation, may declare the Act not to 
apply to the employees in any specified 
class of employment if this is considered 
necessary or expedient having regard to 
the nature of the work and the conditions 
of employment and the welfare of the 
employees. 

Saskatchewan Workmen's Compensation 
(Accident Fund) Act 

The coverage of the Saskatchewan Work- 
men's Compensation Act was amended by 
two recent Orders in Council made on 
June 25 and gazetted July 2. 

(Continued on page 1166) 



1160 



Unemployment 



Decision of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Complete text published because of its great general interest 



Decision CUB 1046, June 22, 1954 

The claimants, who are carpenters by 
trade and members of the United Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America, had completed a dwelling for the 
Strom Lumber Company, Ltd., Prince 
George, B.C., when on October 16, 1953, 
they were "sent" by the company to do 
some roof repairs at its plant. The plant 
was strike-bound and the claimants refused 
to cross the picket lines which had been 
set up by the strikers, who were members 
of the International Woodworkers of 
America. 

On October 19, 1953, they filed an 
application for benefit, which was dis- 
allowed by the insurance officer on the 
ground that, by having refused to cross the 
picket lines, they had become participants 
in the labour dispute (Section 41(1) of 
the Act). 

From the decision of the insurance 
officer, the claimants appealed to a court 
of referees. 

The court of referees, after having heard 
representations from officials of the 
Carpenters ' Union on January 8, 1954, 
unanimously set aside the disqualification 
imposed under Section 41(1) of the Act 
on the grounds (a) that the claimants had 
been sent by the company from an outside 
job to one involved in a labour dispute 
and (b) that in the light of Section 42(2) 
of the Act, had the claimants been sent 
by some other agency to the strike-bound 
plant they would have been within their 
rights for refusing that employment. 

From the decision of the court of 
referees, the insurance officer, on February 
3. 1954, appealed to the Umpire. 

In addition to submitting a well- 
prepared brief, the Trades and Labour 
Congress of Canada requested an oral 
hearing before the Umpire, which was held 
in Ottawa, Ont., on April 21, 1954. The 
said Congress was represented by Mr. L. E. 
Wismer, Director of Public Relations and 
Research, and the Unemployment Insurance 
Commission by Mr. N. M. Retallack, 
Insurance Officer. After some discussion, 
it was decided to adjourn the hearing to 



a later date so as to enable the Commis- 
sion to obtain more complete information 
from the employer as to the extent and 
strength of the IWA picket lines on 
October 16, 1953. This information was 
received and on May 19, 1954, the hearing 
was resumed and attended by the same 
representatives of the Congress and the 
Commission. 

Conclusions — The evidence indicates that 
the claimants were hired by the Strom 
Lumber Company, Ltd., on August 18, 
1953, through Local 1998 of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America, to construct a dwelling on prop- 
erty owned by the company. When the 
dwelling was completed, on October 15, 
1953, the claimants were "sent" to the 
company's plant to do some roof repairs. 
The plant had been strike-bound since 
September 26, 1953, as a result of a labour 
dispute between the company and its 
regular employees, who are members of 
the International Woodworkers of America. 
Upon reaching the entrance of the plant, 
the claimants were confronted with a picket 
line which they refused to cross. 

The Strom Lumber Company, Ltd. oper- 
ates a planer mill and is not in the con- 
struction business. The housing project 
which it carried out and for which specific 
job the claimants were hired was outside 
its normal activities and located away 
from the planer mill. 

On those facts I have no hestitation in 
agreeing with the court of referees that 
the claimants were wrongly disqualified 
under Section 41 of the Act. 

Apart from any other consideration, 
there can be no doubt that the planer 
mill and the housing project must 
be treated as "separate branches" or 
"businesses" within the meaning of Subsec- 
tion (3) of Section 41 of the Act, which 
reads as follows: — 

Where separate branches of work that are 
commonly carried on as separate businesses 
in separate premises are carried on in 
separate departments on the same premises, 
each department shall, for the purpose of 
this section, be deemed to be a separate 
factory or workshop. 



1161 



As the claimants' place of employment 
was the housing project and the stoppage 
oi work was taking place at the planer 
mill, they cannot be said to have lost 
their employment by reason of a stoppage 
of work due to a labour dispute at the 
premises at which they were employed. 

The roof repairs which were to be done 
at the plant must be considered as new 
employment and the question to be 
decided is whether it was suitable employ- 
ment within the meaning of the Act and, 
if so, had the claimants good cause to 
refuse it. 

As it was work in their usual occupation, 
at the prevailing rate of pay in the district 
and not normally performed by the strikers, 
there can be no doubt that it was suitable 
employment within the meaning of the Act. 



Had it been work normally performed by 
the strikers, it would have been deemed 
to be work arising in consequence of a 
stoppage of work due to a labour dispute 
and, therefore, not suitable pursuant to 
Section 42(2) (a) of the Act. 

It remains to be decided whether or not 
the claimants had good cause to refuse to 
accept the additional employment which 
was provided by the company. 

As the evidence indicates that the 
claimants were justified in their belief that 
they might have suffered violence had they 
decided to cross the picket line estab- 
lished at the entrance of the plant, I 
consider that they have shown good cause 
within the meaning of Section 42(1) (a) 
of the Act. 

For those reasons, the appeal is dismissed. 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Initial and renewal claims during May totalled 113,427, statistics* 
show: compared with 158,411 during April and 71,476 during May 1953 



A total of 113,427 initial and renewal 
claims was received at local offices of the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission 
during May. compared with 158,411 during 
April and 71,476 in May 1953. 

The Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
monthly report on the operation of the 
Unemployment Insurance Act shows that 
ordinary claimants on the live unemploy- 
ment register on May 31 numbered 247,755, 
a decline of approximately 89,000 from the 
336.683 claimants registered on April 30. 
One year earlier, on May 31, ordinary 
claimants totalled 143,083. The live register 
on May 31 this year includes, in addition, 
38.254 claimants on short-time and 7,158 on 
temporary lay-off. 

A total of 126,316 adjudications were 
recorded on initial and renewal claims 
during May and, of these, 97,520 were 
entitled to benefit. Claimants not entitled 
to benefit numbered 34,623 (this figure 
includes 5,827 disqualifications arising from 
revised and supplementary benefit claims), 
of which 19,284 were on behalf of claimants 
who were unable to satisfy the minimum 
contribution requirements. Chief reasons 
for disqualification were: "voluntarily left 
employment without just cause" 4,876 



In a comparison of current employment 
statistics with those for a previous period, 
consideration should be given to relevant 
factors other than numbers, such as the 
opening and closing of seasonal indus- 
tries, increase in area population, influ- 
ence of weather conditions, and the 
general employment situation. 



"See Tables E-l to E-6 at back of book. 



cases; "not unemployed" 2,948 cases; and 
"not capable of and not available for work" 
2,127 cases. 

New beneficiaries during May numbered 
87,468, a decline of some 21,000 from the 
108,692 recorded for April. During May 
1953, new beneficiaries numbered 60,514. 

During May, a total of $20,709,106 was 
paid in respect of 6,575,003 days (of which 
81.922 were disability days), compared with 
$25,381,926 and 7,997,163 days (of which 
88,402 were disability days) for April and 
$12,195,255 and 3,919,260 days for May 1953. 

An estimated total of 246,269 bene- 
ficiaries received $4,188,446 in compensation 
for 1,341,840 days (including 22,481 dis- 
ability days) during the week May 29- 
June 4, as against an estimated 375,266 
beneficiaries who were paid $6,579,559 in 
respect of 2,075,460 days (including 24,563 
disability days) during the period April 
(Continued on page 1166) 



1162 



B, a hour 4 oiifliiio 

in Federal l*ov« nniu ni (oiiiiiiHs 

Wage Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during June 

Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During June the Department of Labour prepared 217 wage schedules for inclusion 
in contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Government and 
its Crown corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, remodelling, 
repair or demolition. In the same period, a total of 116 contracts in these categories was 
awarded. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to trade 
unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of the 
contract. 

(The labour conditions included in each of the contracts listed under this heading 
provide that: — 

(a) the wage rate for each classification of labour shown in the wage schedule included 
in the contract is a minimum rate only and contractors and subcontractors are not 
exempted from the payment of higher wages in any instance where, during the continuation 
of the work, wage rates in excess of those shown in the wage schedule have been fixed by 
provincial legislation, by collective agreements in the district, or by current practice; 

(b) hours of work shall not exceed eight in the day and 44 in the week, except in 
emergency conditions approved by the Minister of Labour; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of eight per day and 44 per week; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect to 
alleged discrimination.) 

Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts awarded in June for the manufacture of supplies and equipment were as 
follows : — 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

Agriculture 1 $ 52,125.00 

Defence Construction (1951) Limited 1 20,826.24 

Defence Production (May Report) 181 1,541,923.00 

Post Office 11 30,802.50 

R.C.M.P. (April, May and June Reports) 13 155,497.70 

(The labour conditions included in contracts for the manufacture of supplies and 
equipment provide that: — 

(a) all persons who perform labour on such contracts shall be paid such wages as are 
currently paid in the district to competent workmen, and if there is no current rate, then 
a fair and reasonable rate; but in no event shall the wages paid be less than those 
established by the laws of the province in which the work is being performed; 

(b) the working hours shall be those fixed by the custom of the trade in the district 
or, if there be no such custom, then fair and reasonable hours; 



The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour wage schedules are thereupon included 

legislation of the federal Government has with other relevant labour conditions as 

the purpose of insuring that all Govern- terms of such contracts to be observed 

ment contracts for works of construction by the contractors. 

and for the manufacture of supplies and Wage schedules are not included in 

equipment contain provisions to secure contracts for the manufacture of supplies 

the payment of wages generally accepted and equipment because it is not possible 

as fair and reasonable in each trade or to determine in advance the classifica- 

classification employed in the district tions to be employed in the execution 

where the work is being performed. of a contract. A statement of the labour 

The practice of Government depart- conditions which must be observed in 

ments and those Crown corporations to every such contract is, however, included 

which the legislation applies, before therein and is of the same nature and 

entering into contracts for any work of effect as those which apply in works of 

construction, remodelling, repair or demo- construction. 

lition, is to obtain wage schedules from Copies of the federal Government's 

the Department of Labour, showing the Fair Wages and Hours of Labour legis- 

applicable wage rate for each classifica- lation may be had upon request to the 

tion of workmen deemed to be required Industrial Relations Branch of the 

in the execution of the work. These Department of Labour, Ottawa. 



1163 



ic" overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of those lixed by custom of the trade in the district or in excess of fair 
and reasonable hours: 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
rare, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect to 
alleged discrimination.) 

Wage Claims Received and Payments Made during June 

During June the sum of $4,177.74 was collected from six employers who had failed 
to pay the wages required by the labour conditions attached to their contracts. This 
amount has been or will be distributed to the 50 employees concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wage Schedules Awarded during June 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 



Near Abernethy Sask: Benjamin Bros 
Ltd, construction of reinforced concrete 
spillway structure for dam on Pheasant 
Creek. Near Hays Alta: W C Wells Con- 
struction Co Ltd, enlarging about 4 miles 
of main canal, Bow River project. Near 
Yauxhall Alta: Adams Berg & Griffith Con- 



Department of Agriculture 

struction Ltd, enlarging & relocating 6 miles 
of existing canal, Bow River project; 
Square M Construction Ltd, construction 
of about 26 miles of canal, 18 miles of road 
& 4 miles of open ditch drain, etc, Bow 
River project. 



Atomic Energy of Canada Limited 

Chalk River Ont: Foundation Co of Canada Ltd, construction of metals preparation 
shop. 

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation 



Halifax N S: Reardon Industries Ltd, 
interior & exterior painting of houses. 
Tuft's Cove N S: Northern Roofing & 
Metal Workers Ltd, *roofing & metal work, 
Central Heating Plant; L G Rawding Con- 
struction Ltd, landscaping. Benny Farm 
P Q: St Lawrence Steeplejacks, exterior 
painting; Planned Renovators Co, repairs 
to boilers. Montreal North P Q: E Milot, 
exterior painting. St Hubert PQ: Terminal 
Construction Co Ltd, landscaping; 
Terminal Construction Co Ltd, landscaping. 
St Paul L'Ermite P Q: National Land- 
scaping Service Ltd, landscaping & hard 
surfacing of roads & driveways. Villeray 
Terrace P Q: St Lawrence Steeplejacks, 
exterior painting. Ajax Ont: Marino Con- 
St ruction, construction of watermains; 



Swansea Construction Co Ltd, construction 
of roads, watermains, sanitary & storm 
sewers. Cobourg Ont: K J Beamish Con- 
struction Co Ltd, paving of roads, drive- 
ways & parking areas. Renfrew Ont: M 
Sullivan & Son Ltd, construction of houses. 
Kamsack Sask: Joe Vacola, *exterior paint- 
ing. Melville Sask: Melville Painters & 
Decorators, *exterior painting. Moose Jaw 
Sask: Bilodeau & Heath Co Ltd, construc- 
tion of houses; Henry Borger & Son Ltd, 
construction of sewer & water services. 
Calgary Alta: Norman H Woods & Assoc 
Ltd, landscaping. Courtenay B C : William 
Suffill, replacement of existing septic tanks. 
Vancouver B C: R N Neven, interior 
painting. 



Defence Construction (1951) Limited 



St John's Nfld: Concrete Products (Nfld) 
Ltd, road paving, HMCS "Avalon", Buck- 
master's Field. Bedford Basin N S: 
Cameron Construction Ltd, installation of 
pumping equipment & addition to water 
distribution system, Joint Services Maga- 
zine. Dartmouth N S: Cameron Con- 
tracting Ltd, extension to plating 
laboratory, etc, Naval Research Establish- 
ment. Greenwood N S: L G Rawding 
Construction Ltd, construction of pump- 



house & water main. Halifax N S: Bryant 
Electric Co Ltd, installation of electrical 
control system, RCN Gunnery Range, 
Osborne Head. Gagetown N B: M F 
Schurman Co Ltd, construction of sewage 
treatment plant. McGivney N B: Mac- 
Pherson & Myles Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of chapel. Bagotville P Q: 
Riverin & Fils Ltee, connecting up of 
boiler & supply & installation of auxiliary 
equipment & piping. St Hubert P Q: 



1164 



Li wis Bros Asphalt Paving Ltd, construc- 
tion of roads, walks & parking areas; 
A N Bail Cie Ltee, construction of power 
plant bldg. Gloucester Ont: Argo Con- 
struction Ltd, construction of barrack block, 
HMCS "Gloucester". London Ont: Pro- 
vincial Engineering Ltd, installation of 
electrical distribution system; McKay- 
Cocker Construction Ltd, construction of 
lecture training bldg, Protestant chapel & 
sergeants' quarters. Long Branch Ont: 
Semple-Gooder & Co Ltd, *supply & 
installation of tile floors & base in offices. 
North Bay Ont : Dickson-Larkey Welding 
& Steel Construction Ltd, connecting up 
of boiler & supply & installation of auxiliary 
equipment & piping. Picton Ont: St 
Lawrence Contracting Co Ltd, construc- 
tion of chapels & outside services. Trenton 
Ont: W Pickthorne & Son Ltd, alter- 
ations & additions to fire alarm system. 
Fort Churchill Man: Bird Construction Co 
Ltd, extension to bldg, D10. Winnipeg 
Man: John Plaxton Ltd, connecting up of 

Building & 

Scoudouc N B: Northern Roofing & 
Metal Workers Ltd, application of 15-year 
bonded roofs. Camp Borden Ont: John D 
St Clair Ltd, exterior painting of bldgs. 
Rockcliffe Ont: Shore & Horwitz Con- 
struction Co Ltd, cubicling of bldg, RCAF 



boiler & supply & installation of auxiliary 
equipment & piping. Dundurn Sask: 
Piggott t Construction Ltd, construction of 
chapel. Cold Lake Alia: Poole Construc- 
tion Co Ltd, construction of GCI instal- 
lation. Edmonton Alta: Alexander Con- 
struction Ltd, construction of barrack 
blocks & mess; Rush & Tompkins Ltd, 
construction of fire hall; AIM Steel 
Products Division Ltd, supply & erection 
of security fencing, Bissell & Calder radio 
stations (RCCS). Penhold Alta: Lockerbie 
& Hole Western Ltd, connecting up of 
boiler & supply & installation of auxiliary 
equipment. Baldy Hughes B C: Fred 
Welsh & Son Ltd, *supply & installation 
of unit heater. Chilliwack B C: Sorensen 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of chapel 
& outside services. Esquimalt B C: Farmer 
Construction Ltd, construction of supply 
bldg, HMCS "Naden". Kamloops B C: 
Cementation Co (Canada) Ltd, revising 
existing water supply system & construc- 
tion of reservoir. 

Maintenance 

Station. Saidt Ste Marie Ont: Marson 
Construction Co, landscaping. Trenton 
Ont: H J McFarland Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of concrete aprons & roads for 
the M E & R T garages. Sea Island B C: 
C J Oliver Ltd, permanent subfloor replace- 
ment & cubicling of bldg. 



National Harbours Board 

Churchill Harbour Man: Carter Construction Co Ltd, construction of addition to grain 
elevator. Vancouver Harbour B C: Insul-Mastic & Building Products Ltd, recondi- 
tioning wall, Ballantyne Pier, sheds & office. 

National Research Council 

Ottawa Ont: F E Cummings Construction Co, construction of extension No 2 to the 
Hydraulics Laboratory, Montreal Road Laboratories; George Cashman Ltd, construction 
of extension to Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Montreal Road Laboratories. 



Department of 

Hermitage Nfld: Diamond Construction 
Co Ltd, *dredging. Pinette Landing 
P E I: Matheson & MacMillan, wharf 
improvements (extension). Blandford N S: 
Trynor Construction Co Ltd, breakwater 
reconstruction. Chester (Back Harbour) 
N S: J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. 
Halifax N S: Standard Construction Co 
Ltd, installation of elevator & alterations 
to shaft & penthouse, Old Post Office Bldg. 
Pictou N S: Ferguson Industries Ltd, 
*renewal of plate & replacement of boiler 
of tug Fredericlon. Port Medway N S.- 
Lincoln Construction Co Ltd, breakwater 
repairs. Yarmouth N S: Kenney Construc- 
tion Co Ltd, construction of ferrv terminal 
(Part D): J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. 
Weymouth North N S: Clare Construction 



Public Works 

Co Ltd, wharf repairs. Fredericton N B: 
M F Schurman Co Ltd, addition & alter- 
ations to old public bldg. Moncton N B: 
El Pellerin, alterations, fittings, etc, Louns- 
bury Bldg, RCAF Filter Centre. New- 
castle N B: Diamond Construction Ltd, 
paving of Government wharf. Cap aux 
Meules P Q: Eastern Enterprises Ltd, shed 
reconstruction. L'Anse a Valleau P Q: 
James S Watt, construction of fishing 
harbour. Mont Louis P Q: Captain Irenee 
Verreault, *dredging. Matane P Q: 
Marples Ridgway Ltd, wharf reconstruc- 
tion. Montreal P Q: J J Shea Ltd, instal- 
lation of elevators & alterations, etc, 
Customs Bldg & Customs Examining Ware- 
house. Rimouski P Q: Gulf Maritime Con- 
struction Ltd, harbour improvements (spur 

1165 



whai I I Son 1 P Q: L Lachapelle, 

construction oi landing slip opposite shelter 
basin below Dock No 2. Ottawa Ont: 
Sirotek Construction Ltd, construction of 
- urch piggery, Central Experimental 
Farm ; Edge Ltd, repairs & alterations to 
plumbing & ventilation systems, Centre 
Block. Parliament Bldgs; L Gendron & Fils, 
installation of duplex vacuum pump & 
receiver, Parliament Bldgs; H H Popham 
<fc Co Ltd. installation of air conditioning 
system. "B' ? Bldg, Cartier Square; Otis 
El< vator Co Ltd, supply & installation of 
Qger elevator, Garland Bldg; Taggart 
Construction Ltd, construction of walkway 
bridge between Connaught Bldg & No 9 
Temporary Bldg; W Pickthorne & Son 
Ltd. renovations for transformer room, 
Hunter Bldg; Alex I Garvock Ltd, altera- 
tions & additions to power plant, Tunney's 
Pasture; Leopold Beaudoin Construction 
Ltd, alterations & improvements, Garland 
Bldg; A Lanctot Construction Co, altera- 

Department 

Flat Point N S: Stephens Construction 
Ltd, construction of dwelling. Ingonish 
Island N S: R G McDougall, construction 
of dwelling & lighthouse tower. La Have 
(Fort Point) N S: Rodney Contractors 
Ltd, construction of dwelling. Seal Island 
N S: Jos S Surette, construction of dwell- 
ing. Point Lepreau N B: J S Parker, 
construction of dwelling. Cap des Rosiers 
P Q: J P A Norman Inc, renewal of brick 
facing on wall of lighthouse tower. Cape 



tions to 3rd & 4th floors, "C" Bldg, Cartier 
Square. Simcoe Ont: Pigott Construction 
Co Ltd, erection of public bldg. Toronto 
Ont: J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. Bois- 
sevain Man: Harris Construction Co Ltd, 
erection of Customs & Immigration Bldgs 
& site development. Fort Qu'Appelle 
Sask: B W Palmer, alterations & improve- 
ments to water supply system, Indian 
Hospital. Regina Sask: Poole Construction 
Co Ltd, construction of staff boarding 
house, Dominion Experimental Sub-station. 
Fraser River B C: Fraser River Pile Driving 
Co Ltd, repairs to Sapperton Pile Dyke. 
M asset B C: Greer & Bridden Ltd, erec- 
tion of health centre for Indian Services. 
Port Hardy B C: British Columbia Bridge 
& Dredging Co Ltd, *dredging. Prince 
Rupert (Cow Bay) B C: Armour Salvage 
(1949) Ltd, construction of floats. Sointula 
B C: Horie-Latimer Construction Co Ltd, 
wharf & float repairs. Vancouver B C: 
Smith Bros & Wilson Ltd, construction of 
general post office bldg. 

of Transport 

Salmon P Q: Gulf Maritime Construction 
Ltd, construction of dwellings & concrete 
lighthouse tower. Fort William Ont: 
Hacquoil's, additional development, Lake- 
head Airport. Windsor Ont: Cart Paving 
Co Ltd, additional airport development. 
Winnipeg Man: Commonwealth Construc- 
tion Co Ltd, additional airport develop- 
ment. Fort McMurray Alta: Dawson, 
Wade & Co & B C Bridge & Dredging Co 
Ltd, additional airport development. 



Unemployment Insurance 

(Continued from page 1162) 

24-30. For the week May 30-June 5, 1953, 
82,248.673 was paid to 125,558 beneficiaries 
in respect of 726,684 unemployed days. 

The average daily rate of benefit paid 
for the week May 29-June 4 was $3.12, 
compared with S3. 17 for the week April 
24-30, and S3.09 for the week May 30- 
June 5, 1953. 

Insurance Registrations 

Reports received from local offices of the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission for 
May show that insurance books or contri- 
bution cards have been issued to 3,754,897 
employees who have made contributions 
to the Unemployment Insurance fund at 
one time or another since April 1, 1954. 

At May 31, employers registered num- 
bered 257.294, an increase of 258 during 
the month. 



Recent Regulations 

(Continued from page 1160) 

All co-operative purchasing associations 
and all wholesale distributors who are 
commission men- or commission agents 
engaged in the distribution of gasoline, oils, 
greases and other petroleum products were 
brought under Part I (collective liability 
system) of the Act from August 2, 1954, 
by O.C. 1491/54. 

The second Order in Council, O.C. 
1492/54, amended a 1946 order which 
brought retail shops and restaurants under 
the Act except where fewer than two 
workmen (including members of the 
employer's family) were employed. The 
amendment, effective January 1, 1955, brings 
all restaurants and retail stores under the 
Act by removing the exception. 



1166 



Prices and the Cost of Living 



Consumer Price Index, July 2, 1954 

The consumer price index advanced for 
the second consecutive month between 
June I and July 2, moving from 116-1 to 
116*2. Four of the five main groups 
registered small increases. 

The change in the food index from 112-0 
to 112-1 was the result of mixed price 
movements as increases were reported for 
eggs, beef, land), fresh and canned fruits, 
and potatoes, while decreases occurred for 
pork, lard, sugar and some fresh vege- 
fcabl< s. 

Advances in both rents and home- 
ownership were reflected in the change in 
the shelter index from 126-4 to 126-6. 

Household operation moved from 117-1 
to 117-2 as slight advances in coal, cleaning 
supplies, paid household help and a number 
of hardware items outweighed decreases for 
a few furniture items and appliances. 

Among the other commodities and ser- 
vices, increases in drug prices, newspaper 
rates and local transportation fares over- 
balanced decreases for gasoline and photo- 
graphic films. The index for this group 
moved up from 117-5 to 117-6. 

Further decreases in nylon hosiery prices 
were mainly responsible for the decline in 
the clothing series from 109-7 to 109-6. 



*See Tables F-l to F-6 at back of book. 



The index one year earlier (July 2. 1953 
was L15*4. Group indexes on that date 
were: food 112-7, shelter 123-9, clothing 
110-3, Household operation 117-0 and other 
commodities and services 115-2. 

City Consumer Price Indexes, June 1, 1954 

Advances ranging from 0-2 to 0*6 
ecu! were registered for each of the ten 
regional consumer price indexes between 
May 1 and June 1, mainly because of 
increases in foods and rents. Food indexes 
were substantially higher in all cities as 
general increases were recorded for meats, 
fresh vegetables, fresh and canned fruit-, 
tea, and coffee. Butter and chicken prices 
were generally lower. Rents moved up in 
eight centres and were unchanged in two. 

Clothing was lower in five cities and 
higher in one as a result of small changes 
affecting a few items, notably nylon 
hosiery. No over-all movement was 
recorded in the remaining four cities. 
Changes in electrical appliance prices were 
mainly responsible for the movements of 
the household operation indexes. Decreases 
for cotton sheets, garbage cans and lawn- 
mowers and increases in laundry, dry- 
cleaning and shoe repair services were also 
reported in a number of cities. Group 
indexes were lower in five cities, higher in 
two and unchanged in three. Other 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX FROM JANUARY 1949 



Indei 19(9 = 103 







FOOD f* 






S~ 


.— -/" 








SHELTER 












1 


OTAL f S* 

yr/J 


JC HOUSEHOL 

V ^ 


OPERATION 
















r' IT 


/ \ 

.' . OTHER COMMODITY 

i 


CLOTHING 
S AND SERVICES 








l^^i^ifSB^V . V* 














































, 1 








...... 1.. ,. . 


, ! , 




\ 





93709—6 



1167 



commodities and services remained at the 
same level in eight cities, while the 
St. John's series advanced 0-1 per cent and 
the Saskatoon-Regina index declined by the 
same amount. 

Regional consumer price index point 
changes between May 1 and June 1 were 
as follows: Montreal +0-7 to 117-0; Ottawa 
+0-6 to 116-1; Saskatoon-Regina +0-6 to 
114-1; Toronto +0-5 to 118-2; Winnipeg 
+0-5 to 115-3; Saint John +0-4 to 116-2; 
Edmonton-Calgary +0-4 to 114-8; St. 
John's +0-3 to 102-5*; Halifax +0-3 to 
113-9; Vancouver +0-2 to 117-1. 

Wholesale Prices, June 1954 

Wholesale prices were slightly lower in 
June and the DBS general index fell 0-2 
per cent to 217-8 from 218-2 in May. 
Recessions in vegetable products were 
mainly responsible for the decline, although 
non-metallic minerals and textile products 
also moved lower. The other five major 
groups recorded fractional percentage gains 
over May levels. 

A decline of 1-2 per cent in vegetable 
products to 194-2 from 196-5 was in large 
measure a reflection of the reduction in 
western wheat prices announced early in 
June. This decrease, which outweighed 
advances in western barley, oats and . rye 
in the sub-group, was accompanied by lower 
prices for bran, shorts and flour. Linseed 
oil and raw sugar also contributed to the 
decline. Sub-group gains were registered 
for tea, coffee and cocoa, potatoes, fresh 
fruits, raw rubber, onions, and canned 
vegetables. 

In response to a general lowering of 
gasoline prices and a fractional percentage 
decline in sulphur resulting from slightly 
lower rates for the United States dollar in 
Canadian funds, the non-metallic minerals 
group declined 0-3 per cent to 176-2 from 
176 • 7. Non-ferrous metal products advanced 
0-2 per cent to 168-3 from 168-0, increases 



*On base 1951—100. 



in zinc, lead, tin ingots and antimony out- 
weighing decreases in copper, silver and 
gold. 

The textile products index moved to 
233-6 from 233-7 for a small net loss as 
declines in raw cotton and cotton fabrics 
barely overbalanced advances in imported 
raw wool, worsted yarns and woollen cloth. 

An increase of 0-4 per cent in chemical 
products to 176-6 from 175-9 was mainly 
the result of higher prices for paint 
materials. 

Animal products moved up 0-2 per cent 
to 245-0 from 244-5 when increases in fresh 
meats and eggs proved of more importance 
than general decreases in cured meats, 
fishery products, livestock, milk and its 
products, lard and tallow, hides and leather' 
footwear. 

Increases in western fir and cedar lumber 
and cedar shingles raised the wood and 
paper products index 0-1 per cent to 286-4 
from 286-2; small declines were registered 
for newsprint and woodpulp because of 
lower rates for the United States dollar. 

A small increase in iron products to 
211-7 from 211-8 resulted from an increase 
in galvanized steel sheets. 

The index of Canadian farm product 
prices at terminal markets was unchanged 
in June from the May level of 209-6. Field 
products rose 0-5 per cent to 151-9 from 
151-2 as advances in potatoes and western 
hay proved stronger than declines in flax, 
eastern grains and eastern hay. In the 
animal products group lower prices for live- 
stock, chiefly eastern steers, calves and hogs, 
were mainly responsible for the decline of 
0-3 per cent to 267-3 from 268-0. 

Residential building material prices 
climbed 0-5 per cent to 277-4 from 275-9 
between May and June. Of greatest 
importance was the increase in fir lumber, 
which outweighed decreases in millwork. 
Cedar shingles, shellac, copper wire and 
galvanized steel sheets also moved higher. 
Plumbing and heating declined because of 
lower prices for lead pipe and bathroom 
fixtures. Prices of non-residential construc- 
tion materials rose 0-1 per cent to 121-2 
from 121-1. 



Committee Aids 230,000 Persons to Emigrate from Europe 

By June 30, the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration had aided a 
total of more than 230,000 persons to migrate, of whom 65,000 left Europe since the 
beginning of this year. ICEM's 1954 target is approximately 120,000 migrants. 

The Committee hopes eventually to raise the annual total to somewhere between 
200,000 and 250,000 persons. 



1168 



Strikes and Lockouts 



Canada, June 1954* 

An increased number of work stoppages 
resulting from industrial disputes during 
June involved a greater number of workers 
and caused more time loss than in any of 
the previous four months. More than 
three-quarters of the total loss in June was 
caused by disputes involving salmon fisher- 
men in British Columbia and beverage room 
employees in four Alberta cities. 

The question of increased wages and 
related causes was a factor in 14 of the 31 
stoppages during June, causing 70 per cent 
of the total idleness. Of the other disputes, 
six arose over dismissals or suspensions, five 
over union questions, four over reduced 
hours and two over causes affecting working 
conditions. 

Preliminary figures for June 1954 show a 
total of 31 stoppages in existence during 
the month, involving 10,157 workers, with 
a time loss of 86,085 man-days, compared 
with 20 stoppages in May 1954, involving 
3,341 workers and a loss of 31,040 days. 
In June 1953 there were 31 stoppages, 6,452 
workers involved and a loss of 57,300 days. 

For the first six months of 1954 prelim- 
inary figures show a total of 94 strikes and 
lockouts, involving 25,250 workers, with a 
time loss of 364,970 man-days. In the same 
period in 1953 there were 85 strikes and 
lockouts, with 19,466 workers involved and 
a loss of 210,402 days. 



Based on the number of non-agricultural 
wage and salary workers in Canada the 
time lost in June 1954 was 0-10 per cent 
of the estimated working time; May 1954, 
0-04 per cent; June 1953, 0-07 per cent; 
the first six months of 1954, 0-07 per cent; 
and the first six months of 1953, 0-04 
per cent. 

Of the 31 disputes during June, two were 
settled in favour of the workers and seven 
in favour of the employers; three were 
compromise settlements and five were 
indefinite in result, work being resumed 
pending final settlement. At the end of 
the month 14 stoppages were recorded as 
unterminated. 

(The record does not include minor strikes 
such as are defined in a footnote to Table 
G-l nor does it include strikes and lockouts 
about which information has been received 
indicating that employment conditions are no 
longer affected but which the unions con- 
cerned have not declared terminated. 
Strikes and lockouts of this nature still in. 
progress are: compositors, etc., at Winnipeg r 
Man., which began on November 8, 1945, and 
at Ottawa and Hamilton, Ont., and Edmon- 
ton, Alta., on May 30, 1946; waitresses at 
Timmins, Ont., on May 23, 1952; and garage 
workers at Saint John, N.B., on February 9, 
1953. The work stoppage of sawmill workers 
at Stellarton, N.S., which began on October 
19, 1953, was settled during the month and 
work was resumed beginning June 22, 1954.) 



Great Britain and Other Countries 



(The latest available information on 
strikes and lockouts in various countries 
is given in the Labour Gazette from month 
to month. Statistics given in the annual 
review and in this article are taken from 
the government publications of the countries 
concerned or from the International Labour 
Office Year Book of Labour Statistics.) 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland 

According to the British Ministry of 
Labour Gazette, the number of work stop- 
pages in Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland beginning in April 1954 was 160 
and 15 were still in progress from the 
previous month, making a total of 175 
during the month. In all stoppages of 
work in progress 29,400 workers were in- 
volved and a time loss of 73,000 days 
caused. 

Of the 160 disputes leading to stoppages 
of work which began in April, five, 
directly involving 1,200 workers, arose over 

*See Tables G-l and G-2 at back of book. 



demands for advances in wages, and 72, 
directly involving 10,500 workers, over 
other wage questions; three, directly in- 
volving 200 workers, over questions as to 
working hours; 24, directly involving 5,500 
workers, over questions respecting the 
employment of particular classes or persons; 
52, directly involving 3,800 workers, over 
other questions respecting working arrange- 
ments; and four, directly involving 500 
workers, over questions of trade union 
principle. 

United States 

Preliminary figures for May 1954 show 
350 work stoppages resulting from labour- 
management disputes beginning in the 
month, in which 180,000 workers were 
involved. The time loss for all strikes and 
lockouts in progress during the month was 
1750,000 man-days. Corresponding figures 
for April 1954 were 300 stoppages involving 
130,000 workers and a loss of 1,200,000 days. 



93709— 6^ 



1169 



Publications Recently Received 

in Department of Labour Library 



The publications listed below are not 
for sale by the Department of Labour. 
Persons wishing to purchase them should 
communicate with the publishers. Publica- 
tions listed may be borrowed, free of 
charge, by making application to the 
Librarian. Department of Labour, Ottawa. 
Students must apply through the library 
of their institution. Applications for loans 
should give the number (numeral) of the 
publication desired and the month in which 
it was listed in the Labour Gazette. 



List No. 72. 



Census—Canada 



1. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. Ninth 

Census of Canada, 1951. Volume 2. 
Population; Cross-Classifications of Char- 
acteristics. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1953. 
1 Volume (various pagings). 

2. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. Ninth 

Census of Canada, 1951. Volume 3. 
Housing and Families. Ottawa, Queen's 
Printer, 1953. 1 Volume (various pagings). 

Economic Conditions 

3. Knorr, Klaus Eugen. A Critique of 
the Randall Commission Report on United 
States Foreign Economic Policy. Prepared 
by Klaus Knorr and Gardner Patterson on 
the basis of a conference held at Princeton 
University, February 4 and 5 1954. Prince- 
ton, Princeton University, 1954. Pp. 65. 

4. National Bureau of Economic 
Research. Business Cycle Research and 
the Needs of Our Times, by Arthur F. 
Burns. Thirty-third annual report. New 
York. 1953. Pp. 86. 

5. National Industrial Conference 
Board. The Conference Board Economic 
Forum presents: Shall We return to a Gold 
Standard— now? New York, cl954. Pp. 
167. 

6. United Nations. Economic and 
Social Council. Economic Commission 
for Asia and the Far East. Working 
Party of Experts on the Mobilization 
of Domestic Capital. Mobilization of 
Domestic Capital: Report and Documents 
of the First Working Party of Experts. 
Bangkok, Department of Economic Affairs, 
ECAFE, 1952. Pp. 206. 



Efficiency, Industrial 

7. Shaw, Anne G. An Introduction to 
the Theory and Application of Motion 
Shi < I //. Rev. ed. Manchester, Harlequin 
Press, 1953. Pp. 37. 

8. Bureau of National Aifairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to cut Waste of 
Equipment. Washington, cl954. Pp. 12. 

9. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to cut Waste of 
Manpower. Washington, cl954. Pp. 12. 

10. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to cut Waste of 
Materials. Washington, cl954. Pp. 12. 

11. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to cut Waste of 
Space. Washington, cl954. Pp. 12. 

12. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to cut Waste of 
Time. Washington, cl954. Pp. 12. 

13. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to cut Waste of 
Utilities. Washington, cl954. Pp. 12. 

Employment Management 

14. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to be a Better Super- 
visor. Washington, 1954. Pp. 12. 

15. International Labour Office. Utilisa- 
tion of Holidays with Pay. Geneva, 1954. 
Pp. 64. 

16. U.S. Department of the Army. 
Your Employees and Uncle Sam; how an 
Employer can capitalize on his Employee's 
Legal Reserve Obligation. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1954. Pp. 9. 



Industrial Health 

17. American Standards Association. 

Safety Color Code for marking Physical 
Hazards and the Identification of Certain 
Equipment. New York, 1953. Pp. 11. 

18. South Africa. Department of 
Mines. Silicosis Board. Report for the 
Year ended 31st March, 1952. Pretoria, 
Government Printer, 1953. Pp. 21. 

Industrial Relations 

19. National Joint Industrial Council 
for the Flour Milling Industry. Thirty- 
third Annual Report. 1951-1952. London, 
1953. Pp. 56. 



1170 



20. Proceedings of New York University 
Sixth Annual Conference on Labor... 
conducted jointly by the Law School, the 
Graduate Division of Public Service, the 
Graduate School of Arts and Science, and 
the Division of General Education of New 
York University ... Emanuel Stein, editor. 
Albanv. Matthew Bender and Company, 
1953. Pp. 586. 

Industry 

21. Carpet Institute, Inc. Basic Facts 
about the Carpet and Rug Industry. New 
York, 1953. Pp. 29. 

22. Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States of America. Department 
of Manufacture. The Community Indus- 
trial Development Survey; the First Step 
in a Community Industrial Expansion 
Program. Washington, 1954. Pp. 18. 

Labouring Classes 

23. Canada. Department of Labour. 

Fairs and Exhibitions. 1953 Annual Report. 
Ottawa, 1954. Pp. 29. 

24. Lane, S. H. Farm labour in Ontario, 
by S. H. Lane and D. R. Campbell. 
Guelph, Ontario Agricultural College, 1953? 
Pp. 91. 

25. McCarthy, John A. Rights of the 
American Worker. Chicago, American 
Technical Society, 1952. Pp. 73. 

26. South African Trades and Labour 
Council. Minutes of Third Annual Con- 
ference, Durban, 21st to 24th April, 1952. 
Johannesburg, 1952. 1 Volume (various 
pagings). 

27. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
American Labor and the American Spirit; 
I nions, Labor-Management Relations, and 
Productivity, by Witt Bowden. Washing- 
ton, G.P.O., 1954. Pp. 66. 

Municipal Government 

28. MacCoII, James Eugene. Looking at 
Local Government. Foreword by Morgan 
Phillips. London, 1954. Pp. 40. 

29. Mann, Mavis Andree, The Structure 
of City Government in West Virginia. 
Morgantown, Bureau for Government 
Research, West Virginia University, 1953. 
1 Volume (various pagings). 

National Safety Congress, Chicago, 1953 

30. General Sessions, 41st National Safety 
Congress. Index to Transactions of All 
Sections. Chicago, National Safety Coun- 
cil. 1954. Pp. 68. 



31. Current Safety 'topics in the Aero- 
nautical Industries, as presented in Sessions 

of i In" Aeronautical Industries Section... 
Chicago, National Safety Council, 1954. 
Pp. 12. 

32. Current Safety Topics in the Ah 
Transport Industry, as presented in Sessions 
of the Air Transporl Section ... Chicago, 
National Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 8. 

33. Current Safety Topics in the Auto- 
motive and Machine Shop Industries, as 
presented in Sessions of the Automotive 
and Machine Shop Section ... Chicago, 
National Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 20. 

34. Current Safety Topics in the Cement 
and Quarry Industries, as presented in 
Sessions of the Cement and Quarry Section 
...Chicago, National Safety Council, 1954. 
Pp. 24. 

35. Current Safety Topics in the Chemical 
Industries, as presented in Sessions of the 
Chemical Section . . . Chicago, National 
Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 28. 

36. Current Safety Topics in the Coal 
Mining Industry, as presented in Sessions 
of the Coal Mining Section . . . Chicago, 
National Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 44. 

37. Current Safety Topics in the Con- 
struction Industry, as presented in Sessions 
of the Construction Section . . . Chicago, 
National Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 28. 

38. Current Safety Topics in the Elec- 
trical Equipment Industry, as presented 
in Sessions of the Electrical Section . . . 
Chicago, National Safety Council, 1954. 
Pp. 12. 

39. Current Topics in Farm Safety, as 
presented in Sessions of the Farm Confer- 
ence . . . Chicago, National Safety Council, 
1954. Pp. 60. 

40. Current Safety Topics in the Fertilizer 
Industry, as presented in Sessions of the 
Fertilizer Section . . . Chicago, National 
Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 20. 

41. Current Safety Topics in the Food 
Industry, as presented in Sessions of the 
Food Section . . . Chicago, National Safety 
Council, 1954. Pp. 16. 

42. Current Safety Topics in the Glass 
and Ceramics Industry, as presented in 
Sessions of the Glass and Ceramics Section 
. . . Chicago, National Safety Council, 1954. 
Pp. 20. 

43. Current Topics in Home Safety, as 
presented in Sessions of the Home Safety 
Conference . . . Chicago, National Safety 
Council, 1954. Pp. 28. 

44. Current Safety Topics in Industrial 
Nursing, as presented in Sessions of the 
Industrial Nursing Section . . . Chicago, 
National Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 20. 



1171 



45. Current Topics in Industrial Safety, 
as presented in the Subject Sessions . . . 
Chicago, National Safety Council, 1954. 
Pp. 160. 

46. Current Safety Topics in the Mari- 
time Industries, as presented in Sessions 
of the Marine Section . . . Chicago, National 
Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 64. 

47. Current Safety Topics in the Meat 
Packing, Tanning and Leather Industries, 
as presented in Sessions of the Meat Pack- 
ing. Tanning and Leather Products Section 
. . . Chicago, National Safety Council, 1954. 
Pp. 8. 

48. Current Safety Topics in the Metals 
Industry, as presented in Sessions of the 
Metals Section . . . Chicago, National Safety 
Council, 1954. Pp. 48. 

49. Current Safety Topics in the Mining 
Industry, as presented in Sessions of the 
Mining Section ... Chicago, National 
Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 52. 

50. Current Safety Topics in the Motor 
Transportation Industry, as presented in 
Sessions of the Commercial Vehicle Section 
. . . Chicago, National Safety Council, 1954. 
Pp. 56. 

51. Current Safety Topics in the Petroleum 
Industry, as presented in Sessions of the 
Petroleum Section . . . Chicago. National 
Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 76. 

52. Current Safety Topics in Power Press 
and Forging Operations, as presented in 
Sessions of the Power Press Section . . . 
Chicago, National Safety Council, 1954. 
Pp. 24. 

53. Current Safety Topics in the Printing 
and Publishing Industry, as presented in 
Sessions of the Printing and Publishing 
Section . . . Chicago, National Safety Coun- 
cil, 1954. Pp. 28. 

54. Current Safety Topics in Public 
Employment, as presented in Sessions of 
the Public Employee Section . . . Chicago, 
National Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 12. 

55. Current Safety Topics in the Public 
Utilities Industries, as presented in Sessions 
of the Public Utilities Section . . . Chicago, 
National Safety Council, 1954. - Pp. 32. 

56. Current Safety Topics in the Pulp 
and Paper Industry, as presented in Sessions 
of the Pulp and Paper Section . . . Chicago, 
National Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 32. 

57. Current Safety Topics in the Railroad 
Industry, as presented in Sessions of the 
Railroad Section . . . Chicago, National 
Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 40. 

58. Current Safety Topics in the Rubber 
Industry, as presented in Sessions of the 
Rubber Section . . . Chicago, National Safety 
Council, 1954. Pp. 20. 

1172 



59. Current Topics in School and College 
Safety, as presented in School and College 
Sessions . . . Chicago, National Safety Coun- 
cil, 1954. Pp. 64. 

60. Current Safety Topics in the Textile 
Industry, as presented in Sessions of the 
Textile Section . . . Chicago, National 
Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 20. 

61. Current Topics in Traffic Safety, as 
presented in Sessions of the Traffic Section 
. . . Chicago, National Safety Council, 1954. 
Pp. 132. 

62. Current Safety Topics in the Transit 
Industry, as presented in Sessions of the 
Transit Section . . . Chicago, National 
Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 44. 

63. Current Safety Topics in the Wood 
Products Industries, as presented in Sessions 
of the Wood Products Section . . . Chicago, 
National Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 40. 

64. Personal Effectiveness, as presented in 
the Early Morning Sessions . . . Chicago, 
National Safety Council, 1954. Pp. 32. 

Occupations 

65. Great Britain. Central Youth 
Employment Executive. Advertising. 
London, H.M.S.O., 1953. Pp. 24. 

66. Great Britain. Central Youth 
Employment Executive. The Coppersmith. 
London, H.M.S.O., 1953. Pp. 24. 

67. Great Britain. Central Youth 
Employment Executive. The Speech 
Therapist. London, H.M.S.O., 1954. Pp.12. 

Productivity of Labour 

68. Kahn, Robert Louis. The Import- 
ance of Human Relations Research for 
Industrial Productivity. Ann Arbor, Bureau 
of Industrial Relations, University of 
Michigan, 1951. Pp. 15. 

69. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statisitcs. 
Case Study Data on Productivity and 
Factory Performance, Beet Sugar Refining, 
based on Reports submitted by Six Selected 
Plants. Prepared for Mutual Security 
Agency, Productivity and Technical Assist- 
ance Division. Washington, 1953. Pp. 84. 

70. U.S. Bureau of Labour Statistics. 
Case Study Data on Productivity and 
Factory Performance, Coarse Cotton Gray 
Goods, based on reports submitted by 16 
selected mills. Prepared for Mutual 
Security Agency, Productivity and Tech- 
nical Assistance Division. Washington, 
1953. Pp. 106. 



Wages and Hours 

71. Great Britain. Ministry of Labour 
and National Service. Committee on 
Minimum Rates of Wages with Condi- 
tions of Employment in Connection with 
Special Arrangements for Domestic Help. 
Report. London, H.M.S.O., 1943. Pp. 9. 

72. International Labour Office. 
Minimum Wages in Latin America. Geneva, 
1954. Pp. 184. 

73. Printing Industrial Parity Com- 
mittee for Montreal and District. 
Statistics relative to Wages, Hours of Work 
and Employees in the Printing Industry of 
Montreal and District, 1937-1944. Mont- 
real, 1946? Pp. 48. 

74. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Union Wages and Hours: Printing Industry, 
July 1, 1953. Washington, G.P.O., 1954. 
Pp. 40. 

75. Uttar Pradesh. Chief Inspector of 
Factories. Annual Report on the Working 
of the Payment of Wages Act, 1936 for the 
Year, 1950. Allahabad, Superintendent, 
Printing and Stationery, 1952. Pp. 71. 

Workmen's Compensation 

76. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economics and Research Branch. Farm 
Safety and Workmen's Compensation. 
Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1954. Pp. 13. 

77. Commerce and Industry Association 
of New York. Medical Aspects of Work- 
men's Compensation. Two symposia before 
the Special Committee on Workmen's 
Compensation. I. Medical treatment and 
care. II. Rehabilitation. New York, 1953. 
Pp. 104. 

78. Keiper, Joseph S. Forces that spiral 
Workmen's Compensation Costs; a Review 
and Analysis prepared for Special Com- 
mittee on Workmen's Compensation. New 
York, Commerce and Industry Assoc, of 
New York, cl953. Pp. 110. 

70. Sawyer, Henry Dick. Workmen's 
Compensation in New York; its Develop- 
ment and Operations. A series of talks 
presented on February 20, 27, March 6 and 
13, 1953 before the Special Committee on 
Workmen's Compensation. New York, 
Commerce and Industry Assoc, of New 
York, 1953? Pp. 126. 



Miscellaneous 

80. Brennan, Niall. The Making of a 
Moron. London, New York, Sheed and 
Ward, 1953. Pp. 189. The author thinks 
that morons can be made when one's work 
does not demand enough physical and/or 
mental effort. 

81. Canada. Restrictive Trade Prac- 
tices Commission. Report concerning an 
Alleged Combine in the Distribution and 
Sale of Gasoline at Retail in the Vancouver 
Ann. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1954. 
Pp. 165. 

82. Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States of America. Legislative 
Department. Under the Dome; How Our 
Congress works. Washington, 1953. Pp. 18. 

83. Great Britain. Parliament. House 
of Commons. Select Committee on 
Estimates. Rearmament. London, H.M.S.O., 

1952. Pp. 38, 10. 

84. Humphrey, Hubert Horatio. The 
Stranger at Our Gate — America's Immigra- 
tion Policy. New York, Public Affairs 
Committee, cl954. Pp. 28. 

85. Neumann, Franz Leopold. Germany 
and World Politics. Toronto, Canadian 
Institute of International Affairs, 1954. 
Pp. 16. 

86. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 
The NATO Handbook; Why the Treaty 
was signed, What the Treaty says, How 
NATO works. London, 1952. Pp. 71. 

87. Peterson, Arnold P. G. Handbook 
of Noise Measurement, by Arnold P. G. 
Peterson and Leo L. Beranek. Cambridge, 
Mass., General Radio Co., 1953. Pp. 102, 
18. 

88. Roth, Leon. Jewish Thought as a 
Factor in Civilization. Paris, UNESCO, 
1954. Pp. 64. 

89. U.S. Bureau of Mines. Materials 
Survey, Beryllium, 1953, compiled for 
National Security Resources Board by the 
United States Department of the Interior, 
Bureau of Mines, with the co-operation of 
the Geological Survey. Washington, G.P.O., 

1953. 1 Volume (various pagings). 

90. U.S. Interdepartmental Committee 
on Children and Youth. Programs of 
the Federal Government affecting Children 
and Youth; a Summary. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1951. Pp. 126. 



1173 



Labour Statistics 



Page 
A— Labour Force 

D.B.S. Labour Force Surrey 

Table A-l — Estimated Distribution of Canadian Manpower 1175 

Table A.-2 — Persons Looking for Work in Canada 1175 

Table A -3— Regional Distributions, Week Ended March 20, 1954 1 176 

I m migration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Table A-4 — Distribution of All Immigrants by Region 1176 

Table A-5 — Distribution of Workers Entering Canada by Occupations 1177 

B— Labour Income 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics: Monthly Estimates of Labour Income 

Table B-l — Estimates of Labour Income ] 178 

C— Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics: Employment and Payrolls 

Table C-l — Employment Index Numbers by Provinces 1 179 

Table C-2 — Employment, Payrolls, and Weekly Wages and Salaries 1180 

Table C-3 — Summary of Employment, Payrolls and Average Weekly Wages and Salaries 1181 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings 

Table C-4 — Hours and Earnings in Manufacturing 1182 

Table C-5 — Hours and Earnings in Manufacturing by Provinces and Cities 1182 

Table C-6 — Hours and Earnings by Industry 1 18.3 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour 

Table C-7 — Real Earnings in Manufacturing 1184 

D— Employment Service Statistics 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

Table D-l — Unfilled Vacancies and Unplaced Applicants as at First of Month 1185 

Table D-2 — Unfilled Vacancies by Industry and by Sex 1186 

Table D-3 — Unfilled Vacancies and Unplaced Applicants by Occupation and by Sex 1 187 

Table D-4 — Activities of National Employment Service Offices 1188 

Table D-5 — Applications and Placements Since 1943 1 193 

E— Unemployment Insurance 

Unemployment Insurance Commission and Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
Report on the Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Table E-l — Number Receiving Benefit with Amount Paid 1193 

Table E-2 — Persons Signing the Live Unemployment Register by Number of Days Continu- 
ously on the Register 1194 

Table E-3 — Claims for Benefit by Provinces and Disposal of Claims 1 194 

Table E-4— Claimants Not Entitled to Benefit with Reasons for Non-Entitlement 1195 

Table E-5 — Estimates of the Insured Population 1 195 

Table E-6 — Unemployment Insurance Fund 1196 

F— Prices 

^Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

Table F-l — Consumer Price Index Numbers, Canada 1 197 

Table F-2 — Consumer Price Indexes for Regional Cities of Canada 1198 

Table F-3— Index Numbers of Staple Food Items 1199 

Table F-4 — Retail Prices of Staple Foods and Coal by Cities 1200 

Table F-5 — Index Numbers of Consumer Prices in Canada and Other Specified Countries 1204 

Table F-6 — Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices in Canada 1205 

G— Strikes and Lockouts 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour 

Table G-l — Strikes and Lockouts in Canada by Month 1206 

Table G-2 — Strikes and Lockouts in Canada During April 1207 

1174 



TABLE A-l.— ESTIMATED DISTRIBUTION OF CANADIAN MANPOWER 

(Thousands of persons 14 years of age and over) 
SOURCE: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 



Total civilian non-institutional population 

A. Civilian labour force 

Persons at work 

35 hours or more 

Less than 35 hours 

Usually work 35 hours or more 

(a I laid off for part of the week 

(b) on short time 

(c) lost job during the week 

(d) found job during the week 

(e) bad weather 

(f) illness 

(g) industrial dispute 

(h) vacation 

(i) other 

Usually work less than 35 hours 

Persons with jobs not at work 

Usually work 35 hours or more 

(a) laid off for full week 

(b) bad weather 

(c) illness 

(d) industrial dispute 

(e) vacation 

(f) other 

Usually work less than 35 hours 

Persons without jobs and seeking work (') 

B. Persons not in the labour force 

(a) permanently unable or too old to work 

(b) keeping house 

(c) going to school 

(d) retired or voluntarily idle 

(e) other 



Week Ended May 22, 1954 



Total 



10,234 

5,392 

5,080 

4,729 

351 

128 

44 



23 



223 
95 



217 

4,842 

177 

3,412 

676 

561 

16 



Males 



4,202 

3,933 

3,754 

179 

97 

* 

31 



193 



112 



342 
429 



Females 



5,138 

1,190 

1,147 

975 

172 

31 

13 



141 
I'.t 



24 

3,948 

65 

3,410 

334 

132 



Week Ended April 17, 1954 



Total 



10,158 

5,257 
4,845 
2,890 
( 2 ) 1,955 
1,752 

59 



81 
1,560 



203 
109 



106 

20 



47 



303 
4,901 



194 
3,391 



600 
19 



Male 



5,052 

4,071 
3,715 
2,386 
1,329 
1 , 254 
* 

45 



50 

1,114 



37 



270 
981 
129 

359 

478 
11 



Females 



5,106 

1,186 

1,130 

504 

626 

498 

14 



31 
446 



128 
23 



22 



33 

3,920 

65 

3,387 

338 

122 



(') Included here are only those who did not work during the entire survey week and were reported looking for work. 
For all those who were reported as seeking work during the survey week, see Table A-2. 

( 2 ) The usually large number working less than 35 hours was due to Good Friday being in the survey week. This 
explains nearlv all the absence reported under (h) and (i). 

* Less than 10,000. 



TABLE A-2.— PERSONS LOOKING FOR WORK IN CANADA 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 





Week Ended May 22, 1954 


Week Ended April 17, 1954 




Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work 


Seeking 

Part-Time 

Work 


Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work 


Seeking 
Part-Time 

Work 




235 

217 
53 
70 
61 

27 

* 
18 
14 


219 
204 

15 

* 

12 


16 
13 

* 


320 

303 
66 
107 
102 
23 

* 

17 

* 

13 


297 

282 

* 15 
11 


23 


Without iobs 


21 





















13—18 months 








Worked 


, 


1 — 14 hours 


« 


15 — 34 hours 


* 















' Less than 10,000. 
93709—7 



1175 



TABLE A-3.— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTIONS, WEEK ENDED MAY 22, 1954 

(Estimates in thousands) 



— 


Canada 


Nfld. 


r.E.i. 

tf.S. 
N.B. 


Que. 


Ont. 


Man. 
Sask. 
Alta. 


B.C. 


The Labour Force 
Both Sexe? 


5,392 

891 

4,501 

4,202 

S54 

3,348 

1,190 

37 

1,153 

5,392 

515 

723 

2,498 

1,440 

216 


100 

* 

98 

83 

* 

81 

17 

17 

100 
13 
17 
45 

22 


405 

53 

352 

327 
50 

277 

78 

• 

75 

405 
42 
50 
183 
108 
22 


1,515 

221 

1,294 

1,182 
217 
965 

333 

329 

1,515 
182 
234 
704 
356 
39 


1,987 

245 

1,742 

1,503 

230 

1,273 

484 

15 

469 

1,987 
166 
247 
917 
564 
93 


957 
352 
605 

773 
339 
434 

184 

13 

171 

957 
83 
130 
441 
262 
41 


428 




18 




410 


Males 


334 




16 




318 




94 




* 




92 




428 


14—19 years 


29 


20—24 vears 


45 




208 




128 




18 






Persons with Jobs 


5,175 
4,009 
1,166 

886 
4,289 

3,885 
2,834 
1,051 


89 
73 
16 

* 
87 

72 
57 
15 


377 

301 

76 

52 
325 

279 

214 

65 


1,439 

1,114 

325 

219 
1,220 

1,103 
803 
300 


1,922 

1,447 
475 

244 
1,678 

1,551 

1,121 

430 


938 
756 

182 

351 

587 

537 
377 
160 


410 




318 




92 




18 




392 


Paid Workers 


343 




262 




81 






Both Sexes 


217 


11 


28 


76 


65 


19 


18 






Persons not in the Labour Force 
Both Sexes 


4,842 

894 

3,948 


141 
41 
100 


450 

91 

359 


1,352 

229 

1,123 


1,567 

256 

1,311 


880 
171 
709 


452 




106 




346 







1 Less than 10,000. 



TABLE A-4.— DESTINATION OF ALL IMMIGRANTS BY REGION 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



Month 



1949— Total 

1950— Total 

1951— Total 

1952— Total 

1953— Total 

1953 — January-May 

1954 — January-May 



Atlantic 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Prairies 


B.C. 
Yukon 
N.W.T. 


Canada 
Total 


2,777 
2,198 
3,928 
4,531 
4,049 


18,005 
13,575 
46,033 
35,318 
34,294 


48,607 
39,041 
104,842 
86,059 
90, 120 


17,904 
12,975 

25,165 
23,560 
27,208 


7,924 

6,123 

14,423 

15,030 

13,197 


95,217 
73,912 
194,391 
164,498 
168,868 


1,912 


11,099 


30,982 


10,901 


5,066 


59,960 


1,576 


12,215 


37,533 


1,1463 


5,168 


67,955 



Adult 
Males 



39,044 
30, 700 
95,818 
66,083 



24,727 
30,294 



1176 



TABLE A-5.— DISTRIBUTION OF WOKKKKS ENTERING CANADA BY OCCUPATIONS 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



Month 


c 

l! 


1 
a 


T3 

C 

J! 

11 

li 

>h o 


13 

a 

o.S 


8 
> 

1 


1 

o 


to 

M.5 

.5.5 
g2 

2t3 

H§ 
■a mi 

as 


M C 

.5 * c 

si! 

111 

oi o> o 


E 

O 


E 
s 


E 




SRfi 


O 


HO 


Ofe 


< 


p^>-) 


SSU 


J 


O 


HS= 


1951— Total 


4,001 
7,054 


5,317 
6,900 








25,890 
16,971 








5,402 
1 , 526 


114,786 


1952— Total 














85,029 


1953— Total 


10,021 


6,339 


1,855 


3,185 


13,766 


17,250 


879 


26,492 


i6,380 


966 


91,133 




3,644 


2,371 


698 


1,276 


4,342 


7,955 


281 


9,282 


2,439 


382 


32,670 




3,910 


2,829 


985 


1,283 


5,078 


6,722 


364 


11,690 


5,259 


365 


38,485 







Due to changes in occupational classifications, comparisons with earlier periods cannot be made for all groups. 
Where possible, comparisons are indicated in the above table. 



93709— 7* 



1177 



B — Labour Income 

TABLE B-l.— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

($ Millions) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



1939— Average. . . 
1941V- Average. . . 
1941— Average. . . 
1942— Average. . . 
1943— Average. . . 
1944 — Average. . . 
1945 — Average. . . 
1946— Average. . . 
1947 — Average. . . 
1948— Average. . . 
*1949— Average. . 
1950 — Average. . . 
1951 — Average. . . 
1952— Average. . . 
1953— Average. . . 

1951— November 
December . 

1952 — January. . . . 
February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October. . . 
November 
December. 

1953— January 

February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October. .. 
November 
December. 

1954 — January 

February. . 

March 

April 



Agricul- 
ture. 
Forestry, 

Fishing. 
Trapping, 

Mining 



Manu- 
facturing 



62 
78 
106 
142 
168 
171 
156 
147 
177 
203 
214 
231 
272 
302 
330 

283 



287 
293 
293 
295 
295 
297 
308 
315 
317 
321 
325 

321 



328 
331 
333 
330 
334 
337 
333 
328 
333 

322 
325 
323 

322 



Construc- 
tion 



50 



Utilities, 
Transport- 
ation, 
Communi- 
cation , 
Storage 
Trade 



58 
63 
73 
80 
86 
95 
100 
114 
134 
154 
169 
180 
208 
230 
250 



223 

215 
216 
217 
222 
227 
231 
234 
234 
236 
238 
242 
244 

246t 

234 

234 

251f 

246 

251 

253 

253 

256 

257 

256 

255 

245 
247 
245 
251 



Finance, 
Services, 
(including 
Govern- 
ment) 



59 

60 

66 

72 

78 

83 

90 

103 

114 

131 

147 

156 

178 

199 

215 

190 

188 

188 
193 
193 
194 
198 
202 
198 
198 
203 
205 
206 
205 

203 
205 
210 
210 
214 
216 
212 
212 
224 
226 
224 
225 

223 
225 
226 
229 



Supple- 
mentary 
Labour 
Income 



Total 



215 
244 

298 
353 
399 
412 
413 
444 
518 
597 
647 
693 
810 
901 
972 

870 
862 

844 
855 
857 
857 
880 
892 
903 
925 
941 
955 
961 
948 

934 
923 
924 
946 
966 
981 
983 
994 
1,014 
1,012 



945 
950 
943 
954 



Includes Newfoundland, since 1949. 



Includes retroactive wage payment to railway employees. 



1178 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

TABLE CM.— EMPLOYMENT INDEX NUMBERS BY PROVINCES 

(Average calendar year 1939 = 100) (The latesl figures are aubjecl to revision) 

Si>ri« k: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 

Tables C-l to C-3 are based on reports from employers having 15 or more employees At May 1, employers in the 
prineipal non-agrieultural industries reported a total employment of 2,386,310. 



Year and Month 



1947 — Average 

1948 — Average 

1949 — Average 

1950 — Average 

1951 — Average 

1952 — Average 

1953 — Average 

May 1, 1952 

Jan. 1, 1953 

Feb. 1, 1953 

Mar. 1, 1953 

Apr. 1, 1953 

May 1, 1953 

June 1, 1953 

Julv 1, 1953 

Aug. 1, 1953 

Sept. 1, 1953 

Oct. 1, 1953 

Nov. 1, 1953 

Dec. 1, 1953 

Jan. 1, 1954 

Feb. 1, 1954 

Mar. 1, 1954 

Apr. 1, 1954 

May 1, 1954 

Percentage Distribution of Employees of 
Reporting Establishments at May 
1, 1954 



95-7 
99-7 
100-0 
101-5 
108-8 
111-6 
113-4 

107-2 



109-9 
107-0 
106-6 
105-6 
106-1 



100-0 



115-0 

132-4 
125-3 
117-8 
122-4 
133-6 
144-1 
154-7 
156-6 
156-0 
157-4 
149-8 
141-2 

125-4 
113-4 
112-3 
113-1 
117-8 



15 



■a 

w 

8-a 



93-3 
102-6 
100-0 
110-3 
112-6 
123-2 
116-4 

111-8 

116-7 
110-8 
103-7 
104-0 
108-3 
118-8 
119-6 
124-6 
124-7 
119-8 
125-2 
121-1 

105-8 
96-0 

102-4 
93-4 
97-6 



0-2 



92-1 
99-6 
100-0 
95-6 
100-3 
104-0 
101-2 

98-1 

99-3 

101-0 
97-9 
96-9 
97-4 
100-7 
103-9 
104-2 
104-0 
104-7 
103-9 
100-2 

97-5 
95-4 
95-2 
93-3 
92-8 



3-3 



104-3 
105-2 
100-0 
102-6 
109-0 
109-5 
101-4 

101-1 

107-8 
100-6 



94-8 
99-6 
100-4 
105-4 
107-1 
102-2 
101-9 
102-3 

99-7 
97-6 
96-8 
91-3 
89-9 



2-2 



97-8 
101-2 
100-0 
100-5 
109-2 
113-4 
112-8 

106-4 

113-8 
110-6 
109-7 
108-3 
109-1 
111-8 
113-7 
114-0 
115-0 
116-2 
116-3 
114-6 

108-7 
105-7 
105-2 
103-5 
104-6 



28-2 



94 

98-9 
100-0 

102-7 
110-4 
112-0 
114- 

108- 

114-5 
113-1 
112-9 
113-2 
113-4 
113-7 
115-7 
115-4 
116-5 
117-1 
116-3 
114-8 

112-3 
110-8 
110-2 
109-0 
109-0 



43-1 



93-6 
97-2 
100-0 
100-8 
103-9 
106-0 
107-2 

102-5 

106-7 
104-0 
102-5 
102-9 
104-8 
106-7 
109-3 
110-5 
111-1 
110-5 
108-7 
108-8 

104-7 
100-9 
99-6 
99-9 
100-2 

5-1 



97-2 
99-5 
100-0 
100-8 
106-0 
111-4 
116-0 

105-4 

113-5 

106-2 
105-7 
105-7 
109-2 
115-1 
119-7 
123-3 
123-3 
123-9 
124-1 
122-7 

115-9 
109-5 
108-7 
107-4 
110-2 



2-4 



88-1 
93-7 
100 

104-5 
112-4 
120-8 
128-5 

114-8 



124-7 
118-3 
119-4 
118-5 
118-6 



.vi) 



97-1 
101-3 
100-0 
100-8 
106-1 
106-7 
108-4 

107-5 

106-4 
101-0 
102-1 
104-6 
106-5 
108-1 
111-6 
114-2 
114-7 
114-6 
110-2 
107-1 



97-5 
98-5 
101-8 
103-0 



9-0 



Note: — The percentage distribution given above shows the proportions of employees in the indicated 
the total number of employees reported in Canada by the firms making returns at the latest date. 



provinces, to 



1179 



TABLE (>«.— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 



Year and Month 



1947 — Average... 
1948— Average... 
1949 — Average. . . 
1950— Average... 
1951 — Average... 
1952 — Average. . . 
1953— Average... 

May 1, 1952. 

Jan. 1, 1953. 

Feb. 1, 1953. 

Mar. 1, 1953. 

Apr. 1, 1953. 

May 1, 1953. 

June 1, 1953. 

July 1, 1953. 

Aug. 1, 1953. 

Sept. 1, 1953. 

Oct. 1, 1953. 

Nov. 1, 1953. 

Dec. 1, 1953. 

Jan.. 1, 1954. 

Feb. 1, 1954. 

Mar. 1, 1954. 

Apr 1, 1954. 

May 1, 1954. 





industrial Composite 1 






Manufacturing 


Index Numbers 


Average 

weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Index Numbers 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Weekly 

Payrolls 


Average 
Wages and 

Salaries 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 


Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 


95-7 


80-7 


84-2 


36.19 


97-2 


80-4 


92-6 


99-7 


93-2 


93-2 


40.06 


100-1 


92-6 


92-5 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


42.96 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


101-5 


106-0 


104-4 


44.84 


100-9 


106-2 


105-1 


108-8 


125-6 


115-5 


49.61 


108-0 


126-1 


116-6 


111-6 


139-7 


126-0 


54.13 


109-3 


140-3 


127-6 


113-4 


151-5 


133-4 


57.30 


113-3 


152-4 


134-2 


107-2 


135-2 


126-5 


54.34 


107-3 


138-1 


128-6 


113-0 


141-6 


125-3 


53.81 


111-4 


139-1 


124-9 


110-3 


145-6 


132-0 


56.72 


111-9 


149-7 


133-8 


110-0 


147-0 


133-6 


57.40 


112-7 


151-9 


134-8 


110-0 


146-7 


133-4 


57.33 


112-9 


152-6 


135-2 


110-9 


148-2 


133-9 


57.52 


113-1 


152-9 


135-2 


112-4 


151-5 


134-4 


57.72 


. 113-4 


154-0 


135-2 


114-9 


154-5 


134-0 


57.57 


114-7 


155-0 


134-5 


115-6 


155-3 


133-9 


57.52 


114-4 


153-9 


134-0 


116-6 


157-0 


134-1 


57.61 


115-6 


155-4 


133-8 


116-9 


158-7 


135-3 


58.11 


115-2 


157-1 


135-8 


115-9 


157-4 


135-3 


58.14 


113-1 


155-0 


136-4 


114-1 


154-9 


135-3 


58.13 


110-9 


152-8 


137-1 


109-9 


145-3 


131-7 


56.56 


108-0 


143-7 


132-5 


107-0 


146-2 


136-1 


58.47 


108-3 


150-0 


137-8 


106-6 


147-6 


137-8 


59.22 


108-3 


151-2 


139-0 


105-6 


145-7 


137-5 


59.06 


107-9 


150-8 


139-2 


106-1 


146-7 


137-7 


59.14 


107-3 


150-2 


139-4 



Average 
weekly 

Wages and 
Salaries 



36.34 
40.67 
43.97 
46.21 
51.25 
56.11 
59.01 

56.55 

54.92 
58.82 
59.25 
59.43 
59.43 
59.43 
59.16 
58.93 
58.83 
59.69 
59.98 
60.29 

58.24 
60-60 
61.13 
61.19 
61.28 



1 Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing, 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication, (6) Public utility operation, (7) Trade, (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants, business and recre- 
ational service). 



1180 



TABLE C-3.— AREA AND INDUSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS 
AND AVERAGE MEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 







Index Numbers (1949 ■ 


= 100) 




Average Weekly 

and Salaries in 


Wages 


Area and Industries 


Employment 


Payrolls 


Dollars 




May 
1, 1954 


Apr. 
1, 1954 


May 
1, 1953 


May 
1, 1954 


Apr. 
1, 1954 


May 
1, L863 


May 
1, 1954 


Apr. 

1, 1951 


M iv 
1, 1953 


(a) Provinces 


117-8 

97-6 

92-8 

89-9 

104-6 

109-0 

100-2 

110-2 

118-6 

103-0 

106-1 

106-3 

90-9 
109-8 

98-6 
109-1 

96-5 
100-8 

68-6 
110-8 
106-7 

98-8 
156-2 
145-5 
109-9 
119-3 
103-7 

82-9 

98-3 
104-1 
132-0 
111-4 
122-3 
102-3 
103-7 
102-2 
100-8 
116-1 
115-8 
135-7 
124-4 
100-6 
105-2 

51-6 
106-5 
107-3 
116-8 
99-1 
98-0 

106-2 
111-5 
112-2 
126-2 
107-9 

106-1 


113-1 
93-4 
93-3 
91-3 

103-5 
109-0 
99-9 
107-4 
118-5 
101-8 

105-6 

105-0 

92-7 

116-3 

105-1 

106-5 

96-8 

95-6 

68-8 

109-4 

105-3 

99-0 

157-6 

145-7 

110-3 

119-1 

103-6 

83-9 

98-3 

102-9 

132-1 

111-3 

115-8 

104-2 

105-1 

98-1 

100-2 

112-7 

112-6 

132-7 

123-6 

100-7 

104-3 

69-5 
108-2 
107-9 
117-7 
99-4 
89-2 

103-1 
110-1 
111-1 

126-0 
106-5 

105-6 


136-8 
108-3 
97-4 
94-8 
109-1 
113-4 
104-8 
109-2 
123-6 
106-5 

110 9 

114-5 
103-9 
109-0 

96-3 
109-5 
106-2 
100-4 

87-5 
113-8 
108-2 

96-2 
166-1 
165-0 
124-1 
118-5 
111-5 

90-9 
110-3 
108-0 
133-8 
112-9 
120-0 
115-3 
141-0 
117-9 
102-6 
107-6 
110-9 
143-6 
123-9 
100-0 
111-1 

61-0 
111-9 
113-1 
124-6 
102-9 
108-5 

109-1 

109-4 
109-1 
122-2 
105-9 

110-9 


167-1 
133-0 
124-8 
120-3 
111-:; 
151-1 
131-9 
147-7 
160-1 
146-9 

146-7 

142-7 
115-3 
149-0 
131-3 
151-2 
127-3 
135-3 
92-3 
152-7 
146-7 
138-7 
202-6 
224-4 
150-5 
168-0 
142-6 
112-2 
134-3 
143-3 
178-6 
153-2 
187-2 
138-5 
134-7 
135-8 
135-0 
160-3 
160-9 
188-7 
171-2 
141-3 
146-3 

79-7 
145-1 
150-2 
163-1 
137-5 
145-2 

138-5 
159-7 
153-8 
161-7 
145-3 

146-7 


163-3 
126-0 
124-8 
124-1 
143-2 
150-6 
130-8 
143-0 
159-2 
143-9 

115-7 

140-2 
115-8 
157-1 
139-4 
144-3 
128-2 
130-2 
93-7 
150-4 
144-3 
137-4 
199-2 
224-0 
150-7 
167-0 
141-5 
116-5 
136-3 
142-5 
179-1 
153-0 
171-8 
141-1 
124-8 
132-5 
134-7 
157-4 
157-8 
184-8 
168-0 
140-3 
149-1 

108-6 
146-2 
150-8 
164-0 
137-8 
135-4 

133-0 

156-7 
152-1 
159-7 
142-3 

145-7 


196-1 
147-3 

12<)-2 
123-5 

i Hi- 1 

152-8 
133-9 
140-9 
160-3 
146-7 

148 2 

154-0 
131-7 
143-8 
119-8 
144-5 
138-7 
128-0 
117-9 
150-8 
140-4 
128-1 
219-5 
255-7 
167-2 
159-1 
146-9 
120-1 
152-0 
145-7 
175-5 
152-9 
175-9 
158-3 
176-9 
159-2 
134-8 
140-9 
146-5 
208-8 
164-0 
134-6 
149-5 

85-8 
149-0 
152-9 
169-0 
136-2 
157-4 

139-1 
147-2 
143-9 
148-8 
136-2 

148-2 


53.23 
45.93 
50.37 
50.61 
56.68 
61.35 
56.02 
55.53 
59.95 
65.11 

59.14 

43.25 
59.52 
48.30 
47.76 
49.18 
47.53 
55.18 
52.27 
57.55 
53.99 
62.90 
66.06 
70.35 
67.38 
62.30 
63.82 
59.34 
53.73 
55.98 
72.42 
55.80 
74.45 
68.27 
66.17 
59.78 
53.14 
52.81 
51.85 
56.63 
57.87 
61.49 
57.86 

61.69 
70.02 
61.28 
65.62 
56.88 
61.39 

62.64 
68.40 
50.72 
54.07 
38.95 

59.14 


54.19 

45.45 
50.08 
51.43 
56.85 
61.20 
55.76 
55.19 
59.68 
01.51 

59.06 

43.02 
58.63 
48.05 
47.55 
48.11 
47.76 
55.94 
52.92 
57.39 
53.81 
62.19 
64.38 
70.14 
67.22 
62.04 
63.34 
60.86 
54.51 
56.35 
72.59 
55.78 
72.15 
68.29 
60.54 
60.76 
53.39 
53.40 
52.31 
56.71 
57.13 
61.01 
59.51 

62.39 
69.43 
61.19 
65.45 
56.83 
62.85 

61.91 

67.99 
50.68 
53.53 
38.65 

59.06 


55.00 




45.77 




49.43 




49.44 




54.56 




59.65 




55.05 




54.15 




58.57 




63.81 


CANADA 


57.52 


(b) Metropolitan Areas 


43.32 




59.54 


Halifax 


47.20 




44.95 




47.04 




47.15 




52.82 




52.37 




55.71 


Ottawa— Hull 


51.29 




59.70 




67.22 




71.03 




66.91 




59.91 




61.88 




57.85 


Gait 


54.15 




54.97 




70.14 




54.79 




71.39 




69.70 




64.14 


Ft. William— Pt. Arthur 


60.95 




51.81 




50.06 




49.36 




59.02 




55.46 


Vancouver 


59.05 




56.51 


(c) Industries 


58.23 




68.08 




59.43 




63.99 




54.63 




59.99 


Transportation, storage, communi- 


61.21 


Public utility operation 


64.64 


Trade 


48.37 


Finance, insurance and real estate 


52.06 
37.31 




57.52 







1 Includes wood products, iron and steel products, transportation equipment, non-ferrous metal products, electrical 
apparatus and supplies and non-metallic mineral products. The non-durable group includes the remaining manufacturing 
industries. 

2 Mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants and business and recreational services. 



1181 



Tables 04 to (-6 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of firms than Tables C-l to C-'i- 
They relate only to wage-earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available whereas Tables C-l to 
C-l relate to salaried employees as well as to all-wage-earners of the co-operative firms. 

TABLE C-4.-HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING 

Hourly-Rated Wage Earners) Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 





All Manufactures 


Durable Goods 


Non-Durable Goods 


and Month 


Average 

Hours 


Average 

Hourly 
Earnings 


Average 

Weekly 
Wages 


Average 
Hours 


Average 
Hourly 

Earnings 


Average 
Weekly 
Wages 


Average 
Hours 


Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 


Average 
Weekly- 
Wages 


1945— Average 

\ verage 

1947 — Average 

\ verage 

Average 

1950— Average 

1951— Average 

1952— Average 

1953— Average 

May 1, 1952 

"Jan. 1. 1953 

Feb. 1, 1953 

Mar. 1. 1953 

Apr. 1. 1953 

Mav 1. 1953 

June 1. 1953 

Julv 1, 1953 

Aug. 1, 1953 

Sept. 1, 1953 

Oct. 1, 1953 

Nov. 1, 1953 

Dec. 1, 1953 

•Jan. 1, 1954 

Feb. 1, 1954 

Mar. 1, 1954 

Apr. 1. 1954 

May 1, 1954 


No. 

44-3 
42-7 
42-5 
42-2 
42-3 
42-3 
41-8 
41-5 
41-3 

41-9 

38-3 
41-9 
42-1 
42-1 
41-8 
41-7 
41-3 
41-0 
41-0 
41-5 
41-4 
41-2 

38-5 
40-7 
41-1 
40-9 
40-6 


c 

69-4 
70-0 
80-3 
91-3 
98-6 
103-6 
116-8 
129-2 
135-8 

129-4 

134-0 
134-2 
134-4 
134-9 
135-5 
135-9 
136-2 
136-0 
135-7 
136-6 
137-4 
138-4 

140-4 
140-4 
140-6 
141-0 
141-9 


$ 

30.74 

29.87 
34.13 
38.53 
41.71 
43.82 
48.82 
53.62 
56.09 

54.22 

51.32 
56.23 
56.58 
56.79 
56.64 
56.67 
56.25 
55.76 
55.64 
56.69 
58.88 
57.02 

54.05 
57.14 
57.79 
57.67 
57.61 


No. 

44-7 
42-8 
42-7 
42-3 
42-5 
42-5 
42-0 
41-6 
41-6 

42-1 

38-5 
41-9 
42-4 
42-3 
42-2 
42-1 
41-9 
41-4 
41-3 
41-9 
41-7 
41-7 

39-1 
40-8 
41-3 
41-0 
40-9 


c 

76-7 
76-4 
87-2 
98-4 
106-5 
112-0 
125-8 
139-8 
147-1 

139-5 

144-5 
145-7 
146-3 
146-7 
146-8 
146-8 
147-0 
147-1 
147-3 
148-5 
148-8 
149-5 

150-1 
151-4 
151-6 
151-7 
152-4 


$ 

34.28 
32.70 
37.23 
41.62 
45.26 
47.60 
52.84 
58.16 
61.19 

58.73 

55.63 
61.05 
62.03 
62.05 
61.95 
61.80 
61.59 
60.90 
60.83 
62.22 
62.05 
62.34 

58.69 
61.77 
62.61 
62.20 
62.33 


No. 

43-7 
42-6 
42-3 
42-0 
42-0 
42-2 
41-7 
41-3 
40-9 

41-6 

38-2 
41-8 
41-7 
41-8 
41-5 
41-3 
40.8 
40.6 
40-8 
41-1 
41-0 
40-7 

37.8 
40-6 
40-8 
40-7 
40-4 


c 

60-7 
63-8 
73-4 
84-0 
90-6 
95-2 
107-2 
117-4 
122-9 

117-8 

121-8 
120-8 
120-7 
121-3 
122-4 
123-1 
123-5 
123-4 
123-0 
123-7 
124-8 
126-1 

129-1 
127-9 
128-2 
129-0 
130-1 


$ 

26.53 
27.18 
31.05 

35.28 
38.05 
40.17 
44.70 
48.49 
50.27 

49 00 

46.53 
50.49 
50.33 
50.70 
50.80 
50.84 
50.39 
50.10 
50.18 
50.84 
51.17 
51.32 

48.80 
51.93 
52.31 
52.50 
52.56 



The averages at these dates were affected by loss of working time at the year end holidays in the case of Jan. 1. 



TABLE C-5.— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES 

AND CITIES 

(Hourly-Rated W 7 age Earners) Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 



Newfoundland. . . . 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick . . 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Montreal , 

Toronto 

Hamilton 

Windsor 

Winnipeg 

Vancouver 



Average Hours Worked 



May 1, Apr. 1, 
1954 1954 



41-8 
41-6 
41-3 
41-7 
40-2 
39-8 
39-7 
39-8 
38-5 

40-8 
40-1 
39-8 
40-6 
39-5 
38-1 



41-2 
40-5 
41-5 
42-3 
40-3 
40-5 
40-8 
39-8 
38-4 

41-5 
40-3 
39-6 
40-3 
40-1 
37-9 



May 1, 
1953 



42-2 
42-0 
42-5 
43-3 
41-4 
40-9 
40-8 
40-5 
38-5 

42-3 
41-0 
40-4 
43-0 
40-6 
38-4 



Average Hourly Earnings 
(in cents) 



May 1, 
1954 



Apr. 1, j May 1, 
1954 1953 



134-7. 
125-6 
126-8 
128-1 
149-7 
135-2 
145-4 
146-4 
169-5 

134-2 
150-0 
161-2 
169-1 
133-6 
167-2 



141-0 
125-8 
125-8 
126-9 
148-9 
134-0 
143-6 
145-6 
168-8 

132-8 
148-9 
160-7 
167-8 
132-7 
166-2 



133-2 
121-4 
120-6 
121-1 
143-5 
131-1 
134-3 
139-6 
164-6 

127-8 
143-2 
155-3 
165-3 
129-9 
160-8 



1182 



TABLE C-6.— HOURS AND EARNINGS BY INDUSTRY 

(Hourly-Rated Wage Earners) 
Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 
(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Industry 



Mining 

Metal mining . 

Gold 

Other metal. 
Fuels 



Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables . 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

* Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

*Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery manufacturing 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

* Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

^Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery and equipment. 

* Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations . 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

*Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Construction 

Buildings and structures 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 



Average Hours 



May 1 Apr. 1 May 1 
1954 1954 1953 



tin. 

42 1 

43 

45 

42-6 

38' 

37 

41 

41 

40' 

41< 

40' 

39' 

42' 

43' 

39' 

40 ■ 

40' 

38' 



no. 

41-6 
44-0 

45-9 

42-9 

36-5 

34-4 

43-9 

42-0 

40 

40 

40 

39 

41 

43-0 

39 

39 

40-9 

40-3 

39 

41-0 

38-8 

41 

43 

38-6 

39 

37 

38-7 

41 

40 

42-6 

43-4 

42 

43-0 

41 

40-3 

40 

40 

40-3 

40-8 

39-7 

41-0 

42-3 

38 

41-2 

41-1 

43-4 

39-7 

40-0 

39-8 

42-4 

41 «1 

41-2 

41-5 

41-0 

40-4 

40-1 

43-0 

43-9 

43-4 

41-4 

41-5 

41-7 

41-6 

41-1 

41-0 

40-7 

40-4 

39-9 

41-6 

45-4 

41-0 

41-4 

41-3 



no. 

42-4 
44-5 
46-3 

43-4 

38-1 

37-0 

42-3 

42 

41 

41-4 

40-4 

39 

40-9 

44-3 

41-8 

41-3 

41 

41-3 

41 

42-0 

39-0 

43 

45-5 

39-3 

40-0 

36-0 

41-1 

42-1 

41-3 

43-3 

43 

43-8 

44-3 

42-3 

40-3 

41 

39-8 

41-4 

42-8 

41-6 

43-1 

42-9 

40-0 

41-0 

42-7 

43-4 

43-8 

42-2 

41-1 

43-8 

41-6 

42-5 

42-1 

41-2 

41-6 

41-5 

43-9 

45-1 

45-4 

42-1 

42-2 

41-1 

41-3 

41-9 

42-2 

41-5 

41-0 

40-8 

39-0 

45-1 

42-2 

42-9 

41-8 



Average Hourly 
Earnings 



May 1 Apr. 1 May 1 
1954 1954 1953 



158-0 
162-3 
139-0 
176-8 
153-5 
147-5 
172-6 
146- 
141-9 
123 
150-0 
108 
136-6 
109-6 
155-9 
141-7 
145-7 
99-1 
95-1 
110-6 
111-6 
104-3 
115-7 
98-6 
96-9 
102-5 
100-5 
126-3 
135-7 
114-6 
106-6 
159-4 
170-6 
125-4 
167-0 
157-5 
167-0 
168-5 
142-6 
138-0 
156-5 
152-3 
170-5 
151-2 
161-4 
167-3 
170-2 
160-5 
160-5 
148-9J 
158-8 
146-5 
148-3 
171-5 
151-3 
165-7 
140-7 
132-9 
138-7 
192-1 
143-5 
120-8 
164-9 
116-2 
152-4 
130-1 
151-4 
163-6 
119-9 
139-3 
83-4 
83-2 
79-6 



157-3 
160 
137-9 
174-6 
153-9 
147-1 
172-4 
148-2 
141-0 
123-1 
150-0 
110-1 
135-3 
109-8 
155-4 
131-0 
146-6 
99-3 
94-3 
110-2 
110-4 
104-2 
114-6 
99-3 
97-8 
104-3 
100 
125-7 
135-0 
113-9 
107-4 
158-9 
170-3 
124-8 
166-7 
157-0 
168-5 
167-5 
142-6 
137-1 
155-4 
152-2 
169-0 
150-5 
160-4 
164-1 
169-6 
160-5 
159-9 
148-5 
158-0 
147-6 
148-0 
170-8 
149-5 
165-6 
141-1 
132-7 
139-4 
186-2 
142-6 
120-1 
163-2! 
115-7 
151-7 
129-0; 
152-8 
164-0 
121.-8 
139-0 
82-4 
82-3 
78-5 



153-7 

156-3 
134-1 
170-9 
153-0 
149-3 
165-7 
143-3 
135-5 
116-6 
143-7 
103-2 
127-2 
103-7 
140-1 
134-3 
144-2 
95-9 
92-3 
107-5 
110-3 
101-3 
108-8 
94-8 
93-8 
99 
95 

120-4 
128 
109 
103 
150 
160-9 
119-2 
157-8 
152- 
162-8 
161-9 
135-9 
134-1 
149-9 
144-3 
169-6 
142-2 
156-6 
154-5 
169-2 
156-8 
157-6 
145-9 
150-2 
141-2 
142-5 
162-3 
142-5 
156-4 
133-3 
124-0 
129-5 
181-6 
137-8 
112-9 
157-4 
111-2 
146-8 
122-4 
144-3 
157-0 
111-5 
134-5 
78-1 
77-7 
75-0 



Average Weekly 

Wages 



May I Apr. 1 May 1 
L954 1954 1953 



66.52 

71.09 

63.52 

75.32 

59.40 

55.76 

71.80 

61.55 

57.61 

50 96 

60.30 

42.57 

57.37 

47.57 

62.05 

57.53 

58.57 

38.15 

35.95 

45.46 

43.86 

43.60 

49.75 

36.09 

35.37 

36.59 

37.39 

51.78 

54.55 

48.25 

45.52 

67.11 

72.16 

52.04 

67.30 

64.42 

66.47 

68.41 

57.75 

56.30 

64.48 

63 

69.05 

61.84 

65.53 

70.43 

67.40 

64 . 20 

62.76 

63.58 

64.63 

59.04 

60.95 

70.32 

60.97 

67.11 

60.22 

59.01 

58.81 

82.03 

59.98 

50.13 

66.95 

47.18 

62 . 33 

52.56 

59.65 

64.46 

47.12 

62.96 

34.36 

34.44 

33.27 



65 H 
70.71 

63.30 
74.90 

56.17 
50.60 

75.68 

62.24 

57.67 

50.10 

60.30 

43.93 

56.01 

47.21 

60.76 

51.35 

59.96 

39.61 

37.63 

45.18 

42.84 

43.45 

49.74 

38.33 

38.14 

38.59 

38.9' 

52.04 

54 

48.52 

46.61 

67.69 

73.23 

52.04 

67.18 

63.90 

68.58 

67.50 

58.18 

54.43 

63.71 

64.38 

65.23 

62.01 

65.92 

71.22 

67.33 

64.20 

63.64 

62.96 

64.94 

60.81 

61.42 

70.03 

60.40 

66.41 

60.67 

58.26 

60.50 

77.09 

59.18 

50.08 

67.89 

47.55 

62.20 

52.50! 

61.73 

65.44 

50.67 

63.11 

33.78 

34.07 

32.42 



65 17 

69.55 

62.09 

71 17 

56.2' 

55.24 

70.09 

61.48 

56.64 

48.27 

58.05 

40.66 

52.02 

45.94 

58.56 

55.47 

59.99 

39.61 

37 . 94 

45.15 

43.02 

44.27 

49.50 

37.26 

37.52 

35.89 

39.21 

50.69 

53.11 

47.59 

45.32 

65.88 

71.28 

50.42 

63.59 

63.68 

64.79 

67.03 

58.17 

55.79 

64.61 

61.90 

67.84 

58.30 

66.87 

67.05 

74.11 

66.17 

64.77 

63.90 

62.48 

60.01 

59.99 

66.87 

59.28 

64.91 

58.52 

55.92 

58.79 

76.45 

58.15 

46.40 

65.01 

46.59 

61.95 

50.80 

59.16 

64.06 

43 49 

60.66 

32.96 

33.33 

31.35 



*Durable manufactured goods and industries. 



1183 



TABLE C-7.— EARNINGS, HOURS AND REAL EARNINGS FOR WAGE EARNERS IN 
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN CANADA 

« e: Man Hours and Hourly Earnings: Prices and Price Indexes, D.B.S. 



Average 

Hours 

Worked 

per Week 



Average 
Hourly 

Earnings 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



Index Numbers (av. 1949 = 100) 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



Consumer 
Price 
Index 



Average 

Real Weekly 

Earnings 



Mont hi v Average 1945... 
Monthly Average 1946. . . 
Mont hi v Average 1947. . . 
Monthly Average 1948. . . 
Monthly Average 1949. . . 
Monthly Average 1950. . . 
Monthly Average 1951. . . 
Monthly Average 1952... 
Monthly Average 1953. . . 

Week Preceding: 

May 1, 1953.. 

June 1, 1953.. 

July 1, 1953.. 

August 1, 1953.. 

September 1, 1953.. 

October 1, 1953.. 

November 1, 1953.. 

December 1, 1953.. 

January 1, 1954.. 

February 1, 1954.. 

March 1, 1954.., 

April 1, 1954. . 

May 1, 1954C) 



44-3 
42-7 
42-5 
42-2 
42-3 
42-3 
41-8 
41-5 
41-3 



41-8 
41-7 
41-3 
41-0 
41-0 
41-5 
41-4 
41-2 

41.0" 
40-7 
41-1 
40-9 
40-6 



69-4 
70-0 



so- 



103 
116 
129 

135 



135-5 
135-9 



136 
136 
135 
136 
137' 
138- 



140-4 
140-4 
140-6 
141-0 
141-9 



30.74 
29.87 
34.13 
38.53 
41.71 
43.82 
48.82 
53.62 
56.09 



56.64 
56.67 
56.25 
55.76 
55.64 
56.69 
56.88 
57.02 

57.56 

57.14 
57.79 
57.67 
57.61 



73-7 
71-6 
81-8 
92-4 
100-0 
105-1 
117-0 
128-6 
134-5 



135-8 
135-9 
134-9 
133-7 
133-4 
135-9 
136-4 
136-7 

138-0 
137-0 
138-6 
138-3 
138-1 



75-0 
77-5 
84-8 
97-0 
100-0 
102-9 
113-7 
116-5 
115-5 



114-4 
114-9 
115-4 
115-7 
116-2 
116-7 
116-2 
115-8 

115-7 
115-7 
115-5 
115-6 
115-5 



98-3 
92-4 
96-5 
95-3 
100-0 
102-1 
102-9 
110-4 
116-5 



118-7 
118-3 
116-9 
115-6 
114-8 
116-5 
117-4 
118-0 

119-3 
118-4 
120-0 
119-6 
119-6 



Note: — Average Real Weekly Earnings were computed by dividing the Consumer Price Index into the average 
weekly earnings index. (Average 1949 = 100) by the Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour. 
* Figures adjusted for holidays. The actual figures are January 1, 1954, 38-5 hours $54.05. 
0) Latest figures subject to revision. 



1184 






D — National Employment Service Statistics 



Tables D-l to D-5 are based on regular 
statistical reports from local offices of the 
National Employment Service. These 
statistics are compiled from two different 
reporting forms, UIC 751: statistical report 
mi employment operations by industry, and 
UIC 757: inventory of registrations and 
vacancies by occupation. The data on 
applicants and vacancies in these two 
reporting forms are not identical. 

Form UIC 751 : This form provides a 
cumulative total for each month of all 
vacancies notified by employers, applications 
made by workers, and referrals and place- 
ments made by the National Employment 
Service. Also reported are the number of 
vacancies unfilled and applications on file 
at the beginning and end of each reporting 
period. Because the purpose of these data 
is to give an indication of the volume of 
work performed in various local National 
Employment Service offices, all vacancies 
and applications are counted, even if the 
vacancy is not to be filled until some future 
date (deferred vacancy) or the application 
is from a person who already has a job 
and wants to find a more suitable one. 

Form UIC 757: This form provides a 
count of the number of jobs available and 
applications on file at the end of business 
on a specified day. Excluded from the data 
on unfilled vacancies are orders from 
employers not to be filled until some future 
date. The data on job applications from 
workers exclude those people known to be 



already employed, those known to be regis- 
tered at more than one local office (the 
registration is counted by the "home" office), 
and registrations from workers who will not 
I).' available until some specified future date. 

from January 24, 1952, to December 24, 
1952, inclusive, unemployment insurance 
claimants on temporary mass lay-oil's were 
not registered for employment and thus were 
not included in the statistics reported on 
form UIC 751 and form UIC 757. A 
temporary mass lay-off was defined as a 
lay-off either for a determinate or indeter- 
minate period which affected 50 or more 
workers and where the workers affected, so 
far as was known, were returning to work 
with the same employer. . Commencing 15 
days after the date of such a lay-off, 
claimants still on the live insurance register 
were registered for employment on their next 
visit to the office and henceforth were 
counted in both statistical reporting forms. 
This procedure is no longer in effect, as all 
workers on temporary mass lay-offs now are 
registered for employment and so counted in 
the statistical reporting forms. This change 
in procedure should be kept in mind when 
comparing the figures on applications for 
employment during 1952 with data for 
earlier and subsequent periods. 

Persons losing several days' work each 
week and consequently claiming short-time 
unemployment insurance benefits are not 
included in either statistical reporting form 
unless they specifically ask to be registered 
for employment. 



TABLE D-l.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 



Month 


Unfilled Vacancies* 


Live Applications for Employment 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Date Nearest: 

July 1, 1948 


34,242 
20,679 
24,392 
45,183 
22,772 

21,229 
19,382 
24,203 
24,025 
15,282 
15,446 

8,298 
8,406 
9,014 
11,434 
14,942 
14,284 
13,251 


22,183 
21,775 
15,500 
16,775 
17,679 

20,088 
17,772 
20,321 
17,806 
13,058 
11,868 

9,121 
9,575 
10,176 
12,293 
15,335 
15,790 
14,417 


56,425 

42,454 
39,892 
61,958 
40,451 

41,317 
37,154 
44,524 
41,831 
28,340 
27,314 

17,419 
17,981 
19,190 
23,727 
30,277 
30,074 
27,668 


80,206 
103,275 
136,291 

86,997 
134,394 

124,396 
111,524 
113,191 
117,827 
144,520 
241,094 

354,965 
439,633 
457,029 
466,120 
378,873 
237,848 
201,931 


38,364 
44,216 
68,280 
52,773 
61,866 

55,918 
52,357 
48,634 
53,453 
60,997 
74,513 

84,306 
103,112 
105,622 
101,933 
86,818 
76,782 
81,112 


118,570 


July 1, 1949 


147,491 


July 1, 1950 


204,571 


July 1, 1951 


139,770 


July 1, 1952 


196,260 


July 1, 1953 


180,314 


August 1, 1953 


163,881 


September 1, 1953 


161,825 


October 1, 1953 


171,280 


November 1, 1953 


205,517 


December 1, 1953 


315,607 


January 1 , 1954 


439,271 


February 1 , 1954 


542,745 


March 1, 1954 

April 1, 1954 


562,651 
568,053 


May 1, 1954 


465,691 


June 1, 1954 0) 


314,630 


July 1, 1954 (i) 


283 ,t)43 







* — Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 
C 1 ) — Latest figures subject to revision. 



1185 



TABLE !>->. 



INFILLED VACANCIES BY INDUSTRY 

1954 (i) 



AND BY SEX AS AT MAY 31, 



(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 



Industry 



Agriculture, Fishing, Trapping 

Forestry 

Mining. Quarrying and Oil Wells 

Metal Mining 

Fuels 

Non-Metal Mining 

Quarrying, Clay and Sand Pits 

Prospecting 

Manufacturing 

Foods and Beverages 

Tobacco and Tobacco Products 

Rubber Products 

Leather Products 

Textile Products (except clothing) 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Wood Products 

Paper Products 

Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries. . . 

Iron and Steel Products 

Transportation Equipment 

Xon-Ferrous Metal Products 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies 

Non-Metallic Mineral Products 

Products of Petroleum and Coal 

Chemical Products 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 

Construction 

General Contractors 

Special Trade Contractors 

Transportation, Storage and Communication 

Transportation 

Storage 

Communication 

Public Utility Operation 

Trade 

Wholesale 

Retail 

Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 

Service 

Community or Public Service 

Government Service 

Recreation Service 

Business Service 

Personal Service 

Grand Total 



Male 



1,163 
1,224 

612 

196 
318 
33 
13 
52 

3,074 

460 

5 

40 

70 

55 

125 

523 

104 

168 

518 

351 

77 

179 

156 

42 

125 

76 

2,152 

1,644 
508 

944 

714 
46 
184 

49 

2,235 

756 
1,479 

748 

4,364 

556 
2,299 
179 
486 
844 



16,565 



Female 



555 
12 



15 

2,251 

293 
2 

17 
106 
191 
959 
65 
39 
97 
108 
55 
52 
85 
22 
12 
80 



87 
56 
31 

290 

103 

12 
175 

27 

2,424 

525 
1,899 

864 

9,303 

1,208 
690 
130 
452 

6,823 



15,852 



Total 



1,718 
1,236 

651 

205 

332 

34 

13 

67 

5,325 

753 

7 
57 
176 
246 
1,084 
588 
143 
265 
626 
406 
129 
264 
178 
54 
205 
144 

2,239 

1,700 
539 

1,234 

817 

58 

359 

76 

4,659 

1,281 
3,378 

1,612 

13,667 

1,764 

2,989 

309 

938 

7,667 



32,417 



Change from 



April 30 

1954 



210 

589 

39 

56 
27 

21 



216 

64 

8 

8 

3 

34 

89 

144 

49 

16 

73 

237 

20 

36 

71 

44 

78 

30 

187 

279 

92 

6 

34 

24 
16 

26 

39 

58 



2,176 

351 
972 
44 
130 
679 



+ 2,047 



May 30 

1953 



1,114 
255 

267 

307 
135 

77 



4,761 

575 


36 
214 

169 
977 
128 
121 
245 
406 
927 
148 
285 
9 
22 
275 
242 

2,222 

1,809 
413 

985 

995 

59 
69 

196 

2,639 

707 
1,932 

1,191 

1,567 

158 

775 

41 

31 

2,112 



15,197 



(!) Preliminary — subject to revision. 

Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



1186 



TABLE D-3.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT, 
BY OCCUPATION AND BY SEX AS AT JUNE 8, 1954 (') 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 



Occupational Group 



Professional and managerial workers . . . 

Clerical workers 

Sales workers 

Personal and domestic service workers. . 

Seamen 

Agriculture and fishing 

Skilled and semiskilled workers 

Food and kindred products (inc 

tobacco) 

Textiles, clothing, etc 

Lumber and wood products 

Pulp, paper (inc. printing) 

Leather and leather products 

Stone, clay and glass products 

Metal working 

Electrical 

Transportation equipment 

Mining 

Construction 

Transportation (except seamen) . . . . 
Communications and public utility. 

Trade and service 

Other skilled and semiskilled 

Foremen 

Apprentices 

Unskilled workers 

Food and tobacco 

Lumber and lumber products 

Metalworking 

Construction 

Other unskilled workers 

GRAND TOTAL 



Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 



Male 



2,012 
1,146 
1,518 
1,063 
6 
1,533 
5,061 



54 
51 
16 

424 

104 

22 

49 

1,050 

580 
93 

212 

1,070 

53 

75 

1,945 
106 
194 
70 
813 
762 



14,284 



Female 



3,469 

1,418 
7,598 



317 

1,562 

14 
1,195 
2 
17 
57 
2 
6 



10 

1 

211 

37 
2 
2 

498 

143 

5 

15 



335 



15,790 



Total 



2,940 

4,615 

2,936 

8,661 

6 

1,850 

6,623 

82 

1,269 

1,068 

71 

108 

18 

430 

109 

23 

49 

1,050 

590 

94 

423 

1,107 

55 



2,443 
249 
199 

85 

813 

1,097 



30,074 



Live Applications 
for Employment 



Male 



5,400 

10,814 

4,899 

22,198 

1,064 

1,631 

115,234 

1,113 

5,135 

16,627 

828 

1,169 

281 

14,673 

2, 133 

956 

2,001 

26,071 

19,233 

663 

2,601 

15,790 

2,440 

3,520 



2,474 
10.235 

7,081 
31,787 
25,031 



237,818 



Female 

1,116 

18,418 

8,735 

12,371 

1 

166 

21,422 

620 

14,047 

134 

381 

1,203 

48 

1,188 

1,172 

75 



3 

91 

3 

1.231 

895 

324 



14,553 

2,933 

243 

597 

1 
10.779 



76,782 



Total 



6,516 

29,232 

13,634 

34,569 

1,065 

1,797 

136,656 

1 . 733 

19,182 

16,761 

1,209 

2,372 

329 

15.861 

3.305 

1,031 

2,001 

26,074 

19,324 

666 

3,832 

16.685 

2.764 

3,527 

91,161 
5,407 

10,478 

7,678 

31.788 

35.810 



314,630 



( 1 ) Preliminary — subject to revision. 

( 2 ) Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



1187 






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